Newspaper Page Text
jesses a taste for reading, can find entertain
ment at home, without being tempted to re
pair to the public-house for that pnrpose.
His mind can find employment when his
body is at rest. There is in. the mind of such
a man an intellectual spring, urging him to
the pursuit of mental good; and if the minds
of his family are also a little cultivated, con-
Tersation becomes the more interesting, and
the sphere of domestic enjoyment enlarged.
The calm satisfaction which books affords
puts him into a disposition to relish more ex
quisitely the tranquil delight of conjugal and
parental affectiion; and as he will be more
respectable in the eyes of his family than he
who can teach them nothing, he will be natu
rally induced to cultivate whatever may pre
serve, and to shun whatever would impair
The Danish Victost. The attack on Fred
erickstadt has resulted in a defeat of the assail
ants, as severe as it was unexected, ami as de
cisive as it was deserved. After six days'
cannonade of an old Dutch-built open town, the
only defences of which are earth-works and tem
porary block-house?!, raised within the last six
weeks, without regular ramparts or scrap?, and
tlefended by artillery weak in calibre and defici
ent in number, the German general of the Ger--man
adventurers who are fighting under the
"Schleswig colors hazarded an assault. The
garrison, he knew, was fur from numerous, and
overworked by having to aid in putting out the
numerous fire caused by Ins reckless bombard
tnenl of a Schleswig city; mid he calculated, j
therefore, on a wesk defence, if not a readv sur
The worthy Dana who commanded in Fred
rickstadt was ton wary for the German adven
turer who besieged him. In concert with his
superior officer, who, with ample forces.Iay near
nt batld to rescue him and his gallant men at the
last moment, he led on his opponent to his own
eure defeat. Gradually the fire from his batter
ies had slackened, and useless and indefensible
outworks lieen surrendered to the eager foe.
Everything seemed to prove that the Dane,
brave as he was, was beaten to a standstill, and
only required a good excuse for an honorable
Only too willing to bo deceived, the foe took
courage, and believed in his own success. At
sunset, on the 4th, nearly 9,000 men stood in
three columns ready for I he assault. Venting its
agerness in national song, the first column
passed below the Eider Dyke, and, debouching
suddenly on the town, pressed on, ns ihey
, thought victoriously, to the centre of the market
place. In a moment, from front and both flanks,
a'deadly fire of musketry, aided by every missile
that necessity could provide, poureil in on its
serried ranks. The bravest whs as little worth
in the strugsle as the coward, ami the strong nam
tell as unavenged as the weakest.
More than thirteen bundled fighting men had
been trapped mto a cul de sac; ami, when ihe
retreat at last sounded, little more than ni.ie
hundred of them escaped, almost without an of
ficer to lead them.
Equally unsuccessful were the other columns
as they inarched along the high road, and the
dykes by the side of the Treene. For a time,
every earth-mound appeared deserted, ami the
place open to their gallant advance. No sooner
however, were they within short range than men
seemed to spring out of the very earth, and a
sharp biting fire swept away the faces of the ad
vancing columns. Lead by German officers, lo
whom the localities were little known, they had
been brouaht in front of the strength of the po
sition. When it was too late, they found that
the earth-banks had received their heavy cannon-balls
without injury, and that the cruet bom
bardment by shot and shell had done more harm
to the Schleswig inhabitants, for whom they pre
tended to be fighting, than to the Danish garri
son, their reputed enemies.
To the insurmountable difficulties thus offered
by the strength ami the bravery nf the Danes,
accident added new calamities. The explosion
of a powder-waggon precipitated the retreat of
toe seconJ column, wnnsi me preamng oi a
pontoon bridge at once broke in twain the third
battalion in its attempt on another blockhouse.
And what are the results of this unjustifiable re
sort to the last extremity of war? The destruc
tion of half the city, the death of hundreds of
brave men.'lhe retreat or the assailants Irom ev
erv vantage ground they had previously gained,
the advance of the Danes, and the retirement of
the insurgents to the same positions from which,
a few days since, the one advan?ed, and the
other fell back.
To justify a bombardment it must not only be
the last resource, the last means of obtaining the
end, but the success of the enterprise must be as
nearly certain as any act of war can be, and in
the case of a friendly town, as this was, the
power ot recompensing the citizens for their
losses should bo within the bounds of certainty.
