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dtL ;2. -v
fibbed weekly at Honolulu, Oahu, Hawaiian Is.
EDWIN O HALL, EDITOR.
One copy per annum, In advance ,
One copy six montbs,in adrance,
Rates of Advertising.
I. . re. f 1 6 lines ) firs t insertion,
f. aare (16 lines) each continuance,
rL, (8 lines or less) first insertion.
ft Mitre (8 lines or less) each continua.,
I3!. . t .l nr one half
.-di, 0UOE5, o
not exceeding one sq.,
'U!,:L;r nt exceedine one col., 60 OO
Yearly advertising limited to the advertiser's
feiS AnSERTi9BifK!fTS.-Twenty five cents per
. c.;n,.rt;nn and six and one fourth cents
fr each subsequent insertion. .
wtoriuc uiin"' i
Keal Estate for Sale,
Bt Peitate Coxtbact ! !
Til P. fnllnwinsr
valuable and extensive prop
cities -trill be sold without reserve, by the
w icr ii i,yc WI1 fenced lands and nremisps
I ljOT I. A" . . . ,T -
L ... - irYin. sdioininar Honolulu, on
uaie j o - -
lich the subscriber now resides and on which are
fected extensive and commoaious aweiungs ana
Ithouses. The well known saiuonty ot tne situa-
I i :.- irnrlmtY tn TTnnnlulu- renrfor tVi pui
a man w j .
Cemiies a most desirable investment. They are
f u : f.a. cmnln hv Roval Patent.
riU 111 TO f" -J !
t.,. f PnntAinin? 36 42-100 acres, situate at
ino Valley, comprising a quantity of Knla and
T.. 3 TnntflininT 8 91-100 acres of Kula land.
irte at Ewa, and called Kaihuokapuaa.
LOT . -VAniauiing o-iww acres, cuiisLsujig ui
no patches and fish ponds, situate at Ewa, and
;own bv the name of Kamipoo.
Lor 5."--Containing 4 3-4 acres Kalo land and
1-4 acres iiula land, bituate at x-wa ana cauea
Lot 6. Containing o so-iuu acres A.aio uuiu, cau-
i riumalu, in the district of Ewa.
Lot 7. Containing 2 33-100 acres of Kalo land
d 9-10 acre Kula land, situate at Hwa ana cauea
jlaulele, Iihue. '
Lot 8. Containing about 1 6 acres at i.wa, cauea
inahu. this lot comprises 2 fish ponds, and a
iiautv of Kula and Kalo land.
Lot 9. Situate at Ewa, called Tarwa, containing
acres Kalo land and 2 fish ponds, measuring
111 AA iirott.
Trt.in s;tiit at Knolan. called MaunawilL con-
Lnin 670 acres of first rate Kula land 200 acres of
fhich is covered with Ki trees.
Tvr 11. Adioininz lot 10, called Kulapuaa, con-
Lining about 190 acres Kula land.
Also, The unexpired lease, js years; oi ioo
Lnd at Waikiki called Kaneloa.
th forefi-oinff Dro per ties will be peremptorily
V9osed oL By order of the Trustees.
For particulars of title &.C., apply to
-r -r 0-1:..:..
J. lOKTtKISEAX, DUUCiVUI.
Honolulu, Oct. 14, 18o2-tf-29
A00PERAGE. J. A. Burdick having taken th
J stand formerly o upied by C. H. Marshall,
t door above B. F. Snow, will continue to carry
i the cooper's business in all its branches at the
ve mentioned place, where be hopes that those
his friends who have hitherto anordea him a iid-
ial patronage will not fail to give him a call.
y.B.l ,500 bbls water casks on nana ana tor sue
h liberal terms. 2-ly
Xjx FITS. A complete assortment of AVha!e-
mens clops, and ontnts, for sale dy
J. C. SPALDING.
Honolulu, Oct. 22. 1852-tf-24
IXE APPLE CHEESE.- Cases of Tine
Apple and hhds. of Goshen Cheese, for sale,
lieap by J. C. SPALDEN ii.
Oct 22, tf-24
I UST RECETED bv the undersigned, a choice
assortment of JEWELUY, &c
tf-23 D. .ridTii4.
