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T H E P 0 L V N K S IAN. Arr.rnT, ; ui . j . - n J- - -' ' - ' Such was the state of Chili when Don Manuel Rcngifo was called to administer its finances; and that one man, by the force of his genius, energy and fortitude, in less than two years dispelled the prejudices that beclouded the minds of his countrymen, gave fresh life to the mining, agricultural and commercial interests, filled the treasury, paid the troops and other servants of Govern ment, commuted and arranged for the claims of retired and supernumerary officers, revived .public credit, and totally extin guished contraband, in every part of the Republic. These great and really wonder ful changes were effected through an im mense reduction of duties, by removing . all the restrictions and shackles that pressed upon trade, and by encouraging the influx of foreigners, with their wares and goods, by declaring Valparaiso a free port. What has been the consequence ? Chili has increased in population, industry, wealth and civilization, with a rapidity which leaves all her sister Republics far behind. The stranger of all nations finds there his home, and full scope for the exertion of his talents v and industry; and is enthusiastic in the sup port of the government which so cordially receives and so generously protects him; public credit is fully restored both at home and abroad; , the treasury overflows; the army and navy are reduced, but well paid and effective; corruption is unknown in any department of government, and the revenues arc everywhere honestly paid, and faithfully collected. If one man could do so much in Chili, there is no reason why one man should not do as much in Mexico. The present presi dent Santa Anna has a power and a " prestige," far greater than Don Manuel Rengifo, or any other Chilian, over had; and nothing could be more worthy of his renown as chief of the nation, than to guide it in the right path, as to matters of finance, and of national industry. The Chilians are not more docile than the Mexicans, and the natural resources of their country are far inferior. Under the Spanish Government, Chili could not pay its own expenses; now, it is as solvent as Great Britain or France; the police is admirable; the administration is powerful, energetic, and and respectable; a national spirit has been formed; morality has assumed a high tone; civilization and a certain degree of refine ment have extended themselves through all classes, and as regards foreigners, their political system is attractive not rfpuhive, as that of this government has recently be come. I have dwelt the longer upon this subject of contraband, because until that is put an end to, the Republic will never prosper, nor will her creditors ever be paid. To destroy it, and that forever, is a matter of the great est care, but there is only one way of doing it, and that is by following the example of, Chili and Venezuela, in the reduction of duties to an extent that leaves no compen sating profit to the risks of contraband, and by adhering to a rational system of duties onco established. Don Antonio Garay, in his remarks, states his belief, that under such a system, foreign merchants would 'discourage contraband. That he is right, I am fully persuaded; for, having an extensive acquaintance with the merchants in both coasts especially my own countrymen I know that there is not one of them who does not deprecate contraband as the bane of a sound and healthy business in this country, nor one who does not de plore as the greatest humiliation and debase ment, the necessity of giving his hand to, and perhaps admitting to the social inter course of his wife and children, and seating at his table, those perjured villains amongst the employes of the custom-house3, who, having sworn fidelity to the laws of their country, infringe those laws, betray its inte- m-l 1 I .1 . una roo, lor tiieir own advantage, a large share of its revenue. It is no less ridiculous than disgusting to aco thoso worms, fattened, bloated and over grown through their own corruption those public Robbers thoso vile and infamous be trayers of their country's trust, arrogate to themselves and families, airs of gentility, su periority and refinement, contend for the chief places at public festivals, chief honors in society, and chief rank in religious pro cessions, just as if they were not the mere flcorn and contempt of the very foreign mer chants whoso frauds they have protected, and of all who know their real character! and as if to enjoy, for a few years the glitter of their stolen wealth, they were' not expo sing their souls to the danger of Hell, here after, and incurring the wrath of a God who from Mount Sinai pronounced himself to be a God who visited the iniquities of the fathers upon the children, to the third and fourth generation. But it will be asked, how is it that Foreign merchants, if they have such a holy horror of those perjured Rogue and of their frauds degrade themselves by entering into fraudu lent combinations with them i I answer from the dire necessity of self-preservation, under Tariffs established by the government so absurdly and evtravagantly high, that at no period, could the prices obtainable in the Mexican markets, enable them honestly to pay the prime cost and charges on the goods they imported, the interest of the money so invested, and the duties, import and internal, imposed by those Tariffs, unless by evading a portion of the latter. Even were this ne cessity not fully admitted by many of the former ministers of Finance, from whose " memorias" I have extracted, its existence stands prominently forward on the very face of the statement So. 2, before referred to. Let any merchant either of Europe or Mexi co, or any one who is familiar with the prices of both markets, take up that statement, and coolly and impartially calculate, whether on the average prices obtainable