When it is borne in mind that no one of these
three reasons were on the side of the assailants,
and when it is remembered that, during our
seven years' campaign in the Peninsula not a
shell was fired into a beseiged town save by ac
cident, but the firing confined to the trenches and
the batteries, can we rate too heavily the respon
sibility that attaches to the commander who or
dered the deed, and to the Great Powers of Eu
rope that sit by whilst such acts are being perpe
trated Britannia Oct. IS.
Notice to Marikeks. The following is the
position of Clippenton's Rock, in the JWth Pa
cific Ocean, the position of which is marked
' doubtful on Norie's chart: "Sunday, June9tb,
1850. Sea -Account. At 5 SO, A. M., discovered
a rock, bearinz WNW, five or six miles distant,
sixty or seventy feet above the surface. Its ap
pearance was that ot a ship umler tioutiie reels,
with bead to the south. There is a reef off the
north end, extending a quarter of a mile, and
another on the south end, half that extent. They
must be near the surface, as- the sea was very
smooth, and the breakers couM be seen very
distinctly from the chip's main-top. At noon our
lat. 10 06 N, ami bn. 103 52 W, at which time
the island lore NNW, by compass, seen from
the ship's wizen-top, 15 miles distant. Varia
tion nf compass about half a point, which makes
the latitude of the rock-10 20 N, and Ion.
103 56 W. . .
As this rock is liable to he fallen in with by
vessels from California, Peru, or Chili, the wri
ter submits his information for the benefit of
navigators who may le Imiind to California.
Boston, Oct. 21, 1850. Mate of ship Harris.
Loss or the British barce Merset, Thw
vessel, In-longing to this port, commanded by
Captain Cubbins, and hound for the Sandwich
Island, was discovered by the pilot-boat Rialto,
on Monday morning, ashore just outside the
North Head, with nothing but her lower masts
standing, and the sea making a complete breach
over her. It sircars the proceeded to st-a. on
Sunday afternoon, without a pilot, and after be
ing out Btvout two noiirs, reiurncii m conr
" quence of the heavy south-east gale, and anchor
ed close under the head. During the night she
dragged from her anchor, and was driven high
upon the beach, where she now lies, a total
wreck. No lives, we are happy to say, were
lost. Alt. Cal.
Near the pulpit of Dunstable churcQhere is
a monument to the memory of a matron who
bore nineteen children at five births, thrice three
and twice five.
Propeller Constitution. The steam pro
peller Constitution from New York had arrived
at Valparaiso, ami would leave that place for this
Fort via Panama, on the first November. -San
'raneiseo Herald. ' ,
Jenny Li ud's voice, it is aid. not only ranges
to D, iii alto, but also very frequently to X,T,C.
HONOLULU, JANUARY 11, 1851.
Election roa Members or Parliament.
Much spirit was manifested at this first election
by ballot, on Mondny last, and in Honolulu it
went off with a degree of bustle and excitement,
worthy the oc ision, and fully equal to that ex
hi hi ted in older countries.
The successful candidates in this district,
were, T. C. B. Rooke ami G. M. Robertson,
both elected by handsome majorities over the
native candidates. About 2,000 votes were poll
ed, of which but 30 or 40 were by foreign voter.
For the district of Kolaupoko, Dr. Rooke has
been elected; Kaulahau for Ewa and Waianae;
C. G. Hopkins from Koolauloa, and
from Waialua. .
A. W. Parsons is elected from Labaina,
When the returns are all received, we shall
publish a table of the entire votes.
CX3 Via New York, we have European dates
to the 12th of October, from Liverpool, and to
Nth from London. We have Paris papers to
Jct. 25th, by the same mail. A gale of unusual
severity was experienced on the 5th of October,
on the English coast, by which a large number
of vessels, and many lives were lost.
The news is not of an important character,but
we make sucti extracts as win ie interesting,
which will be found in another column. The
mail was brought by the Asia, which made the
passage in 10 days, 22 hours, and thirty minutes
a fine run for the season of the year.
Distinguished Arrivals sikce our last.
Frederick 11. W. G. Calthorpe, Esq., nephew
of Lord Calthorpe and grandson of His Grace
the late Duke of Beaufort.
The Honorable Henry John Coke, brother of
the Earl of Leicester.