IIERRY WINE, GIN, &c 20 cases very
Shtrv "Wine. 30 do Holland Gin, 20
:a Ale, 0 M Manna uigars, ior u j
Oct 22, 1852-tf-24 J. C. SPALDING.
. x r: i. ' r ,
n raRTLS. MPh fi boxes um. rnce l-z id.
1 cS lumn. snneriorhonev due tobacco, 20 boxes
I dwter's 8's superior cavendish tobacco, just re-
ktw per snip uawia, ,
.Not. 6, 1852. A. Jr. '
0TICK Dr. S. Porter Ford would inform his
v. nnMic tint hi onlv orhce is on
r.,v .Tt rtno- below Messrs Coady
iiiniiirtjm 1 1-
I Co, the connection heretofore existing between
Ir. Lathrop and himself having been aissoiveu.
I rarucular attention given 10 uuseca i : -LdEar.
0W LANDING from Ship Charles, and for
I ale hrASTT.E fc COOKE.
25,000 feet planed No. 3 pine boards, 20,000 feet
u o. 5 : 5.000 feet do. No. 1 clear : 2,000 leei ao.
f . 1 clear plank; 150 m, extra shaved cedar shingles.
icmchasew taking tne aDove inmocr uum mc
iharleau have it carted to their yards without cost
OCTTOR 8. PORTER FORD, SURGEON
f UYSICIAN, office in naabamunu uw.
krt door betew Messrs. Coady Co. Medicines
hit dd for shiDDinir at th WMt Tirice.
Particular attention nmi to diseases of the eye
Mear. . . tf 31
NEW AND CHOICE PERFUMERY.
ITUST RECEIVED ex brig Moctezuma, a choice
f assortment of perfumes and .Extracts, among
fikh are, Eau de Cologne, Eau de Lavender, Agua
The attention of the public is respectfully solicited
fjtt above which are of superior quality and war
psted genuine from the manufacturers in Paris.
sale by S.PUK IJSK l UKJU. '
Hon. Dec 18, 1852-32-tf ' Kaahumanu St.
pOR SALE. Two Dwelling Houses, each con-(-
taining 4 rooms, detached Cook House, and en-
- w-.J : T1, T - Vino mt-rt
: fee simple. Price fSOO each, which is less than
the first cost. Apply to SAMUEL JOHNSON
1 tte premises. :
Bonolulu, Dec 28, 1851-tf-34
iROV TTTr"nT.r5 Several narties havinr made
A inquiries for Iron Hurdles, the undersigned will
f!ad to order from England any number required,
1 delivered here at cost and charges, and the
anl commission on such a transaction.
At he expects a vessel out next falL those parties
w pTe in their orders immediately, say in time
first mail, may get them out by that convey
ance. ; " ; .i -.
Ewy information respecting the probable cost laid
i05Bke,wiU be furnished by R. C. J ANION.
IRLS OF LADING for aU5 t Polynesian
Hi Offica. - n Julr 26 I
TJOW LANDING AND FOR SALE. splen
Al did assortment of English, German and
French Goods, Ex. Mexican brig Moctezuma, viz :
Printed Jacconets, two blue prints.
Two blue embossed prints, blue and colored prints,
Turkey red prints with yellow fringe.
Plain turkey red cloth, fancy prints, white shirtings,
liiue carts, grey domestics, blue twills.
Grey American twills, white dp,, regatta stripes.
Bengal stripes, white blue striped bed ticks.
Denims, white checked muslins.
White cotton, small lace, checks and stripes.
Musquito gauze, victoria lawns.
Cream colored sheetings, bleached sheetings.
Turkey red and white hdk'fs, printed hdk'fs.
Brocade ponchos, woolen ponchos.
Orleans black and colored, woolen blankets.
Cotton and linen thread, white and colored do.
Printed corahs, ladies silk dresses, muslin do.
White and figured muslins, silk hat ribbon, silk
Black satin, satan shawls, half linen and linen drills,
hite and fancy colored elastics, pantaloonlKtuffi.
Buckskin, towefgranaburghs, burlaps, bunting.
Canvass, emptjgs, silk umbrellas, cotton do.
