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THE POLYNESIAN, SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 1, 1851.
I- E .t
HONOLULU, FEBRUARY 1.-185I.
C5 From ibe "In'elligencer," published at
Geclong, South Australia, of the SOth of Octo
ber, just received, we make the following ex
tracts. After giving a geographical sketch of:
the Sandwich Islands, the article say: . ,
'It may be servicable to add nt the outset, that
the Sandwich Inlands form an indepenpeuLnativ
kingdom, whose inhabitant are in ibe enjoy
ment of a civilised form of Government, having
an hereditary king, and a Parliamentconstitut
ed of a House of IVoules, or hereditary chiefs,
find a House of elected representativesin which
foreigners who have taken the oaths of allegi
ance, are eligible to hold a scat. The Cabinet or
Council of Advisers to the king, consists ut pres
ent of English and American gentlemen, by
which class also most of the principal offices
under government are filled. I he independence
- of this native state was solemnly guaranteed, by
the British and French Government, and was
at the same time recognised by that of the United
States, and other of the European and South
American nations, who are represented there,
by their several consuls, as, for instance, the
Hanse town, and Chilian Republic. We Have
been particular in stating this, becatise there is
an impression, both here and in England, that
the sandwich Islands are a species ot British
colony or dependency. Our Foreign Office has
simply a diplomatic agent, with the title, rank,
And powers of Consul-General, but' as a natural
result of the long-standing interest w e have bad
in the group, bis interference, both in the inter
nal and external policy of the kingdom, is all
"The latest number of the Polynesian which
. we have before us, is of date July the 27th, and
. presents in the published draft of " an Act es
tablishing a Penal Code," a gratifying mark of
advancement and improvement. Order and law
according to civilized usages, were adopted by
.-the grandfather of the present king, known in
local history as "Tamehameha the Great," (a
man who, as a semi-savage, in advance of his
times, is worthy to rank with Abed-el Kader,
Runjcet Singh, or Ibrahim Pasha,) about the
time that. the value of these islands became
: known to the British and Russian traders, his
. favorite wife Keopulani, who succeeded him as
. Regent, during the minority of the young king,
who subsequently died with his consort, when
on a visit to England, abolished shortly after
her accession, the idolatrous religion and cruel
a ' customs of her people, and thus opened the road j
to the Missionary influences, which, under the
head and guidance of the celebrated Ellis, were
shortly embodied in the religious, civilising,nnd i
apolitical progress of the country.'
" 1 he coleot In ws which were adThted bv the
nation, as prepared by the American Missiona
aries, were necessarily of the simplest and plain
est texture, suiien only to the capacity, and tak
ing cognizance chiefly of the peculiar failing of
lue people, as engrailed on their natures, by de
basing customs. 1 nese began at length to tail
- in their application, as the basis of their actions
was enlarged, by their social arid mercantile ad
vancement, and in many cases,' proved especial
ly troublesome to foreigners.
"... ' -
... "The matter, however, was taken up vicor
ously. by the only independent journal in the
place . indeed, he only other pier of a civil
character, disconnected with the missionary
purposes, known as the Honolulu Times.and the
result of its remonstrances, backed by the
weighty representations of the British Consul
General, resulted in the preparation of a Penal
Code, the draft of which is published "in exten-
so" in the Hoy a I Oazette department of the
Polynesian, the official paper before alluded to,
as originating these remarks. . It will not Ite out
V of place, we think, to record the fact, that dur
ing the period in which the Honolulu 1 lines was
engaged in the important (service of achieving
for foreign commerce and adventurers, whether
aliens or denizen, ihe aid, support and protec
tion of a well digested "lex scripta;" that jour
nal was under the editorial management of a
gentleman, Ion;; connected with the Press of Vic
toria, and to whose information we are indebted
- for the substance of the geographical and histo
rical data, supplied in this article."
Ujhiii the above extract, we have two remarks
to' make; and first, in regard to the .missionary
influence having been "under the head and guid
ance of the celebrated Ellis." This is a mis
take which the slightest reference to a History
of the Islands would have corrected. Our ob
. ject is not to detract from the timely and highly
appreciated co-operation of the worthy Ellis,but
to state a historical fact. The first American
! missionaries arrived on the SOth of March, 1820,
and were permitted by the King and Chiefs to
remain one year, at first, "with the understand
ing that if they proved unworthy, they were to
be sent away." ;
- On the 1 5th of August, 1821, the first Kuilding
erected on the islands for the service of Cbrisli--.
antty, was dedicated at Honolulu. j
s Ort the 7th of January, 182i, the first sheet of
an elementary Spelling Book was struck off by
the Mission Press, at Honolulu.