The Rev. Mr. Brencbley, all from England,
via. New York, the Rocky Mountains and Co,
Anthony Ten Eyke, Eq., formerly the Com
missioner of the United States, for this Kingdom,
G7 Captain Collinson, in II. B. M. S. Enter
prize, arrived at Hanalei, Kauai, from the Polar
regions, on the 10th of Deccnilier, and having re
freshed there, was, on the 29ih only waiting a
fair wind to proceed to Hong Kong, whence he
will return to the Arctic Seas, in April. H. B.
M. S. Investigator remained blocked up in the
ice. No tidings have been heard of Sir John
Franklin, that could be relied upon.
Stalls in the New Mareet. The stalls
were disposed of at auction, by A. B. Howe &.
Co., on Monday last, and ranged, for the men'
stalls from $7 to $17 per month. The vegetable
stands ranged from S4 to $11 per month, which
will ycild a fair interest to the government
upon the investment.
Considerable opposition has been manifested
against the Market Law recently enacted; prin
cipally in relation" to the clause requiring the
stalls to be rented monthly, instead of by the
year. To those who are permanently engaged
in the business of selling in" the market the year
ly renting of stalls would be a great coonveni
ence, and we think they should have the privi
lege. But there are many who only want stalls
during the shipping seasons, and to these it is a
favor to have the opportuity of renting by the
month. Asa matter of revenue, the difference
would be inconsiderable ; for if during the dull
season some stalls rent low, and others not at all,
on the other hand, during the shipping seasons,
the demand will be greater, and the rate neces
Since writing the above, a few days experi
ence has proved the great inconvenience to which
residents are subjected by the operation of the
new law, and a petition has been circulated and
signed by the most respectable resident of Hon
olulu in regard to it, which we hope will receive
immediate attention. Horses are starving, and
no grass is to be had for love or money.
;q The following is the amount of Oil and
Bone imported into the United States from Jan
uary 1 to October 14th, inclusive.
Sperm, 69,918 bbls. Whale, 195,564. Bone,
2,743,400 lbs. , .
New Bedford Oil Marret. October ISth,
1850. Sperm. The market has been quiet
since our last, and we have no sales to report
Holders are verv firm. In manufactured we no
tice sales of 4300 gallons bleached Winter at 125
cts; 1000 gallons unbleached ditto at 119 Jets,
and 3100 gallons ditto ct 120 cts. per gallon,
Whale is in limited request, but holders con
tinue firm. We have only to report sales id 140
Mils. South Sea at 52 nml 150 bbls. ground tier,
NW coast at 53 cts, cash.
Whalebo.ve. -There is a 'good demand and
full prices are obtained. The sales embrace
parcels of 29,500 lb. N W coast at 351 cts : 5000
lb. ditto at 37 cts; 2000 lb. South Sea at the same
price; and 17,000 lb. Polar at 36 cts. per lb.
tO The ship Genton, of about 1000 tons bur
then, which sailed from Boston on the 24th of
August for this port, has not vet arrived. For
a clipper ship, she is having a long passage.
The bark Julian, and ship Straho, both from
Boston, and having freight for these islands,
were in San Francisco at cur latest advices.
They may be expected here by the 1st of Fehn
ary. The ship Loo Cboo, 650 tons, and bark
Berhing, of 400 tons, full freight for Honolulu,
were to sail from Boston about the first of Nov.,
and may he expected in March. A brig fron
Liverpool is also expected in February, with a
cargo fur this place; and two or three vessels
from Sydney and Valparaiso, despatched hence,
may lie expected to return during the next three
months. All these arrivals, silh the abundant
stock of many good now in the market, wi"
probably depress prices to a low figure. Goods
are still arriving from California and the Colo
HeaIth. We are happy to state that the
Islands continue remarkably healthy, as compar
ed with two or three winters past. The wea
ther is delightful, and is a subject of consider
able eulogy by strangers recently arrived from
various quarters. .
Seeds. We are indebted to the Rev. H.Kin
ney, ofKau, Hawaii, for a quantity of chiri
nioya seeds, which those wanting them can have
by applying at the office of the Polynesian.
THE POLYNESIAN, SATURDAY, JANUARY 11,
Our editorial brother of the Times will
have it that our silence on the subject of pending
negotiations is "an insult to the understanding"
of the public, "and on the good intentions of the
French government, whereof we have a suffici
cieut guarantee in the well-known eminent char
acter, superior attainments and long forbearance
of the gentleman whom it has chosen to repre
sent it here."
