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The Indianapolis Times (A SCRIPTS-HOWARD NEWSPAPER) ROT W. HOWARD , a , President BOTT) OLKLKT Kditor KARL D. BAKER Banin*** Manager rhon#— Riley 5551 Member of United Pr#*, gcrtpp- How*rd Newspaper Alliance, News paper Enterprise Association, News paper Information Service and Audit Bureau of Circulations. Owned and published dally (except Sunday) by The Indianapolis Times Publishing Cos., 214-220 West Mary land atreet. Indianapolis, Ind. Price In Marlon county. 2 cent* a copy; elsewhere, 3 cents—delivered by car rier, 12 cents a week. Mail subscrip tion rates In Indiana, $3 a year; outside of Indiana, 65 cents a month. meuippj - *t*ua 6ii Light and the Peopla WGJ Etnd Their Own Wap SATURDAY. JAK. 7. 193*. THE BANKER SOLUTION Members of the legislature should regard with at least some skepticism the suggestion of the bankers for the control of rates for petty loans. The bankers ask that a limit be put on those who enter into the ghastly business of charging 3’ 2 per cent a month to desperate human beings for the use of credit. They ask that those who go into the business have at least $15,000 of capital. With the rate at this high figure, just why any large amount of money is needed to get a start toward millions is not ex plained, unless there be some desire to participate. For at least two more years, the bankers-propose that nothing be done about a matter which has been of considerable interest in the past sessions of the legislature and in which corrective measures have been defeated through the most corrupt methods employed by any lobby. The petty loan business is well intrenched in the politics of the state. Its representatives sit in the high councils of both the political parties. What the bankers propose is that the business be put in the hands of a few. cutting down compe tition, but still permitting the monstrous rate of interest to be charged to those who can least afford to pay for credit. If it be impossible to get legislation, after the bankers’ committee has given its pontifical blessing to the business, the only way that the people can find freedom is through a larger use of co-operative credit. Within the last eighteen months the firemen of this city have found what can be done by combining forces. Before that date the pay envelopes of many of the firemen were tapped each three months by the high rate lenders. For very many, that tax meant less food, less clothing and more worry. A credit union was formed and it is the proud boast of the firemen that not one member is now under bondage to these interests. By co-operation, the firemen have solved their own problem. At a time when money is excessively dear, when measured in terms of wages and commodities, the 42 per cent a year boys are getting about twice as much as they did in days of prosperity. The banking mind is not the one to solve what Is essentially a human, not a financial, problem. THE DEMOCRATIC PROGRAM The Democratic legislative plan as outlined by members of congress who met with President-Elect Roosevelt appears from reports to be promising, but incomplete. That Mr. Roosevelt has reaffirmed his policy to rely on beer and income taxes for new revenue, rather than on the general sales tax, is all to the good. The proposed increase of the lower bracket income to the war-time level and lowering of ex emptions will mean hardship on the class which, next to the unemployed, has carried the heaviest burden of the depression—both through salary cuts and through support of unemployed relatives. But it is an emergency which justifies such means. Even more justified is a similar increase of sur taxes to war-time level. The little man will pay extra; as should the man of larger income pay pro portionately. Perhaps this is included in the Democratic plan, and may appear when the fragmentary reports are supplemented by an official statement of the pro gram. Likewise, the plan seems incomplete without ad dition of some nuisance taxes. Such revenue may be necessary to balance the budget even with the beer tax, but certainly will be required if President Hoover vetoes the beer tax measure, as many believe probable. As reported, the plan is even less complete on the economy side. The proposed $100,000,000 savings show the Hoover economies are too small, consider ing that the current deficit may run above one and a half billion and the cumulative depression deficit upward of five billion. Only possible large scale economies are in veteran and army-navy apporpriations. As has been shown time and again, the veteran outlay can be reduced about $400,000,000 without hardship to any men suf fering from w r ar injuries. At least half that much can be cut from the army-navy expenditures without crippling national defense. Lesser important economies can be made in prohibition enforcement and in subsidies. Either the Democrats will come to these econ omies or they will not be able to keep their cam paign pledge to reduce expenses 25 per cent and to balance the budget. To do this will require courage. But if ever a party can have courage, it is immediately after an election in which it has received an overwhelming mandate of confidence and hope. From outward apearances. it seems that the President-elect is more alive to the needs of this emergency