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tcm s- M o*v *.MI> The City Budget Representatives of large property owners are openly threatening to refuse to pay their taxes because Mayor Bullivan and the city council refuse to cut the wages of policemen, firem-m and other employes to the level of the “made worlc” group. That is what would be necessary if the demands of the property owners for a tax rate within the $1.50 law be met. There was no thought of a moratorium for interest on debts incurred during the evil days of bad govern ment against which these same protestors made no protest. The truth is that the city and county are now paying the price for the many years of Cofflnism dur ing which the people’s money and the people’s credit were handed about to the boys and special favors and crooked contracts created property owners of those whose chief assets were friendship for the bosses. These same representatives of property wfould etand in better light had they ever been found on the aide'bf the people ■fchen public utilities w'ere getting a strangle hold on the people's pocketbooks. They would command more attention had they been found fighting corruption in politics, the giving away of the people s property to the utilities, the granting of contracts at high prices to the political henchmen. , No one suspects or charges Mayor Sullivan with extravagance. It is foreign to his nature. He would not know ,how to be wasteful. Nor is there any charge that funds are being diverted for political purposes. The one charge :s that he fails to see the wisdom of cutting the wages of public employes below a living standard. It may be true that property can not pay. But it la also true that unless there is to be no protection for life and property this winter when more men are likely to become desperate, that a decently paid police force Is necessary. There are several ways that these same property owners might find relief. One is the very simple method of taking over the public utilities and divert ing their present swollen profits into the public funds. The profits of the water, gas and electric companies, under public ownership, would cut the taxes to the payable point. One other method is the raising of funds by an Income instead of a property tax. That would catch the owner of pieces of paper which an assessor never finds. Threats of tax strikes and of force on the part of the property owners is setting a bad example. What If all city employes should strike? What if organized government should take a holiday? Holding Companies , If there are genuine advantages to the public in the utility holding company system, the companies as well as their .customers, should indorse the federal power commission’s recommendation that holding companies be regulated by the federal government. It is hard to imagine even the most credulous in vestor putting his money into an unregulated utility holding company after the crash in which 460,000 Insull investors have lost all or most of what they had. The federal trade commission found that holding companies have been skimming the cream off oper ating company profits by strange and unusual fee systems which on their face sound attractive to the investors if not to the consumer. Still the painful Insull episode illustrates what may happen even in the realm of apparent profits, when no agency of the government has authority to ex tend the same sort of protection it has been able to extend to investors in operating company securities. From the point of view of the light and power cus tomer, there can be no argument about the advantages of holding company regulation. To him it will mean that his rates need no longer be large enough to cover unearned fees to half a dozen or so fellow subsidiaries in the holding company group. What advantages there may be in centralized man agement will accrue to him, what abuses have been concealed in the hidden accounts of holding companies will be laid bare. The power commission's conclusion that no real reg ulation can take place unless holding companies are regulated along with utilities is an inescapable one. Power executives with nothing to conceal will in dorse it. Mobilize Relief Two years ago the unemployment relief prob lem was met with callous inattention and a presi dential committee. Os course it wasn’t, in fact, met. Last year we had ballyhoo, another presidential committee, and big names of business, politics, stage, screen and the radio. There was some hard work, too. This year, the new national effort to alleviate distress among the millions of jobless is in the hands of private citizens, with no White House connections. There will have to be more hard work. The job of the national welfare and relief mobilization commit tee is the most difficult facing any group of men and women in Ihis country. They are going to try to furnish the national lead ership, the national impetus to a wide series of local fund-raising drives. An inadequate sum will be avail able for local relief through the Reconstruction Finance Corporation. None of these things will be enough. Fortunately