In April, of the same year, Mr. Ellis, (in com
pany with Messrs. Tyernian and Bennet, a dep
utation from England to visit missionary sta
tions,) arrived at Honolulu, on his way to the
Marquesas Islands. Having a knowledge of the
language of . Tahiti, which so closely resembles
the Hawaiian that he could soon converse readi
ly in it, his presence was most opportunate, and
his services to the mission highly beneficial.
After remaining four months at the Islands, he
returned to Tahiti for his family, and again
reached the islands in the spring of 1823.
After residing eighteen months as a missionary
. among the Hawaiian pet pie. laboring most as
siduously,in conjunction with the American mis
sionaries, he was compelled to retnrn to England
to preserve the life of bis wife; he embarked for
the United States, and ultimately reached Eng
' land, and has never since visited the Pacific.
His first visit to the Sandwich Islands was not
" till after printing had been executed in the Ha
waiian tongue, a building for the services of
Christianity erected, and the American mission
had been two years established.
By a comparison of the above data, it will be
readily perceived ' how far the .introduction of
Christianity, and its attendant civilization was
"under the bead and guidance of the celebrated
Ellis." ".That his energetic labors for the Ha
waiian race were in a high degree beneficial,and
, tended greatly to the advancement of the cause
in its infancy, no missionary of the American
Board, nor that Board itself denies, nor have
ailed to acknowledge. But that he was the
''head" of the mission, or that it was ever tin
ker his guidance," is an ' assumption never
thought of by himself, or by the London Society,
whose missionary he was; nor can it be sustain
ed by the well known histories of the then pass
ing events at the islands. .
By w hom, then, is this assertion made, for the
first time, and after the lajtse of a quarter of a
century? The last paragraph of the extracts'
above declares, that the information is derived
from "a gentleman long connected with the Press
of Victoria," who was editor of the, Honolulu
Times, and through whose influence the Penal
Code was enacted! This is a choice bit of in
formation, ulm-Ii Jarves should not omit when
re-writing hi History of the Sandwich Islands.
It is a rfucorrry, not to be overlooked, when
tracing effects to their- causes; and although it
might never have seen the light, unless trumpet
eJ firth by the modest gen.'leinan himself, it
should still be entitled to all the weight its real
merit demands. And how much is that?.
We find that as early as May, I845,tbe "care
ful revisal of the Laws" is recommended to the
Legislature, in His Majesty Seech, at the
opening of the session; and that by a joint reso
lution of both houses, passed on the 24th of June,
of the same year, ibe Attorney General is "re
quested to draw out for us a digest of the Con
stitution and Laws, and also a project of the or
ganic acts which he recommends,accommodating
them to our condition and circumstances." ;
In conformity with these instructions, the At
torney General proceeded to draw up the sever
al acts, contemplated, a part of which were sub
mitted to, and passed by the Legislature, at its
session during tl at year, and others at the next
meeting of the Legislature in 1846. A civil and
crimiual code stil remained, and the Attorney
General had resigned.
In September, 1847, by another resolution.the
Legislature confided ihe preparation of a civil
and criminal Code to. the Hon. Wm. L. Lee,
and the Penal Code enacted in 1850 was the re
sult of this request. The laborious duties of
President of the Board of Commissioners to quiet
land title having prevented its preparation till
Here we find the whole thing in train, in 1847,
and the necessity calling for "the careful revis
ion of the laws," fully understood by His Majes
ty's government in 1845.
On the 8th of November, 1849, the Honolulu
Times was ushered into existence, Vol. I. No.
1. A little more than two veara after th b',;1.
ature had requested the work to be done, the
vigorous influences commence "?Wch resulted
in the preparation of the Pfenal Code"! ' Some
Tour years after tb parage of the organic acts,
and nin years after the adoption of a written
Constitution and Code of Laws, which had been
published extensively in two languages, the
Honolulu Times commences its laborious task
of preparing His Majesty, the Legislature, and
tho nation for "a well digested Mex-scripla !' "
and modestly claims to have succeeded ! '
We need not comment upon these facts, they
stand out in too bold relief to require it. We
will merely ask the question, if such unblushing
presumption as we have exposed above charac
terizes the Honolulu Times, of hotv much value
is its testimony upon other topics, where men
anJ measures are concerned ?
It has dealt largely in personal vilification and
abuse, and has exerted whatever influence it
may have had, in creating dissention and ill-will
amongst the various classes upon the islands;
thus disorganizing and uprooting the foundations
upon hich alone a prosperous community can
peaceably exist here.' A growing and enterpris
ing population such as this, requires peace and
not agitation or war to secure its best interests.
