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t it r. Pui.v ; i: i a n.
and honorably ; for the history of every use ful life warns him to- shape his course in thai direction. The benefits he acquires in ch & place are not of such a selfish kind, but extend themselves to his home, and those whom it contains. Something of what he hears or reads within such walls can scarce ly fail to lead to larger sympathy with men, and a higher veneration for the great Crea tor of all the wonders of this universe. It is, let me say it once again, on the effect of such institutions as these upon the great so cial system and the peace and happiness of mankind, that I delight to contemplate them. And in my heart 1 am quite certain that long after this institution, and others of the same nature have crumbled into dust, the noble harvest of the seed sown in them will shine out brightly in the wisdom, the mercy, the forbearance, of another race." THE POLYNESIAN. OFFICIAL JOURS AL OF THE ILW'AIIAS GOVERXMEST. HONOLULU, SATURDAY, OCT. 5, 144. Agriculture being the foundation of public wealth, the father of commerce, the source of revenue, and consequently of power, the incentive to industry, and indirectly the promoter of population, is the main reliance therefore of this country for its prospective prosperity. Without it, the body corporate will breathe faintly, circulation be tardy, and the country remain a reproach from Provi dence upon the neglect of man. With it, it can become a smiling garden, a granary of life, and millions of hands hardened by honorable labor, be upraised in thankfulness to the Rcwardcr of toil. It is necessary, however, in order fully to understand the capabilities of the country, to pass in review its staple productions. Among them we find not only all that are common to the tropical zone, but many indigenous to climates far North; so that the vegetable resources of both zones are with us comprised in a circle of a few miles diameter, a natural advantage which may be made of incal culable value. The chief dependence must be placed on the following plants. Sugar cane, coffee, indigo, tobacco, cotton, and cabinet-lumber. All grow in great luxuri ance, without cultivation, and the quantity of land suitable for each is very consider able. Porto Rico, in the West Indies, though not under the most favorable govern ment for the development of domestic indus try, and with a superficies of but two-thirds the extent of these islands, and a climate subject to disastrous hurricanes, produced in 1830 of sugar 46, 441, 92C lbs., molasses 1,507,569 galls., coffee 28,000,000 lbs., and of cured tobacco 34,640 qtls. exports to the value of $1,000,000 while her imports were $3,000,000 and that to a population of but 323,838, of whom upwards of one half were blacks. What was done there can be done here. In 1778, its population was but 70,000. In 1830 its live stock con sisted of 70,130 head of cattle, 52,070 horses, 25,087 swine, &c numbers which with the vast amount of pasturage lands here, wo could easily excel. Cattle and their products, horses, hides, goat-skins, glue, salt, tallow, and provisions, are des tined to be of the principal ingredients of na tional wealth. Among those of secondary value, may be reckoned maize, wheat, potatoes, yams, mustard-seed, cocoa-nut oil, arrow-root, hemp, raw silk, castor oil, ginger, beans, and fruits both pre served and fresh such as oranges, 'lemons, figs, pinc-applcs, grapes, etc. The aggre gate value of them, both for export and homo consumption, can be made very considerable. To these may be added rice, cochineal, cocoa, olives, buckwheat, mangos, pimento, manioc, and other inter-tropical and tempe rate productions, which require but enter prise and skill to be successfully acclimated. The islands of Bourbon and Mauritius, in the Indian ocean, in many respects afford a comparison with ours. In extent they are equal to Maui and Oahu, and probably have an equal if not greater amount of unavailable territory for agriculture, consisting of active volcanic mountains, deep fissures, basaltic colonnades and what graphically railed burnt country a desert of hard black soil. The remainder, like our valleys, is well watered and productive. The population of the two amounts to about 190,000, of which but a few thousand only are whites. Bour bon has not even a secure roadstead, and Mauritius but one harbor, of difficult en trance. Yet they exported in 1831, coffee, sugar, cabinet-woods, tortoise-shell, cloves, &c. to the amount of $1,840,000, and im ported $4,750,000 worth of goods. These statistics arc worthy of attention. The natu ral advantages of those islands will not com pare with these. Their climate is insalubri ous at certain seasons of the year, and they are subject topmost destructive hurricanes and earthquakes. In superficrs they are but one fifth the extent of this group. What then is required to swell the industry of this kingdom to an equal value ? We shall dis cus?, this question in another number. In the meanwhile it is well to note the further resources that can be made productive. They are. the fisheries and minerals. The whale-fishery in particular can be prosecuted from here to a very great advantage over other and more distant ports, and it can be enlarge to an indefinite extent. Of mine