we have passed the stage of callous inattention to the most pressing national problem. This year, ballyhoo won’t be quite so fully depended upon. This year .there must be even greater giving, greater sacrifice if the victims of the depression are to.carried through another winter with the minimum o( suf fering. Stupid and Costly Tired of being outlawed by the United States gov ernment, Russia has turned to others and seems to be making advantageous trade deals right and left. Following announcement last week of her oil barter agreement with the Canadian arm of Andrew Mellon’s aluminum trust, Moscow is now reported negotiating vast petroleum agreements with France and Japan. There is both political and economic significance in these developments for the United States. On the economic side, it means that other nations will sell goods to Russia which Russia wanted to buy from us. The tables are turned. During prosperous times Russia needed us; now we need Russian <rade. With our factories closed for lack of foreign orders, and the unemployed workers of those factories fed largely by American taxpayers, state and federal, the United States can not afford to lose that Russian business. \‘ 1 But the administration is more concerned with keeping up its anti-Russian hate campaign than with The Indianapolis Times (A SCRIPTS-HOWARD NEWSPAPER) Owned and published daily (excapt Bunday) by The Indianapolis Timet Publishing Cos.. 214-220 Went Maryland Street, fndlanapolia, Ind. Price In Marion County 2 centa a copy; elsewhere. 3 cent’s—delivered by carrier. 12 centa a week. MaU subscrip tion rates In Indiana. *3 a year: outside of Indiana. 65 cents a month. BOTD UURLKT. EOT W. EARL D BAKER Editor President Busloeas Manager PHONE—RUey 5551 TUESDAY. BEPT. 20, 1932 ~ Member of United Frees. gcrippa-Howard Newspaper AUiance. Newspaper Enterprise Asso ciation, Newspaper Information Service and Audit Bureau of Circulations. “Give Light and the People Will Find Their Own Way.” helping American business men to get orders and American workers to get jobs. Th£t is not all. Under these new deals Russia will achieve oil markets formerly dominated by American exports. That will be a body blow to the American oil industry. If we had diplomatic relations with Moscow, it would be possible to work out orderly arrangements, by which we would get our share of Russian trade, and by which the very few competing industries of our two countries could share .foreign markets. But the administration in Washington remains deaf, dumb and blind to this fact. The political significance is even more disquieting. Japan openly is preparing for war. Tokio long has wished to make the Japanese navy less dependent on American oil. In the far eastern crisis, Japan as the aggressor m Manchuria stands on one side and the United States in loyalty to the peace treaties stands on th e other side. Britain, France and other treaty powers appear to have run out on tljeir treaty pledge guaranteeing Chinese independence and seem to have left the United States holding the bag. Russia alone was inclined to side with*the United States. It was to Russia’s selfish advantage to pre serve peace at least for a decade until she could improve internal conditions, and it was desirable for her to keep the advancing Japanese as far away from her Siberian frontiers as possible. Thus, for differ ent reasons, the interests and policies of Moscow and Washington in upholding the treaties coincided. But the state department refused to co-operate with Russia for far eastern peace. Now Russia, in self-defense, is being driven to make terms with mili tarist Japan, the price being virtual recognition of Japan’s present conquest of Manchuria. So the economic and political isolation of the United States by the rest of the world continues, and at an alarming rate, thanks partly to the stiff-necked stupidity of our anti-Russian policy. Dangerous Diet Fads The West Virginia miner who tried to cure his asthma by going on a prolonged fast, and who finally landed in a Charleston hospital with his life in danger because of acute starvation, well might serve as an object lessen for diet faddists throughout the country. Medical science perhaps still has something to learn about what may be done for bodily ills by fast ing. Meanwhile, however, one thing is perfectly cer tain; the man who goes on a long fast on his own hook, without the benefit of competent medical ad vice, is taking a very grave risk. This unlucky chap, trying to escape from the curse of asthma, succeeded only in ruining his health and putting his life in peril. That sort of thing is apt to be the lot of any one who carries fasting to ex tremes— and the only sure way to avoid carrying it o extremes is to fast only when a reputable physician tells you to do so. The Easy Investor The resentment of those who have suffered seri ous reverses in the last three years, if properly di rected, might find intelligent expression in anew attitude on the part of investors toward the com panies to which they entrust their money. The sharp Yankee investor always has been, as a matter of