The pursuits of commerce am! agriculture are.
seriously jeopardised when jenlousy and section
al dissensions are fomented when classes and
creed and parlies are lashed into frenzy by eith
er the demacogue or the press. "Nor. are the
social, educational and religious interests of the
island less injuriously disturbed, when such a
course is pursued, than those of commerce and
With such views, we cannot follow the Times
in it disorganizing course. : We finl it utterly
impossible to adopt its foregone conclusions in
regard to the olitical state and prospects and
wants of the nation. Our opinions are conser
vative; and. the irue interests of the kingdom,
and of its multifarious inhabitants, demand that
such principle be sustained by all who bare in
terests nt stake here; and in maintaining these
principles, we feel confident that we shall have
the support of every well-wisher of His Majes
ty's government, and the Hawaiian race. We
would not retrograde, or remain stationary, ei
ther in legislation or internal improvement, but
endeavor to conform the policy of the country
to the necessities of the natiou and the age. But
in doing this, we would not rush recklessly on,
demolishing all that is good, and substituting in
its room a state of things for which the people
are not prepared, and ivhich they could not com
prehend or appreciate. Thirty years have not
prepared the aborigines of these islands for all
the advances made in older countries.
" thooaftnil jrean crre serve to form tiate,
A ingle hour mm Jay it ia the dual." -
We therefore hope the legislators will proceed
cautiously and wisely in the discharge of their
high and responsible trust, ami not allow, pas
sion or prejudice to usurp the throne of reason.
Their duties will be arduous, and harrasstng.
They will find it much easier to discern defects,
than to remedy them; to enact good laws, than
to properly execute tbetn. We therefore reit
erate the sentiment of ourcotemporary, and say,
"Let every question l thoroughly discussed,
and its true merits or dr merits will not fail to be
developed." Let the policy of tbe government
continue to be founded upon the high maxim of
. . , i -
uwinu BiuriT, oi sincuy observing its treaties
with other powers, and conforming its legisla
tion to the true interests of the kingdom, and we
have no fears that it will not carry with it the
moral sentiment of the world, and be sustained
by the sympathy of 'every honorable and high
minded man.' Herein lies its strength; and by
an unwavering adherence to these principles
alone, can its independence be maintained,' and
the disorganizing schemes of the disaffected b
defeated. " ' - " -
Gale ahd Shipweecx. We were visited
last Saturday and Sunday with another of those
southerly gales to which Honolulu is subjected
during tbe autumn and winter months, and have
to record the loss of another ship upon the reef,
opposite this city. For several days previous to
Saturday, tbe trade wind had ceased, ami after a
few day of calm and light winds.tbe indications
of ibe approaching gale were so certain, that to
lie at anchor outside was considered hazardous,
by the pilots. Three vessel, however, were
still holding on, the ship Nisida Stewart, Capt.
rale, from San Francisco, the bark Cantero,
and the schooner Velasco. Bv noon, on Satur
day, the wind was fresh from the oathward,and
and as the sun went down the gale
increased, raising a heavy sea, and creating con
siderable anxiety for the safety of the vessels
outside. On Sunday morning the ship Nisida
Stewart was discovered strauded, having drag
ged obore about four o'clock in the morning.
She had. her fore-top-sail and jib hoisted, and al
though surrounded by breakers, stood upright,
and did not seem to be moved much by the sea.
The wife of Capt. Fales, and a part ot the crew
left her safely on Sunday morning, while some
of the officers and crew remained on board.
Tbe ship was bilged, and had 6 feet of water in
her hold, but on account of being firmly wedged
upon the reef, she continued to stand upright,
and will not, probably, soon go to pieces. Tbe
ship was ready for sea, hound to . Calcutta, in
ballast, but could not get to sea after the gale
bad fairly set in. She was owned, we Itelieve,
by Barnabas Webb, Esq., of Bangor, Maine,and
was insured. . She will be almost entirely lost.
- On Sunday morning the schooner slipped her
cables, and succeeded in running into the harbor.
Soon after tbe bark slipped, and by a hazardous
but dexterous manoeuvre also came in safely.
As the pilots could not gel off to these vessels,
on account of the high sea running, they were
brought in by their own captains, very much to
their credit. Had they not. come in, it is quite
probable that both would have been lost, as the
wind blew violently all Sunday and Monday,
oeverni consicrs succeeded id runum in on
Saturday, liefore the gale was at iu height. One
or two others were unable to reach port, for
wnose salety some apprehensions were felt, but
we believe they nr all safe.
Having given 'the facts, as we understand
them, in relation to the wreck of the Nesida
Stewart, we deem it just to state, that she is only
one of several vessel that have been stranded
under similar circumstance, and that in our
opinion, und in that of the pilots of the port,
they nil might have been saved, had not their
officers been over solicitous to get to sea, or save
the expense of harbor ilues.