Silk parasols, elastic suspenders, Berlin wool.
Clothixg, Shims & Hosiekt.
Children's Cotton stockings, ladies' stockings.
Men's Cotton socks, woolen do.
Sailors woolen stockings and socks, do jackets.
Wool shirts, beaver iarketa.
Cotton drawers and under-ehirts, regatta cotton do
A splendid assortment of readv-made coats.
J ackets and pantaloons of all kinds, cloth mantles:
Paramatta do., flannel shirts.
Boots, Shoes, Hats, &c,
Sailor's shoes, men's shoes, lasting gaiters.
Ladies shoes and boots.
Italian straw hats of two kinds, awake hats.
Blue navy caps.
Assorted blank books, foolscap paper, medium do.
Pocket-books, memorandum books.
Paovisioxs, Geocekies and Liqcobs.
Refined loaf sugar, superior butter in stone-jars.
Sweet salad oil, French bottle-fruits, as'td pickles.
Durham mustard, vinegar.
Superior Holland and common gin, port wine.
Madeira, Cognac, 6tearine candles, colojnie water.
Havana cigars, Regalia, common and London shape.
j-Avenaer water, .Florida water, perrumed soap.
Pomade, Liverpool and Castile soap.
Best linseed oil, best tarred cordage, seizing stuiT.
Housing and sewing twine, copper in sheets.
Composition, nails, oil paints.
Hardware, Glasswars, Cuockert & Sundries
Artificial flowers, musical boxes, toys.
Mathematical boxes, necessaries, cigar boxes.
Finger cups, tumblers, wine glasses, cruet stands.
Salt-cellars, mugs, jugs, flat and soup plates, needles
Jielgian rose nails, blued tacks, pointes de Pans.
Lead in sheets, iron do, English iron in bars.
Tin plates, canister gun-powder.
Revolving pistols in cases with implements.
Percussion caps, brass butt hinges.
Brass harness buckles, screw-eyed augers.
Caulking irons, brass headed compasses.
Square pointed compasses, brass curtain rings.
Beach head gimblets, carpenter's Scotch braces.
G. S. sugar tongs, spring top powder-flasks with
Wood and bone cork-screws, steel pens with holders
Razors on cards and in cases, ground sash brushes.
Tooth brushes, cloth brushes, horse brushes
Shoe brushes, hair brushes, white horn combs.
Ivory B. combs, stained horn combs.
Wooden bowl pipes, eyed tree shovels.
Iron bedsteads, bvass cut cupboard locks.
Brass box do., brass padlocks, japan ed iron padlocks
Scissors, pen and pocket knives.
Bone handle jack-knives, table knives and forks.
Carvers, Cocoa-wood handle butcher-knives.
B. M. table spoons, do, teaspoons, do soup ladles.
B. M. tea and coffee services, sailor's palms.
C. S. saws, web's saw blades.
Flat spring bolts, bright Kent hammers.
Highly bent sea fish-hocks, three-square files.
Half-round fiies, flat do. flat wood rasps, saw files.
Cast butt hinges; weighty I. hinges.
Brass stecl-top thimbles, white metal do.
White hooks and eyes, spirit flasks with cords.
Plated spurs with leather, carpenter's tool-chests.
Riding whips, walking canes and sticks.
Dart walking canes, partridge csnes, tunnels.
Bound brass chamlier candlesticks.
Brass muzzles for dogs, cedar headed pencils.
Ship lanterns, japanned lamps, do swing lamps.
Rich gilt watch keys, double plane irons.
Hollows and rounds, moulding and bead planes.
Iron screws, C. S. firmer chisels and gouges.
Large chisels, brass flat 6cales, brass troy weights.
Japanned convexed tea trays, brass wire bird-cages,
Brass mortars and pestles.
Also on hand and for sale a fine assortment of
China Goods, viz :
Black satin, colored do, black sensbaw.
Do. levantine, do sarsenet, colored pongees.
Crimson pongee hdk'fs, white do, orange do.
White sarsenett, hdk'fs, black do. net bandas.
Crape shawls, do scarfs, figured damask.
Striped and check do, lustrings, lustring hdck'fe.
Levantine shawls, grass cloth hdk'fs.