With such a guarantee, which we admit to be
a good one, and with the sole knowledge that
France is a mighty nation and this a very sin
and weak kingdom, the public, in our opinion,
may safely wait the result of negotiations which
we understand are in progress. All that we
know of them is, that they are snid to be estab
lished and proceeding, mutually on the highest
principles of honor and confidence known among
Town Cloce. The new clock in the Stone
Church tower, was set running yesterday, and
promises to be a superior time keeper. The fid-
lowing fucts in relation to it, have been handed
us for publication to w hich we are happy to give
place, ami consider the object one worthy of the
''This clock was selected in Boston by Mr.
Boardmm, who deserves much credit for his
gratuitous agency. It has cost him weeks oil
hard labor to get it in operation. It is pro
nounced by Mr. B. and other good judges to be
a first rate time piece nf its kind. Every one
will appreciate its importance in. regulating the
time of our growing city.
The clock with its fixtures has cost alxiut
$1,000, not reckoning any thing for agencies, in
terest of money, &.c. It is not yet paid for. It
is thought that the people of Honolulu, both for
eign and native who enjoy the benefit of the
clock, will cheerfully contribute a small sum
towards defraying the expense."
Cholera. We are glad to perceive, by our
latest San Francisco papers that the cholera had
so far decreased, that the Board of Health had
ceased to make their daily reports. It is estima
ted that about 500 had fallen victims to this dis
ease since its first appearance in that city. A
few rases were still occurring, and it is the opin
ion of a gentleman of intelligence recently arriv
ed here, that it w ill not entirely cease during the
rainy season, but that cases will occur until the
weather becomes settled in the Spring. We see
no reason to doubt the correctness of this opin
ion. Honoi.clc, 8th Jan., 1851.
Mr. Editor Believing that us conductor of
the Polynesian, it is your desire to advocate such
measures as will conduce to the public welfare
ami good feeling in the community, I would ad
dress you, in regard to the regulations of the
New Market House. They are certainly a great
change from the old order, and many think not
for the better; for example, natives are now pro
hibited from currying grass about the town as
formerly. It certainly was a great convenience
for those owning horses, for the natives to do so;
all parties were satisfied, why then change the
custom? The new arrangement will raise the
price of grass-feod for horses, and it was enor
mous before. The new regulations infringe up
on the good old custom of natives carrying alout
vegetables Ste. to thu doors of those who wished
to purchase. This w as certainly i great conve
nience to both the buyer and seller, the native
and foreigner why then aber the practice?
Who will be benefitted? I can think of no par
ty except the Government, but I cannot suppose
the Hawaiian Treasury Board desire to specu
late upon the few vegetables brought to the
Honolulu market. Let me ak, why the mar
ket regulations extend only from the market to
Mr. Judd's stone gate-post, just one mile out of
town, why not go two miles? Now I hope you
will not consider the writer as wishing to do away
with alj regulation upon the subject, far from it.
Let such be made us will benefit both buyer and
seller. Do not check the litile industry that is
springing up among the natives, rather I would
say offer premiums to natives for the best vege
tables. Certainly the Government ought not to
do any thing that will increase the price of living
in Honolulu, but rather diminish it, if possible.
For one, I should be glad to know your senti
ments upon the present Regulations," for you
as well as myself are interested in this matter, I
go for the public good, but the new "Regula
tions," I do not think will be for the public good.
AN OLD FOREIGN RESIDENT.
After a few day's experience of the new Reg
ulations, we are very much of " An old Resi
dent's" way of thinking. We presume the dis
tance of one mile was fixed, without nny refer
ence whatever to Dr. Judd's gate post.
It will be seen by an advertisement in another
column, that a public meeting is called by the
Governor on the 1 7th inst., to take into consul
eration the New Market Regulations, which
shows the readiness of the government to reine
dy evil w hen known to exist. Ed. Pol.
- CO" We hear per the Maria, that the schooner
"Betty Bliss" arrived at Lnhain.t on Monday
last, after a passage of fifteen days from San
Francisco, during which she encountered one of
the severest southerly storms ever known in the
Pacific. She suffered considerable damage to
her sails and spars how much we have not yet
learned. She muy be looked for this morning.
CO A mail will be forwarded per "Duchess
of Clarence," which sail this P. M. for San
Francisco. Closes at S P.M.