fact, a ridiculously credulous fellow. His British cousin, with funds to invest, takes a keen and continuing interest in the affairs of the company he selects. He goes to stockholders’ meet ings and takes part in the discussion of policies. What is more important, he and his fellow stockholders hire their own accountant at the end of the year to go over the company books. The buyer of stocks in this country, even when he buys for investment, rather than speculation, maintains an attitude of cheerful ignorance. His in difference to proxies made possible widespread sale of nonvoting stock. His further trustfulness now is making possible sale or exchange of no par value stock. The Insull crash illustrates the folly of this atti tude on the part of the investor. Company book keepers, shortly before the holding group went into receivership, reported a deficit of $15,378,554. The receivers’ auditors found a shortage of $226,510,976. If the millions of families who invested money with the Insulls take out their grief over their losses in repining, instead of demanding a few simple busi ness records, they will deserve little sympathy. A New York bank has acquired an ice skating palace in a $600,000 foreclosure. How’s that for a frozen asset? Sing Sing is about the only football institution in the country where the coach doesn’t have to worry about scholastic difficulties. • The Legionnaires have demanded beer and the bonus. Wonder what would happen if both were granted at the same time? Just Every Day Sense By Mrs, Walter Ferguson I ALWAYS have had a suspicion that bachelors were slightly deranged. Thus, it pleased me to have my opinion verified by some sort of a research professor, who announces officially that unmarried men have shorter lives and are more likely to de velop insanity and criminal tendencies than married ones. Living without a woman is enough to drive a man crazy. Os course, bachelors as a general thing deny this fervently. But their behavior proves it. They contend that God put women upon earth to plague men. If so. then no man leads a normal life without one of these plagues, and we must remember, too, that “whom the Lord loveth He chasteneth.” After the average bachelor has passed middle age, he sinks into a sort of mental rut. He may be bril liant and great, but he is not likely to exhibit much agility of opinion. He probably will be cranky about his food, and will grow more grouchy every day and more set in his ways. Graually he will develop prejudices, and will rail at the world and especially at the younger generation. man HAVING missed all the surprises, the emotional es capades, the ups and downs of the thoroughly married man, he becomes obsessed by himself, and with no one to point out his mistakes, is likely to be lieve his opinion is infallible. Say what you please, gentlemen, but every man needs a wife and children to keep his soul alive. He may have a wretched- companion who deals him naught but misery and grief. He may have unruly progeny, heedless of his wishes and ungrateful as the proverbial serpent’s tooth. Nevertheless, this man, with all his sorrows, is in better case than he who spends his days alone, lacking the zest that marriage gives to life and the real joy that fatherhood confers. THE INDIANAPOLIS TIMES M. E. Tracy Says: “No Man Can Be Trained for the Presidency in Other Walks of Life. It Is a Posi tion Peculiar to Itself " NEW YORK, Sept. 20.—Governor Roosevelt has spoken on pro hibition, farm relief, silver and the railroads. The radicalism which Republicans hoped for and Democrats feared has failed to materialize. Those who mistook him for an other Bryan, and mapped out a great “educational" campaign, ala 1896, are in a quandary. Their latest charge is that he has stolen some of President Hoover’s thunder, which relieves the suspense for people who were at a loss to know what had become of it. Governor Roosevelt got off to a troubulous start. He had to fight every inch of the way for his nom ination. The Sesfcury investigation, and especially the Walker case, con fronted him with a, delicate situa tion. The defeat of former Governor A1 Smith left some very sore spots. False moves would have been easy under such circumstances. Many looked for Governor Roosevelt to make some, but the yery danger of his position seems to have taught him caution. Without sacrificing aggressiveness, he has pursued a steady, methodical campaign. Each step in advance has found him a little better poised, and a little surer of his ground than the one before. His first speech was the poorest, though, perhaps, the most'spectac ular. His latest was the best. Obviously, the man has a capacity to grow with problems and respon sibilities. That, more than any thing else, stamps him as presi dential timber. # n u President Must Grow NO one expects a presidential candidate to know it all, to have a ready-made solution for every problem. About all we can hope for is that he will display an increased ability to swim as the water gets deeper. The campaign furnishes a good test on that particular point. In the first Lincoln-Douglas de