These frequent wrecks upon our coast will
injure the islands abroad in reputation, as a safe
resort for ship, unless the facts are as widely
published as the disasters. All the 'southern
gales, which alone are dangerous to vessels in
the outer anchorage, are preceded with sure in
dications of their approach; and when those in
dications are manifest, prudence demands an
immediate removal of all vessels at anchor out
side the reef, either to sea, or into our. land
locked, snug harbor. Either alternative can
usually, if not always, be resorted to, without
any harzard. These facts we think it just to
make known, for the future guidance of ll ves
sels lying outside.
Though we are unable to give names, we are
happy to announce, that several of the captains
of American vessels lying in the harbor, imme
diately upon the discovery of tbe wreck of the
Nesida Stewart on the reef, proceeded with vol
unteer crews to afford her assistance; and that
although the boat of Capt. Devens. of the. Gen-
too, was capsized when alongside, no lives were
lost. Such daring efforts to aid a ship-wrecked
vessels, are worthy of special commendation.
We also understand that, boats from the
French corvette Serieuse, lying in port, render
ed essential aid to the Cantero, after she finally
made the harbor.
bom New Zealand. By the arrival of the
Deborah we have received th New-Zeahndcr
to the 12th Octolicr. From the paper of the 9ih,
we learn of the loss of ihe brig "Lady Howdii,"
of London?, and tbe brig "r auny," of Auckland,
on different islands of the Feejee group. Th
following is an extract from a letter of John B.
Williams, American Consul, on the subject.dat
ed "Vewa, Fcejee I.-lands, Sept. 3, 1850."
On the 21st of May last, the brig "Lady
Howden," of Loudon from California in ballast,
bound to Sydney, was cast ashore at Onea,one
of the windward Island of I hi group, and the
master informed me that an indiscriminate plun
der ensued by a body of natives, as he stalednot
heathen.' . And on the 7th of July last, the brig
'Fanny,' of and for Auckland, from the Sand
wich Islands, was wrecked at Fortuna, a reef
about 45 miles distant from Soinosomn, one of
the Feejee Islands. The ship's company were
compelled to remain in their Itoat for. twelve
lays for fear of Iteing murdered fortunately the
cutter 'Sylph' rescued them from the jaw of
death; the natives having recently informed me
that on the night of the day they were discover
ed by the cutter, they were to bave lieen killed
and cooked. I regret to say that seamen do not
experience that protection they so justly deserve.
Doubtless many vessels have shared the same
fate, wholly pillaged, and nil hand massacred,
leaving not one individual to tell the tale."
The following is an extract from the log-book
of Capt. Twohey; of the Funny, and contains
valuable testimony in favor of missionary influ
ence in a commercial point of view.
"July II. The we jt her still unsettled; the
brig breaking up, and settling down on the star
board side. At noon Ihe boat were ready, but
tbe breakers were too high and the weather too
i : - . i . i . ..
looisiernu io venture io noisi mem out; and me
long boat being very shickery, I made up my
mind to venture throush the Feejee Group, and
get to Vewa to the Wesleyan Mission Station
with the exitectalion of meeting with the 'John
Wesley, or some other vessel. Vewa is altout
180 miles from the wreck." - : :
Cast ashore upon a small uninhabited island,
where not even fresh water could be procured,
the only poioiof safety to which they could look
was a Wesleyan Mission Station, where the in
fluence of Christianity had tempered the savage,
and formed a safe retreat for the ship-wrecked
mariner; and to gain which, they; were obliged
to run the gauntlet of the cannibal islands, not
yet bkssed with those influences, where they
were on the very point of falling victims to a
fate, which humanity shudders to. contemplate.
Their leaky boats.and the exhaustion of the men
made it necessary for them to land and they did
so, as it afterwards apeared, among the most
notorious cannibals of the group. A few hours
would bave sealed their fate, when providential
ly the cutter Sylph, in the employ of Mr. Wil
liams, hove in sight and tbey were rescued. No
lives were lost, and tbe captain and crew,among
whom were four natives of these islands, reach
ed Auckland in October.
ITFive vessels arrived at San Francisco from
the island on the 2d of January, viz: tbe bark
Russell, brigs Suan Abigail, Wilhelmiua and
Juno, and the schooner Albert R. Harris, taking
in 4,541 bbl. Irish potates, 145 of sweet, and 40
bbls. of onions. As sweet potatoes were repre
sented "dull,"" an 1 no price quoted, and Irish at
from 3 to 10 cts.', it is to be feared , that losses
will result from the sale of those eargoes. v
- ICF Tbe following is a list of passages from
San Francisco to Cbiua, as reported in the Hong
Kong Gazette ot the 9th of November.