Roads.- We invite attention to a communi
cation on this subject in another column. As
the roads are about to be worked, as we learn,
on Uiis island, we sincerely trust the govern
ment will avail itself of competent engineer lo
direct the labor; and to make good and perma
nent roads where they are made at all. Better
make 10 miles of good road, that will last, than
to bestow money and labor upon 100, to be de
stroyed by the first flood that sweeps over them.
. In England there is a great stir in ocean steam
navigation and electric telegraphs.
.The proposed railway to Halifax through
Maine has completely aroused the friend of
Gal way. -The directors of the great southern
and western railroad are about laying a line of
telegraph Itetween GaUay and Dublin. The
government alsoJappers lo be very anxious in
i he matter, and have had surveys of the capabil
ity of Galway all of which , prove most favor
For the Pol) aeaian.
Notice crow Roads. Not many months have
elapsed since we arrived as comparative stran
ger upoa these shores. Free from commercial
engagements and political aspirations, and the
nature of our pursuits strictly scientific, our po
sition is favorable to the examination and dis
cussion of a subject, of which the members of
our profession are the sole arbiters.
It has been observed by the most intelligent
writers, that the best evidence of civilization i
w ell constructed roads. If this were admitted as
the standard criterion, it would be a terribly
severe test to the Hawaiian Islands. '
Be the premises true or lalse, the pages of his
tory afford no example of national greatness, or
commercial prosperity except where the greatest
attention had been given to the roads. To the
Romans they were at once the means of con
quest and civilization; ami it is to the tram-ways
used in transporting co;d from the English mines
that railways owe their origin.- Roads are an
object of luxury to the rich, and necessity to the
husbandman; they serve lo develope the indus
trial resources of nations, and thus give an im
petus to commerce unattainable by other means.
For of what use is it to cultivate the soil if the
product of ihe labor cannot be brought to market.
It is owing to this circumstance, that so much
land lies waste in the vicinity of Honolulu, and
that many articles are imported and sold which
might as well le producetl here.
It is with unfeigned pleasure we have read
from time to time the able and enlightened ad
vocacy of these measures in the editorials of the
Polynesian, and a satisfaction to find such har
mony of sentiment, in conclusion established
upon so widely difierent basis. We fhall there
fore no longer dwell upon the results, but shall
proceed at once to the general principles to be
observed in the construction of roads.
The first thing to be observed is, the selection
of termini. Next the ncTevsity of communica
tion: and that necessity once established, they
should be commenced forthwith. The labors
should be directed by an engineer of the most
enlarged experience and scientific skill, and who
has devoted his life to the acquisition of know
ledge upon that and similar subjects. The first
steps of the engineer should be to make a recon
noisance of the topographic configuration of ihe
country; and from this scrutinizing examination
he deducts the position of hi road.
The projection of the directrix, or nxis of the
road upon a horizontal plane should be a straight
line; and its projection on a vertical plane should
be horizontal. These are the conditions to be
sought for, and though rarely attainable, the sa
gacity of the engineer will be best demonstrated
by his little departure from them. Hence in
many instances a variety of routes present them
selves. Some long and circuitous but nearly
level, other requiring the demolition of hills and
the filling up of valleys. It is apparent that to
decide on the selection nf the best, the length
and destructible character by the agency of floods
on the one hand, and the shortness, coupled with
the excavations embankments and haulage, on
the other, have to be considered, bridges be
ing in general common to both.
Here economy must be studied, no more
should be cut irom the hills than the possible
minimum, making proper allowance for the fill
ing up and subsidence of the embatikment,owing
to its weight, ami the particles entering into
closer arrangement when broken up. Curves
should have their radii as long as possible so as
to avoid abrupt turns. The centre nf the road
should be levelled, as well as a system of co-ordinates
on each side, varying with the nature of
the locality. This is the datum for an exact
calculation of the expense: we ourselves have
seen the cost of routes multiplied an hundred
fold through the absence of know ledge upon this
All roads" not level are inclined, and as their
surfaces have to lie made true they are said to
be graded; this is derived from the word
"gradus" liecnuse it is supposed that in passing
over a number of steps, infinitely small and in
finitely near one should ascend or descend
through a certain height. This height should lie
so regulated as to render the resistance to wag
gnus a minimum. That is to say, a certain
weight passed over a pulley should not only
communicate motion, but should also cause a
waggon to pass through a given space in a given
The bed of a road shoidd be always dry and
never built of large stones except when the
stones are parallelopipids, because the rain in
washing away the loom would destroy it stabil
ity. One of the best rules is that adopted in
England where the stones are inspected and
certified to pas through an annus two inches in
diameter. The centres of all roads should le
higher than the edges so as to admit the rain to
flow off, which should be received in cntch-wa-ter-drains.