bate, Lincoln was at his worst, and Douglas at his best. In the last, their positions were reversed. That revealed Lincoln as a man who could develop. No man can be trained for the presidency in other offices, or other wa.ks of life. It is a position pe culiar to itself. The man must grow into it after he gets there. Few Presidents have entered office with a more auspicious background than Herbert Clark Hoover. Eight years in the cabinet and six years as managing director of the greatest vehtures in relief work ever undertaken afforded him a training which should have been sufficient. But he has displayed little capac ity for growth. The depression caught him com pletely off guard. So did the revolt against prohibition. He could not believe that either meant much, un til conditions had reached a point where any other view was impos sible. tt tt tt Always Thinking Ahead JUST ask yourself this question: If Hoover had been Governor of New York, would he have sanctioned the Seabury investigation, or forced Mayor Walker into a speedy hear ing? If that is not hard • enough, try this one: If Roosevelt had been President of the United States, would he have waited two years after the depression broke to place i a comprehensive program of relief and recovery before congress? You have heard a lot about con ditions in New York, particularly since Governor Roosevelt advocated stricter regulations for exchanges and security markets. Notwithstanding that it has had to carry a large share of ttfe strain of this depression, the state of New York is in better financial shape to day than the federal government, proportionately speaking. It has been guided with a clearer vision as to the character of the emergency and the kind of meas ures which were required. Governor Roosevelt would be first to deny that he deserves all the credit for this, but a review of his official acts and recommenda tions will show that he was always thinking a little ahead of the need, always in close touch with the situa tion and always ready with some helpful, constructive measure. Questions and Answers Is the bed of the Jordan river below sea level? It' is below sea level in Palestine. From Lake Huleh, which is a few feet above sea level, the river falls nearly seven hundred feet to Lake Tiberias, and from that point to the Dead sea it falls about six hun dred feet. , Where is the natural habitat of the secretary bird and how did the name originate?. Can they be do mesticated? They are native in South America and frequently are domesticated and kept to destroy vipers, lizards, and other reptiles. The name is due to the crest which resembles a pen stuck behind an ear. Describe the cow tree? The name is applied to several species of South and Central Amer ican trees, whose trunks and branches exude large quantities of whitemilk-like sap when cut. The sap js sweet and palatable, and nourishing, and the natives drink it. What are the chief industries in Manchuria? Chiefly agriculture, but coal and iron are mined in limited quanti ties. Does the constitution of the Irish Free State require all officials to take an oath of allegiance to the king of Great Britain? Yes. What is the speed record for an automobile? It is 253.968 miles an hour, made at Daytona Beach, Fla., Feb. 24, 1932, by Sir Malcolm Campbell, fa mous British racing car driver. Is there any evidence of life on planets other than the earth? None that is conclusive. r.■ ■ • In the Words of the Prophet Glands Control Most Bodily Functions This is the first of a series of five special articles by Dr. Fishbein on the part glands play in the human body. BY DR. MORRIS FISHBEIN Editor Journal of the American Medical Association and of Hygeia. the Heatlh Magazine. FROM time to time in these col umns we have devoted space to listing the glands of internal secre tior and emphasizing' their impor tance for the health of the human body. The glands have been character ized as an “interlocking director ate,” controlling most of the func tions of the body. At various periods in human life, as pointed out by Dr, Walter Timme, they exercise specific func tions. He divides the life of the human being into three periods: The time from birth to adolescence, from adolescence ' to prime of life, and from the prime of life through the period of decay and degeneration to death. Roughly speaking, these three as pects include the years from 1 to 13, from 13 to 45, and from 45 to 70. The first period is that of growth and development of the physical structure, and of the power of re producing, and the third the per iod of breaking down. During the first period of growth, the thymus gland and a small gland in the brain called the pineal gland have special functions. IT SEEMS TO ME AFTER a long sniff at the smel ling salts, Republican leaders have begun to sit up and give out statements. The latest explanation is that the whole thing is a typo graphical error. G. O. P. stalwarts say that the ancient adage ought to read not “so goes the nation,” but “so goes the notion.” In other words, Hoover’s friends are trying not to remember the Maine. The hardest task of all