Ham. brig Johannes Christoph, 60 days.
"Am. ship Natches, " 44
" bark Nautdas, . 75
" ship Sea, - 51
. " bark Sea Breeze, , 63
" ship Sea Witch, 46
Sweedisb bark Bems, -57
Am. ship Susan G. Owen, -." 53
'Br. bark Swallow, 62
'Am. ship T. W. Sears, 52
" 6hip-Wisconsin, ' 61
Br. bark Whitby, - 95 "
The Natches made the shortest passage by two
days, of any in thi list, and is .one day less than
the passage made by the Am. brig Eagle, from
Hong Kong to California last year.
These touched at the Sajidwicb Islands.
Brass Bawd. Our neighlwr of the Times
seems to possess a peculiar penchant for blow
ing his own trumpet. The necessity doubtless
exists in tbe stupidity of the community in not
perceiving hi merits without being reminded of
them. At one moment he illuminates his whilom
neighbors n th. colonies with his valiant ex
ploits in preparing the government and natives
for the enactment of "written law,'.' ten years
after that law was written, and at another,
modestly reminds his reader that be has receiv
ed a "classic education!" ' This blowing of
trumpet may suit some tastes, but an old classic
we wot of, says, "Let another praise thee, and
not thine own lips."
. Sugar Cawe. We have received a specimen
of cane, from Mr. Spencer's plantation on Maui,
through the politeues of R. W. Wood, Esq.,of
this city, meaiuringnitift feet in length, and hav
ing 41 distinct joint. Thi shows the adanta-
tioif)f our soil and climate to the cultivation of
cane, and we are happy to know that a greatly
increased activity is being manifested in this all
important and, a we trust, profitable branch of
agriculture on the different island.
Earthcaxes. From the Alt California we
learn that the city of Conception, in Chile has
been totally destroyed by an earthquake. In
1835 it suffered severely, and has been frequent
ly visited since with severe shocks, and now is
said to have been entirely destroyed.
By letters from Hawaii, received a"few days
since, we learn that that island has recently ex
perienced a shock of unusual severity. No par
ticulars have yet lieeu received; nor have we
learned the extent of damage done.
The .'gale at Lahaina. We learn by ad
vices from Lahaina that all the vessel in that
port were obliged to put to sea. About fifteen
were at anchor. Several bad not been heard
from at the last advices.
We regret to hear tbe loss on Sunday last of
the Haw. sch. Starling, w bile loading at Kalepo
lepo Bay, East Maui. She had on board about
400 bbls. potatoes which with the vessel are a
total loss. ' .
National Diking Saloos. Tbe completion
of this establishment ha enabled the proprietor
to supply a long felt necessity in the city of
Honolulu. Residents, and strangers visiting the
island-', can find, at the above establishment, a
first-rate table, with all the appliances to renew
the inner man; and lodging to a limited extent
for those who desire roo ns. No expense has
bten spared by Mr. Booth, in the erection of the
edifice, nor will any effort 'on the part of Mr.
r landreau be wanting to give satisfaction to his
Athekecm. A lecture will be delivered on
Ihursday evening next, at half-past seven
o'clock, at the Chapel, by Mr. Sawkiu. Subject
The F ine Arts. ""The members of the Athe
neum and the public generally, are invited to at
tO-Du ring the month of December there was
hipped from San Francisco, bullion to the
amount of $2,-225,000; and from Nov. 12, 1849,
to Dec. SO, 1850, $29,691,035. This is the Cus
tom House report, and does not embrace a large
amount taken away by passengers.
JO" Gregory, & Co. ' Express will please ae
ceptour thank for New York papers of Nov.
11th, being the latest dates received at the is
lands. These, in the absence of our own files,
are very acceptable. '
IO"Those in want of good stationery will find
at the store of Hackfeld St Co. the bnt assort
ments ever imported here. S?c advertisement.
lr3The communication of "A Ship Master,"
crowded out for want of space, will be inserted
:ii our next. '
Importakt to Shif Owners. The law to
provide lor the conveyances of vessels and for
other' purMse, u hich was approved by the
rresHient July 29ih, 185", eoes mtoefiect to-day
uv mi acr,"iio inn oi sale, morteae, nvpotne-
cation or conveyance of any vessel or part of 'ny
vessel of the Unitl States, shall be valid against
any person other ihnn the grantor or mnrtifasor,
hi heir and devisees, nod person havins actu
al notice thereof, utiles such bill of sale, mort
gage, hypothecation, or conveyance, Iw recorded
in the office of the Collector of Custom where
such vessel i registered or enrolled." Boston
Atlas. Oct. 2d.