than are some of the old line Democratic congressional leaders. UP TO THE STATES The forty-four legislatures now gathering under state capitol domes to do the people's business are charged with the same solemn duties as the incoming government at Washington. "States as great engines move slowly,” but now they must act quickly to prevent widespread suf fering and injustices. Here are some of the prob lems that will wait longer for solution: Relief: Men and women should not starve or live on 7-cent meals. States that have reached the end of their resources must demand federal aid. And, of course, w f ork relief is better than breadlines. Economy and efficiency: The biggest tax savings will be effected through reorganizations and consoli dations of local units. Professor Thomas H. Reed of the University of Michigan says: “It will enrage the 1933 taxpayer to think that in his metropolitan area there are a hundred governments with taxing and bonding power where one would do. "If he lives in a rural section where ten counties eould be joined, he is going to inquire angrily why there should be ten jails, ten sheriffs, ten clerks, ten treasurers, where one of each would be gpfficienk He will want to know why moribund townships should be kept alive by artificial respiration. “And if he hails from a state with 5,000 to 10,000 school districts, he is going to mutter in his sleep about the incubus which the mud-road age has fastened on him.” Tax reforms: If legislatures are courageous and just, they will tax on the basis of ability to pay. Then they need not curtail humane and regulatory functions. Job insurance: Unemployment insurance bills will be urged upon thirty legislatures, and their passage is promised by at least six. If work security is better than charity, this reform is long overdue. Child labor: To send back to school some 2,000,- 000 child wage earners and give their jobs to un employed adults, the states should adopt the uniform 16-year school age minimum, and ratify the federal child labor amendment. Old-age pensions: Alaska and seventeen states have old-age pension laws, which are more humane, efficient, and cheaper than poorhouses. Why not the other thirty-one states? Lame duck amendment: Seventeen of the needed thirty-six states have ratified the Norris amend ment. The others should do so by summer. The times call for co-operation and courage. If the states act in unison through organizations like the American Legislators’ Association and the com ing national state tax conference, they can save time and effort. FREE TRADE IN BRAINS The American Association of Universiay Profes sors, at their New Haven conference, passed two resolutions that should be repeated loudly and often enough for every congressman and federal bureau crat to hear. One protests the restrictions placed on the entry into this country of professors who do not come under the immigration quotas. The other opposed the ruling of Secretary of Labor Doak making it difficult for foreign students to work their way through American colleges. ‘‘There should be no barrier to importation of brains into America,” Dr. Casimir Zdanowicz of the University of Wisconsin told the conference. "For educational reasons, they should be admitted—the teacher, the student, the book, the educational film.” The harassment of Dr. Einstein illustrates the present attitude of our immigration and state de partment officials. When this country has abolished poverty and disease, created the perfect state, and achieved its goal of a happy race, perhaps it then can afford to raise barriers against foreign thought. In the mean time, there should be free trade in brains. WHEN’S WARFARE WAR? Among the unpleasant gifts of the new year, the most ominous seems to be a sudden, violent resump tion of the Sino-Japanese difficulties. The Great Wall of China has been pierced, and a steady Jap anese thrust at Peiping itself is now a possibility. A situation already dangerous has become more se rious than ever, and no solution of the problem is yet in sight. And one is forced to wonder, too, how much longer the fiction that this is not really war can be maintained. As long as the fighting was con fined to Manchuria, that thesis was at least argu able; but what becomes of it when the troops of one nation actually invade the central territory of an other nation? In actual fact, of course, a very serious war is raging, whatever the diplomats choose to call it; and the menace to the peace of the rest of the world is exceedingly real. In this particular field, 1933 has got off to a very bad beginning. The successful man we like best is the one who attributes his fortune to hard work, perseverance, clean living, and the SIOO,OOO left him by his late uncle in Oklahoma. A1 Smith, on his fifty-ninth birthday anniversary, said he felt just as good as he did at 40 or 50. It goes without saying that’s a whole lot better than, he felt right after the Democratic convention last summer. Husbands who took seriously their wives’ re quests not to get them anything for Christmas are just getting back on speaking terms again. A bird in the hand is. worth two in the bush, but now and then you 11 find a big league baseball mogul who’ll trade even. Just Plain Sense BY MRS. WALTER FERGUSON TF I were on a jury, I no more could sentence a