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IL 1QL JTLd IT mJ lLd II IN PUBLISHED WI2EKL1T, AT HONOLULU, OA1IU, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. J. J. JAItVES, Editor. SATURDAY, JUNE 8, 1844. NEW SERIES, Vol. 1. No. 3. PTH "TUT TI71 TTT) n IT TT TT Iff1 E E ras 'ST o For the I'olyncsUm. MUSIC. Music, to thco the power in given, To charm on earth with strains of heaven; To calm tho mind in papsion'a strife, And wile away tho cares of life; To fire the soul in battle hour, When dangers round us darkly lower; In madening pain or drooping grief, To theo we ily for quick relief; Or, in the hour of mirth and joy, We find in thee no pad alloy. Music 'tis thine to tamo the heart, And soften with thy moving art; For gentle conqueror Music, say, Who here below owns not thy sway i When Sol had lost his torrid power, In softest shades of even hour, And mountain, Hood, and distant heaven, Were clad in the brightest hues of evca'; Genius of Music, then full well, I loved to seek at eve thy cell, And there beguile a truant hour, Charmed by the magic of thy power. While toils and cured were yet afar, I loved to hoar the sweet guitar; O then tho trembling notes would roll, In floods of joy upon the soul. But ah ! what boots it now to tell, How much I loved thee and how well ? Honolulu, June 1, 1841. - Z. COMMUNICATED. For the Polynesian. RECOLLECTIONS OF OREGON. Mr. Editor, Since the following remarks were penned, large accessions have been made to the population of the Willamette valley, from the United States, across the Rocky Mountains. About 1,000 souls ar rived last autumn, accompanied by 1'20 wag ons, and a large herd of cattle. This com pany was composed of farmers, artisans, la borers, a few professional men, and some limited capitalists. Lieut. Frecmont, of the Topographical En gineers, with a small protecting party, ac companied the emigrants, to make observa tions for tho information of the government of the United States. An indelible road has been tracked across the mountains, and wag gons, from the state of Missouri, have readi ed the Columbia River; and it is confidently estimated that from one to four thousand will be added, the current year, to the population of Oregon. Being under the jurisdiction of no foreign power, the necessities of the colony required the organization of a temporary government, which was effected in 18-12, and, up to the date of last advices, was working well in practice. Of the details of the organization I am uninformed, but understand it to be up on the simplest plan of a republic, with fetid offices. This infant colony has tho reputation of being a moral and well-ordered community; and there is good reason to hope, if this character is justly awarded, that it will prove the germ of an enterprising state, which will soon exert an influence upon alfairs in the Pacific. On arriving in the Columbia River, on the 2oth of Jftrch we found spring fairly estab lished in tho seat of old winter, who had been completely ousted by the mild advances of his more genial supplanter. The woods were vocal with tho songs of innumerable warblers; and the air was filled with the cheerful humming-bird, whoso joyous twitter and rapid, darting movements, seemed to in fuse into every animato object, something of its own restlessness. Tho air was bland, tho grass had started from its long sleep of months, and tho trees had put forth their tender leaves to woo the gentle kisses of the balmy breeze. In short, all nature gave indication of a much earlier resuscitation, from the effects of winter, than in the same latituues on the Atlantic side of the continent. Notwithstanding these appearances, frosty nights occur as late as May, I believe, almost every year. The banks of the Columbia, from the sea inland to a distance of about 1.50 miles, are thickly wooded. The principal timber is of the evergreen kind; fir, spruce, cedar and pine. There is also u small portion of oak, ash, soft maple, birch and alder, and some other kinds, of less importance. After pass? ing out of tho heavily timbered country, there is still some timber of the various kinds mentioned; but it becomes thinner and thin ner, and finally, at a distance of 2.30 miles from the coast, the banks arc bare, and tim ber is only seen on the distant heights of land, arid on tho. small streams which empty into the Columbia. In passing up the river, we find it divided into several channels by a great number of islands, some of which arc miles in length, but so low as to bo overflowed almost every year by the freshets, and rendered useless for agricultural purposes; though I doubt not some of them would afford excellent fish eries for salmon. We also observe on the banks, and contiguous to tho river, prairies