The Caledonia nnd Hibernia, formerly be
longing to ibe Cunard Company, are Io he im
mediately placed upon the route between Cadiz
ami Havana. The Cambria will also be placed
upon that route ns soon a circumstances will
admit of her being detached from the Royal
. A letter from Odessa, in the German National
Gazette, states that the presumptive heir of the
crown of Russia has gone to Tiflis, to preside
at ihe Council which is to deliberate ou tbe af
fairs of Circassia.
The City of Glasgow steamer has been
hpughl by the Liverpool and Philadelphia line,
and with another,' the city of Philadelphia, will
form tbe nucleus of that enterprise.
" Swear wot at all." Deceive not. Pro
fanity and falsehood are marks of low breeding.
Show us the man who command the best re
spect an natb never tremlde on his tongue a
falsehood is never hreatbed from his lips. ;
Fell oct. The Rochester Democrat says
that there has been a serious mutiny among the
" knocking girls," and that matters are uearly
ripe for a full disclosure of tbe great secret. I
ft i stated that the Cunard new line of screw
steamers will run between Glasgow and New
York..- - ' . . - !
For (he Polfaeaian. --...-
Mr. Editor: I once had thi honor of ad
dressing your readers upon the very important
subject of public rotuh; and now I desire to give
expression of my feeling of satisf ction.at seeing
yourself, and others, who show themselves no
tyros, in tbe use of the people's pen, endeavor
ing to inculcate upon the public mind, ideas so
well calculated to give dignity to national char
acter. I think it beyond dispute, that the more
extended tbe system of public highways L, the
more extended will be Ihe means of public pros
perity. , . i
And, in my view, it is no less true, that the
our means of inland transportation, the better, f
I am confident that any suitable measures, taken'
to such nn n.l .-. .1,1 .1
. . " ? prompt sympa-
ny and support of every dweller upon these
uu una spem hut portion 01 nis me in
!-... .1 . - .1
.u,r,e, wnere me an vantages of good roads
nreenjoyeu. it is narUly to be expected that the
nntivM inhnl.It.m. .:il 1 -l.l -.1.
J w,"c "uo" as ouiers,'
to appreciate all ihe blessings and benefits, at-j
i ' i. B extensive
. ..co ..u easj communication witn,
all portions of their country, but I think, with
proper zeal, they can be brought to see a vast
fc......r.. ... ue.g.o.e wen iney nave an ar-
..... . P-.u.r ...r ...arc, .o reacn u wunour
u. Cr.Cr...s w.m .neir neignoors: ;
. w " "c"" iht i"e country i
last filling up with o,eof the most enterprising
miv wrini nutitm, imi wb ilrlT ri aMur
ed that these men will, before many sun
over our hearts, manifest their decided disappro
bation of ihe present system of indiscriminate
passing to and fro, without regard' to ioundarv
lines. ... ' .. , -
But thi inconvenience must be submitted lo
until there are a sunVifiit number of road laid
ojt, to answer the demand of mo increasing and
thriving population. - Tho inhabitant generally
feel 1 heir need, and 1 doubt not, would he ready
to lend a helping hand in the matter, if om
l.u.i;... -.i i . mi " I
....... .v. 1CK11U11..1UIC in!un niiuiu riNiiiiirin e
1 1 ' , , .
I hi lirsrf ferif faoil iflVM ilirrtiAii t. Ihair fT. i
79 - 9
in tVfrv iimlprt.-tkinrr nn Kiwa itnl.fi such 1
person i required to take the lead, in order lo
secure united action; of course it 'matters not
how popular he i, the more so the lietter. .
FVonomy of labor is more especially requisite
in the improvement and construction of roads.
than in any other public enterprise.' Hence, I
am highly pleased with ibe remark contained in
ihe "Notice upon roads," over tbe signature ofj
Messrs. "Dillon Suquet, Civil Engineers" of
Here, without intending to be too critical, I
musi remarx mat mere are at this tlay many in
dication of advanced and advancing "civiliza
tion," and doubtless "well constructed roads"
are one of the best; but neither you nor your
readers wjll believe them the best, in an unlimit
ed sense, or in a degree paramount to every
other. And this statement is susceptible of proof.
It will not do to apply the' same rule to every
people and every state of society. Roads in tbe
time of the Roman Empire in all probability in
dicated a great degree of civilization; but then
when her roads bad reached their highest degree!
of improvement, the Roman people bad been
many centuries in the school of civil discipline.