prisoner to death than I could go out in cold blood and kill a man. This, to be sure, is no argument against capital punishment. It only happens to be my personal opinion. There are, however, a good many arguments against imposing the death sentence, and. curiously enough, some of the best ones are received from proponents of the system. This, for instance: "Capital punishment ha s not failed as a mur der deterrent. It only has failed to be applied. A murderer has ninety-nine chances out of a hundred to escape the noose. If this chance were reversed, the argument advanced by Mrs. Ferguson and other anti-capital punishment propagandists might have some weight, but not while public records upset it.” I am still not ready to grant the latter part of this contention. And it seems to me, if the former is true, and that ninety-nine out of every hundred criminals escape—and assuredly they do—it is sure and certain proof that the death sentence is not now preventing crime at all. It only means that the hundredth man is un justly treated by a society that permits so many of his kind to avoid any retribution, and this is the final and ultimate iniquity. * tt tt 'T'Hls capital punishment thing is like prohibi tion. It would be perfectly grand if it could be made to work. But so long as juries are composed of men and women, and so long as men and women are emotional rather than rational, and so long as there remain so many loopholes of escape for the majority, I claim that it is utterly unfair to take the lives of the rare few. Why should Mrs. Judd go to the chair while a hundred thousand other women commit murders and escape? Last year one deliberately shot her husband over such a trivial thing as a bridge game and went scot free. Is this justice or plain stupidity? If we were half as smart as we think ourselves, we could de vise other methods of punishment that would be far more effective. If we can’t kill all murderers, then we should kill none. I am emphatically against the state taking human life. If this makes me a sob sister then a sob sister X am. THE INDIANAPOLIS TIMES I It Seems to Me .... by Heywood Broun I GOT talking to a man in a train about tragedy. It didn't just start that way. Neither of us said, “Well, what do you conceive to be the essential elements of tragedy?” In the beginning the topic of discussion was the Follies, and from that it worked around to “Antony and Cleopatra,” and after that it was no trouble at all to swing into tragedy. Perhaps I led the talk In that direction, because I had a number of prepared and sincere convic tions on the subject of tragedy. I felt and I feel that the classic tra dition has become ineffective. There may have been a day and age in which life was so full blooded that nothing more appal ling than death could happen to any one. An Elizabethan audience well might have been moved to pity and terror when a character gasped, choked and sped away to face the threat of hell. m m “Weep for the Living ” BUT tragedy must be recast for the sake of agnostics, Unita rians, Universalists and some of the Congregationalists. We can not be expected to weep when some sorely harassed and tortured character in a play slips from the clutch of circumstances into pro found sleep or perhaps into friend ly awakening. Our emotions will go out rather to the figure who must take his pounding. We can not fully com prehend the notion that tragedy consists of madness or sudden surcease. It is for the living that we should weep. Unfortunately, there was small opportunity for argument with the man on the train. He stifled discussion with an overreaching agreement. Indeed, he took the theme away from me. Long be fore I was done, he said, “You’re quite right.” That was less than tactful. There was nothing more for me to say. However, he wanted to talk. "I'm ft tragic figure,” he began. He seemed hale and prosperous, but the pause was only a slight one for dramatic effect. “It hap pened a long time ago,” he con tinued. “I was a boy, but that doesn't make any difference. Peo ple think that things wheih are done to you before you are 19 or 20 don’t matter. That’s nonsense. “I lived in Bridgeton, N. J„ and we were Methodists. I was brought up on hell fire and castor oil. When I was 12 the old doc tor died, and a young one came along. He said that castor oil was fine, but he had anew theory. He thought it ought to be per suaded into people instead of be ing poured down their throats. * *~ tt New Minister in Town “'"J~'HAT sounded a little im- X moral to my father and mother, but a doctor Is a person of authority, like a minister, and he made them take his ideas. I don’t know whether he persuaded them or poured it down their throats. Anyway, it was fixed up that whenever I took castor oil I was to get a nickel. ■ ; - DAILY HEALTH SERVICE ■■■— Whooping Cough Is Spread Easily ■■ BY DR. MORRIS FISHBEIN - -=■ Thi is th* second of three special articles bv Dr. Fishbcin on the nstnre and treatment of whooping- cough and precautions to per rent its spread. 