has fallen to the lo< of Mark Sullivan, who is not a professional politician, but merely an amateur admirer of the great engineer. He shares with Will Irwin the extraordinary distinction of being for Herbert Clark Hoover without ulterior motives. The mem bership in this club is limited to just the pair of them. • Sullivan has been asked to eat his own words, and, since he is among the most voluminous of correspond ents, heavy, heavy hangs over his head a long span of starch and stodginess. a a a Making a Second Guess BEFORE the event Mark Sullivan said that Maine was no par ticular barometer and that a re duced Republican plurality would mean precisely nothing. But in cautiously he added that, of course, if the Democrats carried the state; it really would indicate something. Now he has taken it all hack. Sullivan’s latest explanation is that it was just a wet and dry fight and had nothing to do with the na tional election. But I am afraid that this will be rather cold comfort to Hoover. If the embattled wets of arid Maine are thirsting in that manner for the blood of an engineer, just what is going to happen to the noble experimenter in some of the states which do not precisely constitute a cradle of prohibition? And Mark Sullivan still has an other barrel to fire. It seepis that it was all done with money. Demo cratic funds flowed up and down the Androscoggin like gin at a Chicago convention. “Stories about the amount of money sent into Maine from outside the state are told in terms of very large figures,” he explains. But even this is not likely to be received too gratefully in Washington. , It is a Greek gift and the sort of comfort which some friend might bring to Job. If the Democrats are not only aroused and numerous, but also well heeled, why, then, indeed it looks as if all things were lost save heor. ** a a a Some Crumbs of Comfort Herbert clark hoover should turn away from those who would solace him with bits of chaff winnowed out of straw votes and get the facts which he easily can procure at the nearest drug store. * - , They are plain enough. From DAILY HEALTH SERVICE In the second period the sex glands are speciallly active, with associated actions ,by the thyroid, pituitary and the adrenals. In the third period there is a gradual decrease, if not stopping, of the activity of all the glands. T£he thymus gland in man is large during the first eight or nine months of life, and then practically disappears. In case it persists and continues to send considerable amounts of its secretion into the body, it brings about definite changes that are serious to health and life. If, on the other hand, it fails to act as long as it should, it produces a different type of change. If the gland continues to secrete beyond the time when it shoula have stopped, the person has a skin that is soft, smooth and vel vety, a sort of peaches-and-cream complexion. If it is a man, he may not shave at all, or perhaps only one a week. Such patients appear younger than their age. The hair over the body will be scanty, the teeth rather blu ish-white in color and not uniform in size or development. Such patients also are likely to have a low blood pressure, a slow pulse, and toj be easily fatigued. Incidentally, Dr. ’ljmme believes that people whose thymus action persists have a changed mental makeup, remaining childlike, self centered, simple in their mental processes and initiative, looking for protection and care, and more or now until election day the current executive should spend the greater part of the day in perfecting a ges ture of farewell, founded on the old gladiatorial salute and the sweeping bow of a French noble about to step into a tumbril. And I think he ought to begin asking rates from the owners of moving vans. But in all truth the gentleman who has been tipped the political black spot should look ahead to these few days and weeks to come with honest enthusiasm. In one re spect he ought to be a warrior far more happy than Franklin D. Roosevelt. With victory almost in sight, the Governor has to worry lest he make one false move or an incautious ges ture. President Hoover can order anything he pleases for breakfast and say whatever he likes. It hard ly can make any difference now. After four painful years, he sud denly is his own man once again, and if Illinois or Ohio happens to object to some speech of his that is no skin off his shinbone. The blessed luxury of being able to be sincere without loss lies within his grasp. B B B Perhaps He Knows It NOR do I think that Hoover is wholly unaware of this happy circumstance. Quite the best of all his public papers was the statement on the economic effects of the sol diers’ bonus. At the time this is written Franklin D. Roosevelt has not even touched the subject. He must sit up with it at nights and hear it clanking up and down the corridors while he seeks slumber. Hoover alone has exorcised this walking ghost which terrifies the other candidates. Frankness and bluntness are their m TODAY ISTHE- Vf> WORLD WAR \ ANNIVERSARY °7ar&g ALL ALLIES GAIN Sept. 20. ON Sept. 20, 1918, all allied troops registered