rals of any value in commerce the variety is very limited. Salt both natural and arti ficial is abundant, and some sulphur and medicinal salts could be gathered on Ha waii. Quarries ol compact limestone, a beautiful material for building, occur in several places, while the reefs afford an inexhaustible supply of a cheaper variety. Per-oxyd of Iron is abundant, coloring the soil to a very great extent. We have received a letter, (the 2d on the subject,) from a Maryland farmer of capital, in regard to emigrating to these islands. He is engaged in the flour and lum ber business at home, and having read of the wheat-lands of Maui, supposes a good business might be done here, by establishing in some suitable location, a flour-rnill to op erate either by water or steam power, and to put the wheat-lands all under cultivation. Could such an enterprise be successfully established, it would add greatly to to the domestic resources of the kingdom, and af ford employment to many laborers. A great object will be attained if these islands be made to supply their own wheat, and sell the surplus to the shipping. We arc not aware of many obstacles to the success of such an enterprise, but having never visited the lands in question, are unable to .speak definitely upon the subject. We take the liberty, therefore, to ask the necessary in formation of our friends in Maui, who have examined the locality. The particulars de sirable to be known are as follows. The ex tent of the hind capable of being cultivated with wheat ? quality of the soil ? of its pro duct ? does it bear more than one crop an nually ? is it easy of cultivation ? is there water-power sufficient for a mill in the vicin ity ? &.c. Any information will be very welcome, and it may lead to the establish ment of a desirable branch of business, which of course interests every one who has a desire for the prosperity of the country. The gentleman is also desirous of procuring a sample of the wheat. comes blustering and fierce and coquettish, as if he had met wherewithal to vex him in his journey ? Now is the time for the sports men ye quails and partridges beware f be quiet ye deer ! and you, ye trouts and pick erel, keep close to your shady haunts ! The wild-fowl fly high, and the upland plover call merrily to their mates, and start if but a shadow is seen. The loon dives at the flash, but the sportsmen return loaded with spoil and buoyant in health. Ah me ! this is the season for home: no perennial green there wearies the eye with sameness, or continuous heat exhausts the body's vigor. Mere, nature begins to grow active, as if to redeem her idled time during summers's par ching heats, and in place of snow we look forward, rejoicing, to rains, and the cooler breezes from the north. But where s our sport ? where, indeed ? A few plover fly by and ducks are abundant on Kauai. But where are the red-breasts, the sand pipers, the dough-birds, the grey backs, the curlew, peaps, yellow-legs, snipe, Ah ! where are they ? Not a solitary feather of them ever makes its appearance here. Well do we remember, after a hard day's tramp in the interminable marshes of Cape Cod, amid a labyrinth of dykes, creeks and ditches, and having loaded our bags with spoil, to have seen some of our number, intent on pursuing their fowl game farther, station themselves on the lee side of a huge haystack, and more regardful of the birds than the tide, blaze away until the water had arisen and covered the marsh. When they perceived their situation it was too late to retreat; the creeks in their rear were ten feet deep with water, and it was rising fast. There was but one remedy; they climbed to the summit of the haystack, and for four hours, wet and hungry, contemplated the watery scene, and not without some risk of being carried out to sea by the retiring tide. t The next news from the United States will be of a very interesting character. The annexation of Texas; war with Mexico; the presidential candidates; etc., will then be decided one way or the other. We have also to hear of our Commissioners, and what they have accomplished; the success or fail ure of the Belgian scheme, and last though not least, the welfare of those as dear to us as our heart's pulse. " News from a far country," none can appreciate it better than we, ocean embargoed inhabitants of a diminutive island. The Warren mav be shortly expected from Mazatlan, and will bring us four months later dates. Our bre tlircn at home arc now beginning to feel the approaches of the cold season. Fires and cloaks will soon assume the ascen dancy; nature droops, and vegetation strips herself for the approaching contest. The forests, preparatory to the fall of the leaves, from which is derived the poetical appella tion of " fall," for the season, are flaunting their gay colors in the waning sun-warmth, with all the brilliancy and variableness of the dying dolphin. The retiring sun, as if to make his memory the dearer for his absence, pours a steady and clear light through the shortened days, and the health and spirits grow clastic under the clear, mild but bracing airs of that glorious season, the " Indian summer." Why is it that old Sol lingers, reluctant to leave, mild and coaxing j() his deportment, hut on his return, The quantity of wealth which will be pour ed into the