The spans of the bridges should lie
commensurate to the volume of water discharg
ed, and the springing above the highest fresh
ets, the beads of the arches should have dimin
ished voussons to the keystone, and the battle
ments or parapet walls should have a true face
with the crown of the arch; moreover the heads
of the arches should be parallel to the direction
of the road.
In the course of these remarks it has not been
our intention to criticise any work already in ex
istence, but simply to call the attention of the
authorities to the principles by which they
should be guided. This is the more necessary
; at the present time as the country is nearly de
void of roads. There is at least thirty or thirty-
five miles of road to be constructed from Hono
lulu to Punaluu, as the present is in a very hail
condition. . Abundance of the best material,
small rounded stones is to be found on the sea
shore so that on that score there is no difficulty.
Again a road is badly needed in the direction of
Kuuiki. By the employment of prisoner upon
the road the expense would he very inconsider
able. DILLON &. SUQUET,
For the Polynesian.
. Kaluaaha, Dec. 23d, 1850.
To the Editor or the Polynesias.,
Dear Sir Thinking it . might interest your
readers, particularly those of them who desire to
see progress among the Native Hawaiian, to
know what had been done towards ' instilling
principles of industry among Hawaiian youth. I
take the liberty of placing at your disposal tbo
following report of the Labor School oil Molokai,
for the year 1850.
ft will be well to state first' the plan adopted
on that island. The schools are divided into
male and female departments. The female de
partment meets in the morning for regular school
at half past 8 and continue at their books till half
pastil. At 12 the male department meets for
the same purpose and continue at their studies
till S p. m. During the afternoon the girls un
der lunas chosen by themselves engage in light
suitable work for those who wish to employ
them and at prices agreed upon between the
lunas ami the employer.
This money is kept by said luna till the end of
the quarter and then equally divided among the
mender composing the division.
The males on the contrary begin work at day
light and work till about 11, when the 1st bell
rings for them to prepare for school. This plan
has now been in operation several years, and it
i is thought, with excellent results,
On Molokai are 929 scholars in all, from these.
deduct for Catholic scholars w ho do not general
ly have a working department, 76, leaves th
number 53. These 853 scholars have during
the year 1850, received for their labor the nice
sum in cash of $1,558,564.
- Of thissmn the station school at Katuaaha has
earned $490,25. This is exclusive of sums
earned by the scholars in their own time after 3
The numlier nf scholars at Kaluaahu is 206,
making the average earning of each child in the
school $2,38, but if we take from that number
the 60 or 70 scholars who are too small to work.
we shall find that each working scholar has real
ly earned over $3,25.
The 76 Roman Catholic scholars have only
reported $9,50 as the proceeds of their laliors.
Yours for the Hawaiian Nation,
SAMUEL S. D WIGHT.
For the Polynesian.
Mt Dear Sir: Will you allow me to for
ward you a few items of history pertaining to
Makawao and vicinity, in the shape nf a review
of matters and things among us during the year
which is drawing to a close ? Would all your
friends from Hawaii to Kauai do thus occasion
ally, or statedly, much more would be known of
the islands by your distant readers than can at
present be gleaned through the columns of all
the papers published at the metropolis. I am
sorry to perceive so much backwardness on the
part of gentlemen who have the means of cast
ing light on the state of things in their own vi
cinity. It is a fact, Mr. Editor that I seem to be
nearer New York than either Hilo or Kailua,
on Hawaii nearer Washington city and Cincin
nati than Waimea or VVaioli on Kauai. I hear
much ofteuer from either of those cities than
from these stations on our own islands. This
ought not to be need not be. A single column
relating to the state and progress of things at
each of the stations occupied by "working men"
would, I am persuaded afford gratification to all
your readers, and would lay your distant ones
under special obligations. Fellow laborers will
you not afford us so cheap, and yet valuable a
In regard to our foreign population, I remark
that changes have been striking. This popula
tion has nearly or quite doubled since January
1350. We now numlier -ome 60 planters, farm
ers, ami mechanics, all so busily employed that
it is ibmcuk to obtain a single day's work extra
I mean of n foreign mechanic. You will see
at once that business is going ahead among us.