of various dimensions, from a few acres, to thousands of acres in extent. These are covered with a rank species of grass, of a poor quality for cattle; and many of them arc overflowed occasionally, though not ev ery year, by the rise of the Columbia. The beautiful prairie on which Fort Vancouver is situated, is sometimes overflowed to the very gates of the fort, notwithstanding an embank ment has been thrown up on the river's side, to guard against such an event: and the crops on that prairie are often injured, or en tirely swept away, by the flood. Although a river of great length, the Co lumbia can only be ascended, by a ship of 300 tons, a distance of about 100 miles from the ocean; and the head of tide water is but a few miles higher up, or at about 120 miles. 125 miles from the sea occurs tho first rapids, and in this vicinity the first portage, where all goods, and even tho boats and canoes, have to be carried over by land, a distance of half a mile. s From this point, the riv er is again navigable about 100 miles, where another portage has to be made; and from tiiis, to tho highest point of my observation, rapids occur frequently, but no other portage has to be made, except at the falls, for a long distance. At a distance of 80 miles from the sea, the Willamette or Wceltnomalo river enters the Columbia. There is however, another branch which enters the Columbia about 20 miles below, forming a long island of that length, between it and the Columbia. It is upon this river, at a distance of . 50 or GO miles from the Columbia, that the principal settlement in the wholo country is located. Tho river is navigable for salmoners and small brigs to the falls, 25 miles up from tho Columbia. About the samo distance above tho falls, commences tho settlement, which is continu ed along the river, for an equal distance. And many have also taken up land back from river, on the beautiful praries which are found in tho broad valley of this stream. The valley of the Willamette is beautifully diversified with prairies and woodland, well watered, with a good soil, and affords facili ties for agricultural operations rarely sur passed. But it is yet questionable whether the climate is equally favorable with tho soil. The winter and spring months are usually very wet, and frosts occur as late as May; while tho summer is exceedingly dry, and most crops suffer more or less from drought. Wheat and peas arc tho crops which ap pear best adapted to the soil and climate, and are raised of an excellent quality, though in a moderate quantity, as a general yield. But whatever may be the advantages or disadvantages in relation to the agricultural prospects of the valley of the Willamette, there is no question but it is admirably adapt ed to the raising of herds and horses. These thrive and multiply with remarkable facility; and as no provender has to be provided for the winter, the cost of a herd is a mere trifle; consisting only in the necessary oversight of the herd, and the occasional trouble of getting them together to mark, etc. I cannot pass over this branch of tho sub ject, without dwelling a moment longer on the country immediately under consideration. The natural facilities afforded by tho pecu liar nature of this valley, render the procu ring of the mere necessaries of life, extreme ly easy. The prairie soil is considered of a good quality, and is ready for the plough, without any preliminary preparation. The usual course pursued by the settlers is, to erect a log house on the edge of the praric, enclose a few acres at first with a rail fence, plough it up, put in the seed, and then turn their attention to other improvements. The enclosures arc enlarged as the ability of the occupant will admit. These prairies are sur rounded with timber, which is convenient and valuable for buildings and for fencing; and many are skirted with a scattering growth of oaks, which resemble, in some places, an orchard. Some of them are also intersected with a stream of water, which falls into the river, and alfords a site for mills and other machinery. Many of them arc rolling, or undulating, on their surface; and from some of them eminences arise, which built upon, would overlook a large farm. (To be Continued.) FROM OUR AMERICAN CORRESPONDENT. NUMBER 2. UOSTOV , 1843. My dear Editor, Speaking in my last of the plants in the National Conservatory at Washington, reminds mc of the beautiful ex hibition of the Horticultural Society of Phil adelphia, in China Hall, beneath Pcale's Museum. Fruits, flowers and vegetables were there displayed in the greatest richness and profusion, and arranged in excellent taste. Could one have had the privilege of plucking and eating, the enjoyment would have been perfect. The beauty and fashion of