United States the ensuing year, fished from the stormy region of the North West Pacific, will be large. The success of the hardy and adventurous whalers has been truly marvellous, we suspect unprece dented in the annals of their exploits. We hear of one ship in four months on her cruis ing ground, taking 3500 barrels; others nearly or quite as much one that sailed at an expense of $30,000, having in 21 months, $.50,000 of bone, oil, &.c., on board. Near ly all have done well; the exceptions appear to he very few, and those mainly among the sperm hunters. Our ports arc rapidly filling up with these successful hips. Wc bid them welcome, and wish them all full fares and prosperous voyages to their mother-land. Fire. On Sunday morning, 29th ult., at at 1 o'clock, a fire broke out in the prem ises belonging to the heirs of Joseph Bedford, ami before it could be arrested, destroyed eight straw houses. The fire originated in the well-house, and there is every reason to suppose that it was the work of an incendi ary. The two fires of late, happening at such short intervals, suggest the necessity of the organization of a fire department, or else we may have a conflagration which will fctop only at the water's edge. cents; 3 copies for 37 J cents; 4 copies for Annt' ft rnnies for ftl. Ilia BaiTANicic Majxstt's Coimclatc, ) . Honolulu, September 25th, 1844. ) Sir, 1 have the honor to bring to your notice, for the information of merchants tra ding on the coast of Peru, that the Repre sentatives of foreign nations, residing in Li ma, have mutually agreed to relieve the com merce of neutrals from the restrictions im posed by the different parties contending for the supreme command in that republic. I enclose copies of the two protocols that were agreed to on the 20th and 27th of June last, which I received this day from HerBri tanic Majesty's Charge d 'Affairs at Lima. I have the honor to be, Sir, your ob't servant, 110BKRT C. WYLL1E. Pro-Consul. CI. P. Judd, Esquire, It. II. M. Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs tyc, fc. PROTOCOL of a conference held at Lima the 20th June, 1844, at the Legation of New Granada. THE UNDERSIGNED, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister plenipo tentiary of Jie Granada, Charge d' Affaires of the United States, Charge d' Affaires of II. M. the King of the French, Charge d' Affaire of II. M. the Emperor of Brazil, Charge d' Affaires of II. M. the King of Belgium, Charge d' Affaires of Iler Britannic Majesty, Assembled in conference to take into consid eration the actual state of things in Peru, and to establish for themselves a rule of con duct to be observed in the interests of their nations, have unanimously agreed, 1. That in consequence of the political transformation that took place at Lima on the 17th of the present month, the country is at present agitated by various parties. 2. That, if faithful to the general princi- fles of neutrality and non-intervention, the Mplomatic Corps ought to recognize each of the de facto governments established in the country, it ought also to protest against all infractions of common right, the Law of nations and treaties. 3. That strangers having come to Peru upon the faith of law or of treaties that guar antied to them their property and liberty, in their persons as well as in their commerce and their industry, they have a right io expect that engagements so sacred will not be violated. 4. That by the multiplicity of govern ments de facto, devoid of the moral strength and material necessary to prevent vexations and disorders, Peru finds itself plunged into a state of political anarchy which no longer admits of the acknowledgement of the com plete exercise of sovereignty in any of the parties. For these reasons they declare; That the Peruvian nation shall be solidly responsible for damages or injuries, past or future, that the subjects or citizens of the countries they represent have experienced, or may experience; and that in consequence they will recover by themselves, or by other agents of their respective nations, near all or one of the parties: that they will repudiate all blockades, decreed or established bv I these parties, until the state of things shall nave ueen regulated; reserving solely to belligerents the right to prevent commerce in arms and munitions of war. That the subjects or citizens of their re spective nations that voluntarily take part in the civil dissensions of Peru, shall be more than ever disapproved, and abandoned to the consequences of their acts. Done in sextuple: Lima, 20th June, 1844. (Signed,) T. C. de MOSQUERA, T. PICKETT " A. Le MOQ.UE. M ANOEL OERQUIRA LIMA, II. BOSCH SPENCER, W. PITT ADAMS. ICpPncc Reduced. Hereafter the Poly nesian will be sold at the following rates: Single ropics, 2f, cents; 2 copies for 20 it PROTOCOL of a conference held at Lima the 27th June, 1844, at the Legation of New Granada. THE UNDERSIGNED, Envoy Extraordinary, and Minister pleni potentiary of .Yew Granada, M,r waive oj ine united States, Charge d' Affaires of II. M. the King of e trench, s, yiaree a Affaires of li. Jl. the Emperor of Braztl, . , r Charg6 d Affaires of Jf. M. the King of Belpum, 94 Chargi d Affaires of Her Britannic Majesty, . Assembled in conference, to enquire wheth er thpy ought to allow or not the embargoes th