Our long" quiet is at length disturbed by the pro
tracted sound of the saw and hammer, and sugar
mills, stores, and dwelling houses are going up,
not indeed in city style either in number or ele
gance, but quite as fast as could reasonably le
expected. Some of our plantations have chang
ed owners during theyear,'aml others have been
enlarged and otherwise improved. Five sugar
mills are in successful operation in our immedi
ate vicinity and two other are being erected;
yet all these are not sufficient to manufacture the
cane which needs grinding at once. But for the
fact that our sugar cane does not blossom, there
would Ite great !s to planters. As it is, the
chief inconvenience will be a longer time in wait
ing for their returns than is desirable. There
are some six or seven stores open in our district,
and others about to ie opened, besides native
pedlars, I know not how many, who carry their
good from house to house and pick up, I be
lieve, a good deal of money. You will be like
ly lo infer from these facts that our money is not
likely to be hoarded. Circulation is brisk.
Our foreign population is a temperate one, at
least so far as home consumption is concerned.
We have no rum selling establishment in our
borders, at least I know of none. Nor i Ieer,
so called, a vile compound which is cursing our
neighbors at Lahaina ami Wailuku manufac
tured in our district. I cannot be answerable for
the sobriety of all my neighbors when absent
from home, but so far as I can see and hear,with
us, they are sober and industrious. May we be
rsaved from ihe introduction of ardent spirits,
and the manufacture of beer.
Our neighbors who have children seem desir
ous of having them educated and trained to hab
its of usefulness. A portion of them attend the
worship of God on the Sabbath, and more per
haps would do so were there regular nreachinz
:n i . v. r..;n. .i. .i .i : Vl
health has leen enjnjed by the foreign popula
tion, a single individual having died, and he from
another district. An enterprising, well educated,
and skilful physician has settled among us,
which we regard as a rich blessing.
In regard to the native population to whom I
minister, I remark the closing year has been one
of unprecedented change in some respects. Not
a few of our people have died. Still the state of
things in this respect has not been peculiar. The
decrease of the nation i steady, though gradual.
The change to which I allude among the Hawaii
an of my field has reference to their habits of
industry and enterprise. The continued call for
Hawaiian produce to supply the California
market has waked up the people to a remarkable
degree. I lately visited Kula and found the dis
trict full of people, all busily engaged, and many,
not to say all, in a highly prosperous state.
Kamaole, a . large and fertile land adjoining
Honuaula, Mr. Alexander has lately surveyed
and sold, and most of it to native Hawaiian and
half-castes. Early in the year the products of
Kula were enormously high, hut the speculation
was an unfortunate one to foreigners, ami the
price soon fell. Still my people have found a
readv and profitable market for n .i
raised and they have made money quite 1
. - ...j ....... j , the
come men of considerable enterprise, p. '
mtirv Ifilotv m nil I L.rn thai . k .
. ........, - ...in mere are
carts ami oxen in Ruin, I presume so-
, and more than 100 yoke of oxen,
hor.-es. mules, donkevs. calves, ami ;..t
- ... . ....5,eo
used for carrying potatoes to the sej .'
change thus effected in the amount of
in this district, ami the method of doing ;r -
the discovery of gold at California is vm'"
ing. From the carrying of a few hundrt,)
barrels of potatoes on the shoulders of ntiv?s
the sea, thence by canoe to Lahaina where
were exchanged for a few pieces of cotton
to the carting of thousand of bnrre! i0 tk
at Kalepolepo where the California ver'
at anchor reudy lo receive them, and wlnrer
meet with a ready Kale and command a
price, the distance is very great the hnrie
expected and surprising.
In regard to so re orher things the r:lSn,.
have been considerable during the year,
less favorable ch aracter. Intrur;io:t rommic
cated in native schools, has lieeti less rv,
and thorough than heretofore. Parents l-U
ing to Hamakua have removed le'mpnrarilt
Kula, and have taken their children with th
They have thu been removed from their xch,
and their teachers, and in many cases hare),
what interest they may have had in their stuy
mm mis nas not always ueen tne case. SJ
parents have been awake to the importance
instruction have procured teachers ami wt
their children to schind, the temptation to mX.
money to the contrary notw ithstanding,
. The Sabbath day of mercy to man and ben I
seems to be religiously observed in Kula, luf
the attendance on the means of grnce, exnmpUrj
If the demand for Hawaiian produce hi
continue, it will be necessary to have more tl
one place for public worship on the Sabbath,;
this district. Indeed I have mado arrtingemes
for a monthly series of labors at four places j
Kula, if the Lord permit during the coming reir
and a fifth at Ulupalakua on the plantation
Mr. Torbert who has many people on bis plan
tation, and in bi vicinity who at present art lit
sheep without a shepherd. The lands mak
Ulupalakua are exceedingly rich and valuable
filled with potatoes.