To bring out this idea more prominently, sup
pose Kanieha.-neha I., who had sufficient power
and influence oer his people, had employed
suitable and intelligent engineer, nnd bad put
his people under their direction; and as a result
the whnlejof these islands had been surrounded
and intersected with good carriage-roads in every
desirable place, would iheir. roads then con
structed, under such auspices, have indicated the
greatest advancement of civilization? . Certainly
not. Tbe necessity of having roads, has never
been so apparent at these islands, as at present.
Neither were the roads of the Romans indica
tive of the same degree of intelligence and civi
lization as good roads would now indicate in
either England or the United Stetes.
Before closing this communication, I must
speak of one other feature of thi interesting sub
ject. L.very person nas douMless detected in
himself and others a disposition, to have any
public improvement immediately effected, so far
as he is directly lenefitted by it, and then to lose
hi interest in a further improvement. That is
to say, I, who live in one of the principal towns
of lb Kingdom, am in danger of resting satisfied
when I meet with no obstructions to attending to
my daily business. It is against this insidious
influence, I would guard the public mind in ref
erence to the extension and reconstruction of our
public roads. . ; .
I will here repeat one of my earliest remark,
namely That there should le as many roads a
the present, increasing, and future inhabitant of
these fair island may need. , It is now in the
power oi the Government, to cause th number
of road which a future teeming and industrious
population may need, lo lie immediately survey
ed. To do So i a matter of economy and eace;
to h-ive it done, before the public land pas into!
the hand of separate and individual interest.
It i a' matter of economy, because these lands
in thus passing will necessarily be enhanced in
value. It i a matter of peace, because when
the public, with it powerful artn,aiid imperative
demands, comes to call for them, as it certainly
will not many years hence, it will be appealing
directly to the individual selfishness of the occu
pant. Ami unless he can obtain his price for
land thus appropriated, which for like reason
hinted at above, will often be exorbitant, his
feelings will lie embittered, and in consequence
the peace and quietude of the community de
Tbe object of every Government should be to
secure these blessings, and therefore I recom
mend that the roads be surveyed and designated.
When this is done it will facilitate the purchase
of lands, and the settlement of the island. Then
the people will know where to build them, the
present cause of complaint removed, and the
roads be actually built. . .
Hawaiian Islands, ? J. E. W. '
January 1851. 5 . -
C3 The following is an extract of a letter re
cently received from a valued correspondent in
Oregon, and is well worthy of consideration as
the sentiment of one who sernred to himself the
esteem of all with whom he formed an acquaint
ance when here, and who was justly regarded as
possessed cf a discriminating iud.
mind and hi?h and enlrrt '
" I hope within a reasonable nnmh..
to visit yon again, Veo Volente, for I u I""
the more complete consolidation of that
missionary work wbich in its incipience
gress has, in my view, imparted directly or
rectly the chief interest and value to tneJv
amis., I never have written much npo,
Islands to friends, or the public at home ii
because I did not feel able in a few letter.,"111'
anything adquate to the subject, or worthy of a
cause. -I conceive it as impossible to writtt
history, or convey a just impression of tU."
letters, as it would be to give an adequate k
in taoiuii ui mo reui cuarncier, exceilencifi to
facts, of the entire inhabit
States; and he who thinks
ants of any one of,
i that he h-.i i1...
doing the Hawaiian people, or the mission
is-Jor tbe churches, or school, or tbe given, J
residents, or air tun tustice iv !-.
,er, or a series of them, and ihat he is con,J
Must the impression that an impartial oln
I .... . . '
will nave, in my view, greatly mitake. d
wbile there, that ibe cause of -.eat difficult
was that hasty, whofcsile writing about -J
Ldands.a if they were onUr ofnoraore
a traveler's Sketch by the Wy. Andk
8ocb letters are published it home, so,e lmt
griered. - Th-y are too much like table lk
worta repealing or remeinl-erinsr. Youn J
Oregon is, no one coul 1 write ber history
out having lived here, and made it a ear
hw ,nore difficM,t iff n,
lie, to write the history of such a mingled j,
a those Ummi the Inland, or rather to giveatr.
impression nr the native popularion. Wtti
K.nuw ihiiiiuij in i nt language arid see onlj ft,, lo V i-
decorum of the S.tblkkth ctMigrpNlioos, lh4 - qii--riliilil
mIoim ! rivili-r .. it. liu r....ilv :.. .l P
propriety of lrss, the ue of furniture, ilt i i&icrry,
paring mid lakin of meal-; ib new oceupttitas
of ihe itoopU, their arts, their iiusm, their nt
ing, tht'ir writing nnd comjMsiiig, their lgi44
ing, iheir various private enterprise in trailer
r.-".v.i. no.. L.Hf.-uiiic-rs.asinif
i: . i , . .