gains in western Europe, Americans advancing on Metz forts, British recapturing the fortified village of Moeuvres, seven miles west of Cambria, and the French capturing Sssigny-le-Grand and advancing northeast of Vailly. Germany announced that she was ready to participate in an exchange of peace ideas advanced by Austria. The British and French forces in Asia Minor continued a successful campaign under command of Gen eral Allenby. After attacking a Turkish front along sixteen miles, the allied forces broke through between Rafat and the sea and advanced .twelve miles; less unfitted for the active affairs of life. In contrast to those in whom the action of the thymus gland per sists for an undue length of time are those in whom the action dis continues too soon. Such cases ap parently grow old a little too soon. They are short in stature. Their body hair develops unusually early and is thick. The blood pressure is usually too high. Such patients are, moreover, precocious, easily aroused to anger and resentful. Although they seem far advanced while still young, they never seem to mature completely. The pineal gland is a tiny glan dular body in the skull, at one time thought to be the remnant of an extra eye. When this gland mater ial is fed to tadpoles, they rapidly change their color. One investigator found that re moval of the gland in animals re sulted in a rapid growth and de velopment of the sex organs. Moreover, the early breaking down of this gland is associated with great fatigue and inability of proper ac tion in the muscles. There seems to be no question that all the glands are related and that some of the functions of this gland may be taken over by others and some of its functions modified by others. Next: Your thyroid gland . . . how it affects you? vitality and your mind and may even account for the size and shape of your body. cv HEYWOOD BROUN own reward, but in some cases much is added on. In the fight to prevent the creation of a military fascist autocracy in the United States, Her bert Clark Hoover, will receive and deserve his line of credit. By the strange ironies of Ameri can politics, Hoover for once is fighting the’ radical cause, while William Z. Foster, of the Commun ists, appears upon the reactionary ramparts whooping it up for the khaki shirts and all the others who would establish a privileged class. One of the younger Communists informs me loftily that Foster favors the bonus because the veterans are “all workers.” That word is used in an extremely limited sense by the Communists, and the case hardly will stand in any instance. Os course, many who served in the army are among the abjectly unem ployed today, but, even so, the true backbone of the American Legion is made up of the middle man. The brunt of battle, as far as America is concerned, was borne by the bourgeoisie. And they are folk who generally find themselves first in war and last in radical speeches. I should think they would be a little surprised to discover that Com rade Foster is proposing first to cross their palms with silver and then to liquidate them. < Copyright. 1932. by The Times) People’s Voice Editor Times—Our soldiers’ bonus problem does not die. I read this morning in a very conservative pa per of national circulation that it now looks as if a majority of le gionnaires will ask for the paymeit of the bonus now. The same paper said there are springing up several national organizations to contend against what they feel are unjust demands upon the government, and to show why they seek to call a halt on these drains on the treas ury, they assert of every dollar col lected by the government as taxes, 25 cents goes for pensions, and they look upon it as not only an out rage, but a menace. So that is that. This writer saw a statement re cently in a magazine of conserv ative outlook, which quoted from the Congressional Record a state ment that the aggregate of salaries now paid to government officials and assistants equals in volume the aggregate amount of present prices of cotton, corn and wheat crops of the United States, nd the writers quoted the exact figures as shown by the* Record. Now I offer these two statements Daily Thoughts A wise man will hear, and will increase learning; and a man of understanding shall attain unto wise counsel.—Proverbs 1:5. Learning makes a man fit com pany for himself.—Young. Ideals and opinions expressed in (bis column are those ol one of America’s most inter esting writers and are pre sented without regard to their agreement or disagreement with the editorial attitude of this paper.