here, for the general assortment of goods of which cargoes are composed, and not singling out a few small articles, it was ever possible, without grievous and irretrievable loss, to pay the full duties imposed by the Tariffs that have been, and are now in force. Verily, the country is to be pitied whose statesmen cannot devise a better system, whose great financial interests are commit ted to the care of servants so faithless; and foreign merchants arc to be pitied where their success depends not upon what may be called the science of Commerce, but adroit ness in the arts of evasion, or what may be called fiscal chicane. Can any thin"1 be more degrading and humiliating, than the spectacle of a proud British merchant, on the arrival of a cargo, shut up in his counting house, with one or two of those perjured rogues at his elbow, calculating how to make a profit, not from the prices of the market, which will not yield it, but from evasions in the rates of the tariff", which are high enough to afford a bribe, to pocket which his perjured friend de liberately sells his public faith, his worldly fame, and perhaps his soul's salvation ? True, he may escape from that Purgatory of honourable feeling, that position of moral torture and debasement, and a house former ly existing in Guadalaxara, whose partners I am proud to call my friends, did escape, but it was by proudly refusing to enter the chornel house of honour and good faith, for which contempt of things as they were, and preference of things as they ought to be, the servants of the nation whose laws they dis dained to infringe, conspired to mine the foundation of their establishment, as one yielding to themselves no fruits; the house fell, involving its constituents in loss, but it fell through the moral heroism of its part ners, and the reputation they have left, is to be envied. In what I have said of the Mexican Em ployes, I wish not to be understood as indu ing them all in one general ban of proscribed villains. There is Don Rafael Cajigas, visitudor" of Mazatlan, a man advanced in years, with a large family, and poor, but quite incorruptible. There have been, and there are others, of the same honorable stamp, but they are " rari nantes in gurgite raslo", and if they adhered to their prin ciples, they have commonly sunk in the whirlpool, from combinations similar to those which ruined my friends, the former house of Guadalaxara. Having proved that contraband, up to a late period, has existed enthroned in this Republic, I now proceed to give an approxi mated idea of its amount. In what I have already quoted from Don Antonio Garay, it will be seen, that he esti mated it at more than one half of the duties received. Now it will be seen by nofe 2 to table 6, that the average yearly amount of duties received, for 1 1 years, was $6,619,9, from the maritime custom-houses alone. It therefore follows, nrrnrrlinif in him that $6,619,996 was the measure of yeany contraband, and that the maritime custom-houses ought really to have produced everyyear $13,239,992 Don Jose Mariano Blasco, Min ister of Finance, in 1835, in his "Memoria" for that year, to' table No. 6, adds a note, signed by Don Vgnacio Sierra y Rosso, in which is given a calculation that of $33,501 ,4.56 of goods im ported, at least one-third is by contraband. This on the above average of duties, will bo 2, 206,663, so that according to Senor Blasco, and his officer, the yearly revenue derived from the maritime custom-houses, ought to be 8,826,653 Doctor John Jose Jesus Maria Mora, a distinguished and learn ed Mexican, who wrote upon Mexico and its revolutions, in 1836, at page 42 of his first vol ume, states, that of the goods consumed, two-third.: may be put down as having defrauded the established duties. If that were the case, the measure of yearly fraud would be $4,413, 326, "and the yearly average revenue of the custom-houses, faithfully collected, ought to be 11 ,033,316. I know, from evidence not to be doubted, that in certain custom-houses the proportion given by Dr. Mora was for years the correct onc. the practice being that on the arrival of every cargo, the merchant and the Em ploye together made out a full calculation of the whole duties leviable thereon, the total amount of which was divided into three equal proportions, of which the first the merchant had to pay to the perjured villain and his perjured coadjutors; the second to the plundered State or " Patria", and the third he kept to himself, he being in reality the worst off of the three, in having to run the risk of low markets, bad debts, kc. &.c. before he could realize his share. (To be Continued.) To the Koitoh or The Polynehian: Jr. Editor , Having shown by numer ous quotations, from the most esteemed and approved authors, that children born in a country, no matter who were their parents, owe a native, intrinsic and paramount alle giance, to the nation in which they first draw breath : also, that aliens, who come to live in a country, whether permanently or for a short time, owe submission to the laws, and deference to the rulers of that country ; and that foreigners, who swear allegiance, be come metamorphosed into veritable subjects by the law of nations ; 1 will, next in order, attempt to show from authorities, without circumlocution, and without the least attempt at originality on this every-where admitted doctrine, what allegiance is, which these several classes of people owe. Allegiance is defined to be "the tie or lig amen which binds the subject to the king, in return for that protection which the king af fords the subject. The thing itself, or sub stantial part of it, is founded in reason and the nature of Government, the name and form arc derived to us from our Gothic an cestors." 