ligenl and ajmarcmly true worshipper (,f k
irUISt lll'rh larMl ntid liolipvorj i. iha
q 9 " w w is UTJ
viour, all taken in contrast with what we
and know to bave been their pure heat hems,
we who see only these outward signs, cannot 4
ny that there bave been constantly operatin tr
on the native mind, some mighty and trailer
ing agencies, and were all the phenomena a
process of ihe change exhibited, we believe tba
they would be among the mast wonderful deve
opments of tmn, ever made known. Tbe pr
gress of human elevation can hardly be y.
ceived in the course of a whole generation,
slowly does it go on. U bat then must be thju
of such a restoration as a single fourth of ace
tury has produced in the Hawaiian race. Itwe:
easy to write the personal, or family, or sod
history of all the foreign residents upon
Islands, I ut who feel competent to"ak i
what one individual, or one class bave done for
the weal or woe of the Kor native, who bath al
ways involuntarily looked up to the foreigner
come from what land be may, for wisdom am.
Were there a daguerrean, of amornlsort.tr
take the accurate impress of every man's cos-
duct, upon another's heart, and incase it for our
undisturbed study and meditation, then wemish
have some data by which to estimate the mora1
results of given influences, but were all those im
pressions upon the whole Hawaiian heart exhib
ited faithfully, how would the christian and phi)
anthrnpist tremble, lest the effect should bt
wholly disastrous, ami bow would bi past bopa
be more than realized to see tbe seed spring op
and bear good fruit, notwithstanding all the rub
bish of heathenism and the tares of ibe enemy
I can conceive of no other method of writnga
true history of the Hawaiian themselves, but
one similar to that adopted by King Jaine, !'
secure a good translation of the Bible. All the
Bishops, (Missionaries,) must contribute lh
learning and experience to this work. Now
can so fully know ihe workings of the nntirr ge
nius, or native thought, or describe the variout
singes of expansion. None can so well tell f
he blighting effort of evil example and wickd
leaching as tbey. " Tbey only know the miglw
struggle of the native to rise, and the chilling,
discouraging effect Utonlhem of vice ami wrwj
among nominal christians."
Panama Railroad. In relation to this re
ject, the Star say:
1 he railroad betner built and as ir is tlw
confident expectation of ihose who have it nine
aeement, that by the 4th of next July it will I
ready for the transportation of passenger fl
merchandise, from Limon bay on th Atlaniir.
to a point on the Chaxre river, better 11 P;lw
quilla and Gorgon say altoul ten hours' in")
from ihi plac. Soiit two mile of the rwl
already laid with rails, and we see 00 ren-
why the expectation of the engineer honM
If fully rt-ulized. A to the plank road, t h r
project h Iteeii entirely nbandooml, and fhr
w hole energies of the R t'ttroad Company ar
now directed toward ihe early rotu;eriMi of
their more permanent and twelul project. v
learn lhat Iwiweeu S0O ami 400 inert are mow rn
eased on the work, and thai thin it few ilaj
several hundred more laborer will be put mi it.
The distance fr'oi Limon Imj i the point wher
the road w ill strike the Cbagres rirr, i hettte
27 and 50 mile only.
FRA5CE. A EW I5FER1VAL .MaCHIJK. IT
Constitulitinnel says: "A chemist of Loriev't
named Lasrange, has, after fifteen years' rxff
rimeiit. brought to perfection a uew kind of
shell, which, when it strike any object, lairv
with dreadful force, tearing to piece everythinf
near it. Tbe inventor ha just given proof"
the efficiency of this new projectile in preH"M
of Admiral La Sussee, Admiral La Guene.Gm
eral Laplace, and all the Committee for prf iff
cannons ami fire arms. After the- trial one0?
the Committee said to Mr. Lagrange : '
ought to lie inscribed on tbe registers of the
Peace Congress, for, after your invention,
one can ibink of making war." It is said thai
M. Lagrange pledge himself to semi to the bot
tom in a few minutes, a vessel of 120 guns, wi'k
a gun loat ami four pieces of cannon. He is, "
ia alleged, in treaty with the Government forte
An invention has been patented, called i
Autographic Press, by which a letter written
prepared paper can be transferred by hort
process lo a metallic plate, from wbich nj
number of copies may afterwards be taken on
common paper, and by ordinary pressure.
Emile de Girardin ha proposed lhat the'
should be no president of the Republic; and
has since proved to bis own satijfiiction, iat
France neither wants nor wishes a Legi!"1'
Assembly or a Constitution; he announces iMj
he is about to unfold a system ol government
not yet tried, but adapted for any people in iW
1 Bn "
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