'T'HE incubation period in X whooping cough is the period from two to ten days before the child begins coughing. During this period, the child is infected, but not sick. Therefore, the youngster who is exposed to whooping cough must be watched carefully for at least ten days after his contact for signs of whooping cough. During this period there may be symptoms resembling those of a common cold. After the char acteristic whoop and the parox ysms of coughing appear,, the child is likely to be able to spread the disease for at least three weeks longer. Therefore, doctors advise that children be kept apart as long as the cough continues and for two weeks after tt ends. The Doomed Battalion! Along about that spring I had 50 cents. A Catholic kid just across the tracks told me about the circus that was coming in a month. His father was going to take him. Mine didn’t believe in circuses, but I had my castor oil 50 cents. In two weeks it was sixty. “Four days before the circus was due, a revival preacher hit town. I was taken to hear him, and he preached on eternal dam nation. We sat in the fourth row. He scared the life out of me. Then they took up a collection. It was for foreign missions. .1 put every nickel of my castor oil money in the plate. I didn’t want to burn forever and ever, world without end. So They Say I only commenced to work when I was 50.—Former Governor Al fred E. Smith of New York, on his fifty-ninth birthday. We might as well admit that we are a nation of hard liquor drink ers. I don’t know who is going to drink all the beer and wine that they plan to legalize.—Police Commissioner Edward P. Mul roone,y of New York. Nations and individuals are not comfortably lifted out of bad times. They must dig themselves out. —Harry F. Sinclair, chairman of the executive committee, Con solidated Oil Corporation. If a town has an epidemic, that’s the worst possible time to close up the hospitals. Any community that fails in this depression to keep open its libraries is making a grave mstake.—Harry M. Lyden berg, president of the American Library Association. Every Day Religion BY DR. JOSEPH FORT NEWTON ■■■■ ■■■ A GENTLEMAN has been de fined as a man who refuses to take out of life more than he puts into it. In exposition of this definition, a friend of mine told me of a sermon he heard by Jowett of Oxford. The preacher, he said, did not put it to 200 healthy young men, as a quite likely thing, that they might die the next night and have to give God, about breakfast time, an ac count of their doings. What he said was pointed: “I find it set down in tables,” said the preacher, “that the aver age duration of human life, at the age of 21, is about thirty-six years. We may hope for a little more; we may fear a little less; but, speaking generally, • thirty-six years, or about 13,000 days, is the time in which our task must be accomplished, if it is to be done at all.” tt * tt MY friend and some others, as they testified, were so* elec trified by this quaint piece of pre Editor Journal of the American Medi cal Association and of Hvreia. the Health Magazine. THE doctor diagnoses whooping cough not only by the typical coughing spells, which usually are accompanied with redness of the face and development of a thick, sticky mucus in the mouth, but also by changes which occur in the blood in this disease. Not only do the white blood cells increase in number, but a particular form of the white blood cells, known as the single nucleus cells, or lymphocytes, increases even more than do the others. As has been said, the chief danger from whooping cough is not from the disease itself so much as from the secondary pneumonia and changes which may affect the heart and lungs. mum THE total period of quarantine may be as long as six weeks. In ftttemi&mg to control whoop- “The money I was going to spend on the circus was going to help send S, missionary to China. That’s what I call tragedy.” “Didn’t you ever see the cir cus?” I asked him. <‘Yes, I did. I don’t know whether it was the same circus, but it was one like it. I saw it when I was 23 old. And it w-as a bum show. That's part of the tragedy.” tt tt u Optimism Not Alone LIKE a good many Americans, I don't get much fun out of Strindberg, and I wonder why Ibsen was so consistently gloomy. Our books and plays are more in clined to look on the bright side of things. From that fact the generaliza tion arises that America is a cheerful country, while Scandina via and all the foreign lands are tinged with morbid cynicism. That isn't quite true. Optimism assays about the same in all coun tries if you consider enough factors. After all, plays and novels constitute a very small proportion of America’s fictional approach to life. Throw the movies in, if you like, and the best-known imaginative characters of America are still outside the list. No figure of fiction, stage or screen is known as widely as a half dozen cartoons. The comic strip is the chief field in which life is interpreted to the American masses. It seems to me, then, that America is not more optimistic than other lands. We have simply reversed the formula which pre vails elsewhere. Here we insist on taking joy and elation solemnly. It is only in our lighter moments that we are willing to accept the deadly disillusion of the cynic. (CoDvrieht. 