Labor i in great demand through all this re
gion of country, and multitudes are hastenio;
thither from all parts of the islands. Of nects-
ity, this state of things will make it more ar
and more difficult for planter to obtain tunr:
laltor, but I see no help for it but increase o1v
ges, and the best, kindest of treatment. It a'
scarcely be possible that the present high price
of native produce will long continue.
We have remarkably fine weather for labor
Scarcely no rain has fallen since October. Our
lays are warm, but nights clear ami werjm
Sabbath morning 15 inst., I preached at Keoke
in Kula at sun rising when my feet ami burnt
ached from cold, ami my frame shivered roundly
think the thermometer must have been belo
50 3 . - It was one of the stillest of mornings, tint
he air from Haleakala cut like a knife. One
he greatest of trial now experienced in Kuh.L
he scarcity of water. So many cattle are em
ployed in the potatoe business, ami so numernu:
are the strangers now engaged in labor there
that nearly all the water in the vicinity of inhat
itants is gone and unless there shall soon lie a-
pious rains, there will be much suffering
1 have now given you a review of the lalxw
and changes of the year so far as relate
Makawao and vicinity. In one point nf view
may be pronounced encouraging. One canno:
but rejoice in the increase of industry ami enter
prise in a country where all was lately soquiei
so deadly still. In another point of view it ma;
he pronounced doubtful, at least, whether th
more gradual increase of business attended n
smaller gains would not have been better fra!
native and foreisners. On this subject I nn
sav something more if soared. At oresent I no.
not add only that I am truly ihine as ever,
Dec. 1850. J. S. GREEN.
1 r . .
For the Pulynrsian
Mr. Editor. On perusing in your papf
the 4th instant, some valuable inf rinann f
pecting Islands south of the l.ne, . '"iip'tf
Plank, of the bark Maria, of London, rope
from the Sydney Morning Herald, I was i':
impressed with ihe fact that the earh Ei'tH1
navigators made quite as many blunders in"
ing the names of other Islands as of the $a
The follow ing table is lot
Bola Bola, Bora Bora. Opoun, Manua.
Marua. Mopiti. Maouna, Tutuih.
Maouti, Mauki. Oyolava, t'pofa
.Mittiaro, Mitiare. Varao, Vur&u.
Wateeo, Aitu. Tongataboo, Tongs.
Mangra, Managai. Owhyhee, Hawaii.
Orututu, Rorotonga. Mowee, Maui.
Wbytootacke, Aitutaki Woahoo, Oahu.
Ohitrioa, Rurus. A.'ooi, Kauai.
Rimi'cra, R'unetara, Oncehow, Niibiu.
Of course no blame is to be attached to &
old navigators, who wrote the names of l1
discovered or visited by them as correct'
their facilities would admit; but in these la1"
days, after the day-light has been poured
us, we ought to correct such mistakes, '
in the chart as everywhere else, in order
able, by "calling things by their right nafl
to avoid confusion in our accounts of tne
teresting parts of creation. Yours.
New Ahh A?6EMEitT. By reference i"
vertiseinent, it will be seen that the ste j
Carolina, H. S. Whiting, Esq,comnian''J'1
leave for Panama on the 24th instant. 11
been anticipated for a long time backhT '"'j
lie that the large numlier of ocean 'ea,,1'r,jeif
on the Pnnama route would be so l'"''1" &
transits that a weeklv communication "
New York and San Francisco wouw ""'
llsbed. Many circumstances have train
which have hitherto hiudered the consoni ,
of this desirable em!. We hail the depa"
the Carolina as the first practical mdica"0
a more frequent communication,
& . alt
racinc steamers are concerned, win
fully arranged. It is to be hoped that m
on the Atl.inrir aulA will oe tiirteu s" - . .
- . . . - .... t as I"
der this agreeable arrangement on this s"
ceasful. San Francisco Herald.
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