—The Editor. -SEPT. 20,1932 SCIENCE BY DAVID DIETZ Large Telescopes Greatly Aid Astronomers in Studying Other Planets. \ NNOUNCEMENT of new big x\. telescopes is good news for the world of astronomy, for the progress of that science has been such that certain problems can be studied to day only with the most powerful of instruments. Harvard, if we may remind you, will have a sixty-one-inch reflecting telescope in operation at its Oak Ridge station near Cambridge, Mass., within a few months. Tti> University of Chicago and the University of Texas are co-operat ing to build an eighty-inch reflect ing telescope on a Texas mountain. They hope to have it completed by 1938. And of course, the California In stitute of Technology are going for ward with their plans for a 200-inch telescope, twice the size of the 100- inch at Mt. Wilson, now the world’s largest telescope. An example of the necessity of large telescopes is to be found in the recent work on the atmosphere of the planets, carried on at Mt. Wilson. For more than a century, astron omers have been puzzled by condi tions on the other planets. The Question was one of great in terest to laymen as well as astron omers. for every one wants to know whether the oLher planets are in habited. Ban Successful Research DR. WALTER S. Adams and Dr. ■ Theodore Dunham of the Mt. Wilson observatory were able to tackle the problem of the atmos pheres of the planets by using the 100-inch telescope in connection with an extremely powerful spec troscope. When the light of a planet is spread out into a rainbow' or spec trum with the aid of a spectro scope, it is found to be crossed b.v dark bands known as absorption bands. These are due to the fact that the atmosphere of the planet fails to reflect all the sunlight which falls upon it. With their powerful instruments, Adams and Dunham were able to get spectra of such length that the absorption bands were spread out into component parts. This made it possible to analyze them and tell what gases were causing them. So far, they have demonstrated that there is carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of Venus and ammonia gas in the atmospheres of Jupiter. Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. At first it wrfs thought that the presence of carbon dioxide on Ve nus might indicate the presence of life as we know it. It seems, how ever, that the carbon dioxide is present in far too great quantities for such to be the case. The presence of ammonia gas on the major planets would tend to confirm the opinion of astronomers that these planets could not sup port life as we know it. It would be a mistake to give too much credit to the instruments. A great deal of theoretical work had to be done on the so-called band spectra to make the present inves tigation possible. Nevertheless, it is a fact that the instruments were necessary for its i success. B B B Expanding Universe THE 100-inch telescope is respon sible for much of the interest in the theory of the expanding uni verse. This theory, first proposed by De Sitter fom a study of the Einstein equations and later extended by Lemaitre, could not have been test ed out without the 100-inch. Study, however, of spiral nebulae, so distant that they could not be seen with any other telescopes in the world, have revealed that these distant nebulae apparently are moving away from our galaxy, as required by the theory. This does not necessarily mean that the theory is right. Some other explanation eventually may be brought forward. But, even so, the 100-inch or a larger telescope will be needed to make the necessary observational tests The Harvard observatory has been particularly interested in a study of the structure of the Milky Way. The observatory has main tained a 60-inch telescope in South Africa to study the southern por tion of the Milky Way. It will now have a slightly more powerful instrument in the 61-inch at Oak Bridge to study the northern portion of the Milky Way. The 80-inch telescope planned for Texas will be under direction of Dr. Otto Stuve, who also is di rector of the famous Yerkes ob servatory. An interesting program is being mapped out for this telescope, which will be the second largest in the world. The instrument is being so de signed that for certain purposes it will be even more powerful than the 100-inch telescope and important results can be expected from it. to your readers, assuming each to be substantially true, as affording us something to ponder over. So far I have read no report of a national uprising to combat the practice of handing the proceeds of these three major agricultural crops to officeholders and their assist ants. It is also reported, on seemingly good authority that a large per cent of money raised by government taxation goes to support the reg ular army and navy. And I hear of no national movement to curtail that. On the surface, and to judge the average mind, it would seem that since, right now, we do not need these boys whom we lifted out of their homes in every neighborhood and sent to the trenches in France, we well can ignore them. But our officeholders and assistants, these we have always with us. And since by the nature of things, they must wear better clothes and live in better houses than these soldiers, either in France or at home, and since it takes the en tire cotton, corn and wheat crops to pay our clerks, it becomes quite evident, since we need thesa bonus boys no longer, that we should get them as nearly off the pay roll as possible. It seems a fact that we must go on supporting not only the individuals we elect to con gress, but their immediate A. J. KINNEAR, - Martinsville, Ind.