1933. bv The Times) cision, so unexpected from a pul pit, that their minds were opened wide and the reception of what followed; namely, that they would be a shabby lot of fellows if they spent any serious part of their 13,000 days in shirking or whin ing or sponging on the more rfianful part of mankind. But it hes another lesson, too. If we seem able to live •without God today, it is because our fa thers were not able to do so. By their devotion to God, they left a precious deposit in Amer ican life, something too fine and lovely to be lost. It may be that their view of life was too narrow, and that this world is more im portant than they in ’ their other worldliness thought it was. Yet what noble things they kept in their hearts! We are living on the sacred legacy which they left us, where by they made life better for all. It will be a pity—nay, a tragedy— if we turn out to be shirkers, spongers and parasites in regard to the highest things. (CobvriKht. 1933. United Features Syndicate) ing cough, all sorts of methods of prevention have been tried, in cluding inoculation of the blood from people who are recovering from the disease, injection of germs that have been killed, with the idea that these injections will stimulate the body to form anti substances against the germs of the disease, and many similar measures. Use of the vaccines, which means a mixture of killed germs, is thought by many specialists in diseases of children to have value in preventing whooping cough in children who are exposed, and also in diminishing the severity of the symptoms. However, there are other phy sicians who have had little suc cess by use of such vaccines, and they do not employ them. tCobvrisrht. 1933. bv NEA Service. Ine.i Next—Care of the whooping cough victim. I M. E. Tracy Says: A* , ■— A WE LIVE IN BANKERS' AGE IN considering present-day social trends, let us not forget that philosophy is older than mechanical power, or that human nature pre ceded both. If this were the first time religious influ ence had declined, or the home had lost out as an economic center, we would be justified in holding machinery responsible. It is .. well-authenticated fact, however, that ancient Rome, though quite unaware of tin cans and refrigeration, had few private kitchens. Even the Russian experiment hardly excels the Incas in substitut ing collective effort for individualism. More than 2.000 years ago, such Green savants as Socrates and Plato advanced the idea that children should be reared and trained by the state, and we have little ground for supposing that it was original with them. We owe more to the front office than the mechanical department for our philosophy of life, if, indeed, we can be said to have one. tt n tt Build Them Big Is Our Motto WE have been following the promoter, organizer, and financier. Our educational system is turning out ten bond salesmen for every expert machinist. We have been training youth to seek success, not by doing some thing better, but by building something bigger. Our motivating thought has been, not to encourage competition for the sake of improvement, but to kill it for the sake of profit. What was an industrial age fifty years ago has become a bank ers’ age. We no longer are drawipg inspiration from men like Morse. Bell, and Edison; we are looking to the Morgans, Mellons, Swopes, and Youngs for guidance. The machine is becoming an instrument of monopoly and the bulk of us are becoming slaves to the machine—feudalism in anew guise. There is nothing wrong with mechanical power, but we are abusing it to satisfy a craze for organization and control. nan Radio Is Outstanding Example TAKE radio, for instance, not because it Is the most outstanding example, but because its operation and effect are simple enough to be understood. Radio already has been brought under the chain system. Each day, and particularly each evening, millions of people sit down to be instructed by one voice, entertained by one orchestra, inspired by one artist, set into giggles by one wisecracker. Convenient, no doubt, but what's the answer? The answer is that you can assemble 10, 20, or even 50 young people today and not find one who can play an instrument well, sing a real song as it should be sung, or show much originality in amusing themselves. Educators tell us that it is impossible to teach children by lecturing them, and life proves the theory sound. We can't be musicians by listening to music, or painters by looking at pictures, or athletes by sitting in the grandstand. The only way to develop the body or the mind is by using it. tt tt tt Least Government Is the Best MACHINERY shouldn't interfere with that, and it wouldn't but for the unreasonable extent to which it has been made the basis of organized control. There are cases, of course in which organized control is necessary. A nation-wide, or even a wond-wide, telephone system would be ideal. There are more cases, however; in which organized control is un necessary and undesirable, in which its effect Is sure to be deadening. As Thomas Jefferson said, the least government is the best, and that goes for every phase of life, whether official or unofficial. 