1, Bile. Com. 366. "The term my country, seems to be very well understood by every body. However, as it is taken in different senses, it may not be unuseful to give it here an exact defini tion. It commonly signifies the state of which one is a member. In a more confined sense, and more agreeably to its etymology, this term signifies the state, or even more partic ularly, the town or place where our parents lived at the moment of our birth. In this sense, it is justly said, that our country can not be changed, and always remains the same to whatever place we remove allerwards. A man ought to preserve gratitude and affec tion, for the place where he received his ed ucation, and of which his parents were mem bers when they gave him life. But as sev eral lawful reasons may oblige him to choose another country, that is to become a mem ber of another society ; so when we speak in general, of the duty to our country, we ought to understand by this term, the state of which a man is an actual member, since it is that to which he owes it entirely, in pref erence to all others." Vatlcl : Law of Na tions, li. 1. Ch. 11, S. 122. The allegiance due from citizens in repub lics, does not differ from that due in Monar chies from subjects. In the United States of America, the doctrine laid down inOthMass. Rep., 454 is, that the state in which the citi zen was born, is for all purposes of allegi ance, to be considered as the lawful succes sor of the king of England, and as entitled to as much allegiance from him, as Great Britain could have claimed, if the revolution had never taken place. In France too, the rule holds as to thoso born in the realm, without regard to extraction! Pothier Traiti du droit de ProprUte, Yo. 94. All these notions of conscientious venera tion, and obligation to tho country, where Providence happens to cast our lot, (which is beyond our control,) have an instinctive implantation, savoring of Divine law, not ea sdy effaced. Their antiquity is also great, and wo find the distinctions of alien and na tive, existing in Egypt and Palestine, ia Greece and Rome, at a very early period. In Egypt, the land of Goshen was assigned to the alien Jacob and his posterity, who were not permitted to reside in the proper dominions of the Pharaohs. In Palestine the captured Caananites were reduced to ser vitude, and made hewers of wood and draw ers of water to the Jewish nation ; and the whole tenor of the sacred page shows this distinction:-"! stranger within thy gae,Stc." Deut. v. 14, Lev. xxv. 45, Isaiah Ivi. 3, kc. "n Greece in the time of Demetrius Phale rius, there were 10,000 strangers in Attica that had nut the rights of Athenian citizens." Mit ford's Hist., 354. "The Romans were noted for their jealousy of the jus civitulis, or rights of a Roman Cit izen. It was at first, limited to the Pomaru of Rome, and was extended gradually to the bounds oLatium." Gibbon's Hist., 268. This distinction, whether the result of fan cy, early intuition, habit, (which is second nature) or Divine impulse, is the same in all men towards the country of their nativity, no matter what may be the form of Government or the name and title of its executive func tionary, whether Emperor, King, President, Duke, Landgrave, Elector, Stadtholder, Doge, Pacha, Grand Signior, or Imaum : Man looks with veneration at that august personage, even though he may be, in fuct, far from immaculate, who impersonates the sovereighty of the nation where he is born, or where he resides ; and, who is placed by his position above the municipal law ac countable only to God and to his peers, the sovereigns of other nations. Hence the Jure Divino doctrine of the common law and hence the doctrine of St Paul, "let every soul be subject unto the higher powers, for there is no power but of God : the potters that be are ordained of God,1' Romans xiii, 1 ; and the whole chapter in extenso. Neither does it matter what is the size or relative strength of the government claiming our allegiance. It is equally due, whether the ruling power be great or small, strong or feeble. " Nations are equal in respect to each other, and entitled to claim equal consideration for their rights, whatever may be their relative dimensions or sti ,-crth, or however greatly, they may differ tn govern ment, religion or manners. This perfect equality and entire independence of all dis tinct states, is a fundamental principle of public law." 1 Kent, 22. Allegiance is founded in reciprocity be tween the government represented by its chief magistrate and the subject. The king or his synonem, is in all countries, the foun tain of honor and of office. He can ap point and remove at pleasure, or in accord ance with legislative provisions; and legisla tive enactments' only become binding (with political exceptions) after his signature has been nflixed to them, so that the means of ob taining protection and security, are in contem plation of law, all derived, directly or indi rectly from this awful supremacy. This is the foundation of allegiance as a reciprocal duty, in which reason and ideality are har moniously blended. But, while the strong est attachments of the human heart cling around the country of its nativity, man is mi gratory, tho world is to be peopled, the hap piness of society requires intercourse and inter-communication, and the internal laws of all nations guarantee to the citizen and sub ject the indefeasible right of locomotion. This will lead me, in the ensuing number, to consider the nature and extent of allen ancc, how far a citizen or subject con throw oft" his allegiance, and whether the na tive country can exercise any authority over its subjects residing permanently abroad. TT LlGAMEN. Honolulu, 15th July, 1844. Puseyism. The newspapers are all scratch ing away at Puaey'wm. VVe believe it is a claw m the Episcopal church caf-cchism that has afforded them such a ca-aloguo of a-mnr-ment. It is obvious to the most jim-.-lanimou3 that if the Bishops do not paws in the course they have begun rr-suing, they will bring upon the church a co-astro-Ihy that will sweep over it like a f-aract. n atehhiver.