Philadelphia frequented the hall, so that the rival charms of nature and art were fair ly at issue. It was a pretty spot for lovers to saunter in; flowers strewed their way, and piles of luscious fruits looked temptingly into their faces. But like the fruits of the tabued trees of Eden, they were forbidden to touch and cat. The moral was very good, if they took the pains to interpret it, and would serve them for good counsel through life. The names of those who raised the fruits were attached to their several piles. I noticed some fine grapes from Andalusia, the prince ly country scat of Nicholas Biddle. Some one, with more truth than feeling, had writ ten on the label, "watered by widows' tears." Tho puny specimens of our noble tropical trees, the banana, pine-apple, palms, &.c, were tho chief objects of attraction. The taro looked tho best, and my appetite yearned strongly towards it. In truth, all exhibited much attention and care, but to me were of minor interest, when compared with the fully developed productions of our own soil. Many were strangers to me ; some such as the egg plant, could be usefully in troduced into your islands. Perhaps there is as little interest in tho Sandwich Islands, in Philadelphia, as in any other city of the Union. They have no trade in common, and the Friends, or Quakers, a9 others call them, look with an unfavorable eye upon the Pacific Missions. 1 endeavor ed to explain to some and I believe to some extent succeeded the beneficial results of their operations thus far. But like all other sectarians they are strongly wedded to pre conceived opinions, and loth to leave the well-beaten track of their fathers. Yet in action, none arc more benevolent. They were the best friends the aborigines of Ame rica ever had, and I sec no reason to doubt, that had their duty led them to the Polyne sian islands, the result would have been sim ilar. In New York I was quite surprised to find our exploring friend J. P. Couthouy. He has refused all offers of further employment from government in connection with the pub lication of the scientific details of the Expedi tion, and, with a partner, established himself in a lamp store in Broadway. However, ho finds time occasionally to give the world some of the results of his valuable observa tions on natural history, through the pages of Silliman's Journal of Natural Sciences. He is indeed a man of wonderful energy and aptness, in whatever he applies himself to. I send you his pamphlets on the coral forma tions, icebergs, &c, and his reply to certain strictures on the part of Mr. Dana, the min eralogist. The latter is rather caustic, but both arc well able to defend their respective views. I wish Mr. Couthouy could reside at Honolulu, and devote himself to tho exa mination and observation of the volcanic phenomena, and the several departments of natural history appertaining to the group. You need some close observer for this pur pose, both for your own sakes and that of the world. There is much that is curious and valuable to be gleaned at Hawaii in par ticular, and he is the man for the work. One would think by the Daguerreotype signs about the streets, that tho world had gone portrait-mad. Tho faces of one's friends stare ono at every hour. It is a beautiful art, and when well done, they give tho most perfect miniatures true to life the minu test feature not escaping the accuracy of the lenses even the figures of a muslin cape, a riband or breast-pin are alf given. There is no opportunity for flattery. In these like nesses one perceives' his friends as they re ally appeared at the time they were taken. The process of transferring them through the agency of light, is peculiarly interesting. Tho Americans have made great improve ments in the art, since Dagucrre first discov ered it. At present I am too busy to write further. Remember me to our old circle; I think much of all of you, particularly when Jack Frost covers the windows, and pulls at my nose and fingers. The old fellow seems to have grown more crusty since my boy hood. Happy Oahuians! oblivious to all his charms. Yours, as ever, Wakebv. Philosophy of Heat." Well, my little fellow," said a certain Principal to a juvenile philosopher, whose mamma had been teasing the learned Knight to test the astonishing abilities of her boy, "what arc the proper ties of heat?" "Tho chief property of heat is, that it expands bodies, while cold contracts them."- " Very good, indeed can you give mo a familiar example?" Yes, sir; in Sum mer, when it is hot, the day is long; while in Winter, when it is cold, it becomes very short." The learned Knight stopped his ex amination, and was lost in amazement that so familiar an instance should have bo long es caped his own observation. English paper.