1 Science Goes Ahead _____________ BY DAVID DIETZ - MAN ascended higher into the sky and descended deeper into the ocean in 1932 than pre viously had been done in the his tory of the w'orld. The new altitude record was set by Professor Auguste Piccard, the picturesque Belgian, who again sailed into the stratosphere in a balloon, bettering his record of last year. Accompanied by Max Cosyns, he rose to a height of 53,153 feet this year, almost eleven miles. The descent into the ocean was made by Dr. William Beebe, who went down to a depth of 2,200 feet off the coast of Bermuda in a diving sphere w’hich he calls the bathysphere. But while these exploits were spectacular, they are not as im portant in the life of the average man as more prosaic studies con ducted during the last year on the subject of why teeth decay. A series of studies by Dr. Gor don Agnew of West China Union university, showing that lack of phosphorus, calcium and Vitamin D are the chief causes of tooth decay, may turn out to be the most important scientific event of the year. While heart disease and cancer occupy the concern of the medical world as two of the chief causes of death among people of ad vanced age, it is probable that the greatest economic loss to the world is caused by common colds and tooth decay. In the realm of pure science, the most important advances of the year were in the field of atomic study. Most important of all was the confirmation of the existence of the neutron. Discovery of the neutron was announced by Chadwick and his associates at the Cavendish lab oratory of the University of Cam bridge, England. tt tt it Atom Study Advances THE neutron turns out to be a particle about the size of the electron, but possessing no elec trical charge. Electrons, the fundamental units of electricity, out of which the atoms of matter are constructed, are either posi tive or negative. Scientists also made important advances during 1932 in methods of smashing or disintegrating atoms. This was made possible by de velopment of new high-pow'ered X-ray tubes and vacuum tubes, and the development of appa ratus for developing electric cur rents of extremely high potentials. If atomic disintegration can be done easily on a large scale, it might upset further the economic situation of the world, first by providing immense stores of power at low cost, and second by turn ing inexpensive metals into gold. The scientific subjects which held the public eye chiefly during 1932 were cosmic rays, the ex panding universe, the Einstein theory, the solar eclipse of Aug. 31, and the November shower of shooting st^rs. Ihe eclipse and the shooting stars can be dismissed briefly. Both were disappointing from the scientific point of view’. The November meteors were neither as bright nor as numerous as astronomers had hoped they would be. Only further observa tions in coming years will clear up the mystery of what has hap pened to the Leonids, as the No vember meteors are called. Both cosmic rays and the ex panding universe continued to be the centers of innumerable scien tific battles. In the matter of cos mic rays, the battle is chiefly as JAN. 7. 1933 1... j TRACY to whether the rays are waves entering the earth’s atmosphere from the far reaches of the uni verse or whether they are elec trified particles originating in the upper atmosphere, perhaps as a result of the sun’s influence. n a a Differ on Rays DR. R. a. MILLIKAN, Nobel prize-winner and the man who confirmed the existence ofc the rays, holds to the view that they are true waves. Dr. Arthur H. Compton, also a Noble prize-winner, is certain, after a 50,000-mile journey to study cosmic rays from the high mountains of five continents, that ~ the rays are electrical particles. Most students of the subject are convinced that the universe is expanding, but each expert in the ~ field seems to have a favorite model of his own. At the beginning of the year, * both Professor Einstein and Dr. Willem *De Sitter, the eminent Dutch authority, seemed to have . some doubts on the subject. In a joint paper, they stated that, from the basis of the theory of relativity, space might have a positive zero, or negative curva ture. This was another way of saying that maybe the universe was expanding and maybe it wasn’t. Important advances in the of astronomy during the year in cluded the following: The conclusion reached from Dr. Joel Stebbins’ photo-electric meas urements of the brightness of stars that the Milky Way or gal-, axy is only about one-third as large as was formerly believed. Reduction of the age of the uni verse, as a result of the inferences of the expanding universe theory from fifteen trillion years to about ten billion years. Discovery of two asteroids or tiny planets, the so-called Rein muth and Delporte objects, which approach closer to the earth than Eros, the asteroid which formerly - held this honor. In the field of applied science, the engineers failed to bring for- - ward any new product capable of leading the world out of the de- „ pression. In fact, the consensus of many • engineers, as expressed by tech- - nocracy, seems to be that it is useless to look for any such in vention or discovery, the machine having replaced man-power, once for all. Daily Thought I Even so faith, if it hath not works, is dead, being alone.— ~ James 2:17. a a a’ CHARITY is the scope of alh God's commands. Chrysos tom. Questions and Answers Q—State the population of 80-, livia, and the proportion of In dians to whites. • A—Estimated population is 2.- - 974,900, of whom 1,586,650 are In- - dians, 426.200 whites, and 962.000 - mixed. Q —How' long must an enlisted . man in the army serve before he ( can retire? A—He can retire after an active service of twenty years, and is automatically retired after thirty • years’ service.