White blue and green musquito netting.
Men's women's and children's shoes, velvet slippers.
Superior black tea, superior green do, toys.
Currie powder, sugar candy, nutmegs, cloves.
Fire-ci ackers, tea-caddies, oil-paintings, nappies,
ninth baskets, iellies. lemon juice, black pepper.
Offered for sale by MELC1IERS & CO., Nuuanu
street, at the store formerly occupied oy tne late Vr,
Dec 13th, 1852. tf33
FOR SALE AT THE STORE OF J. C. SPAL
DING by the Subscriber, the following assort
f TorrhnndizA uhortlv exDected to arrive bv
.... i "
shin riuui-iiTiiiA ana ijiio At wu, vu ;
14 Bundles 12. yw gais. o hsus xieaus,
n t o Twn TTnono. 20 Coils Manila Whale Line.
20 do. do. Cordage, 75 Harpoons, 15 Lances, 15 Cut-
. mm. 1
tin" Spades, 2 Kegs ltivets, i uu nose, iuu gais.
Lin. Oil in Caw, 85 b'dls Flags, 50 Striped Flannel
Shirts, 50 Red Twilled do., 24 Knit Woolen Frocks,
j o Wnn Stwk in its. 24 do Shoes and Broeans,
Flannel Jackets. 3 pairs
Blankets, 50 pairs Satinet Trowsers, 39 Casks pilot
tj i is ana iy. vn an. ao. ao. o.oti uo..
Tierces Vinegar 1291 gals., 6 bales Oakum, 80
kers Lead, 10 bbls. Spts. Turpentine, 32 bbls. Itice,
- tf , ttu. Ypllnw MetaL 300 lbs. Composi
tion Nails, 657 feet Sheathing Boards, 1100 sheets
Felt, 100 kegs Nails, 50 bbls. Flour, 9621-2 bbls
do., 30.349 gals. New Casks, 29 firkins Butter
ncno ik. 1 4 knTM Raining. 6 do. Smvrna do.. 4 bbls.
Crushed Loaf Sugar, 4 baskets Champagne ine,
10 lbs. luo uonee zia iu - "
i, c Kn V. IT Tea. 786 No. 21 Bass. 800
do. 17 do, 55 do. 6 do., 60 do. 5 do., 61 do. 4 do.
500 Gunney:Bags,4ZDundies va.io gum. owkD,
9 Casks Heads for do., 17 Casks 50 bbls. Flour,
ter "Philomela." 114 ddis. xiour.
5Jply H T. FITCH, or J. C. SPALDING.
Honolulu, Dec 12, 1852. . lt-32
Illustrated Family Almanac 1853.
few copies forale at tne Polynesian umw.
Notice to.Merchants and Ship Masters!
THE SUBSCRIBERS Having eniereu intu co
partnership would respectfully inform Mer
chants and Ship Masters visiting this port, that they
intend keeping constantly on hand a supply of stock
such as Pigs, Fowls, Ducks, Turkeys &c, which
they1 wfll supply to shipping at the shortest notice,
and on the most reasonable terms. Orders left at
the stores of T. Spencer, R. Coady Co., or J. U
DDUUlUKl WiA W KlUI-kiUAUJ sw '
T. T. DOUGHERTY.
Honolulu, March 25,-tf-4
HONOLULU, SATURDAY, APRIL 30, 1 853. , No- 51
.rr. . ii?
uo UX.L&L1 AUi OF WAS Avn rw tit.
Natt, to the Hawaiian Legislature,
According to the 15th article of the new
Constitution, granted by the King on the
14th of June 1852, each member of society has
ahi l be Protected h the enjoyment
of. his life, liberty, and property. That pro-
T.aiu. uur uusiuuuon is in harmony with
a fundamental principle which pervades all
free Governments, and is the very founda
tion upon which those who rule others, rest
their right to govern them. Protectio trahit
subjectioneoi, et subjectio protectionem,"
protection carries with it subjection and subjec
tion protection, was a maxim of Roman law,
and, in all modern Governments, it is a
well understood principle. But no Govern
ment can protect life, liberty, and property,
by merely writing down the words; it must
have, at its command, an adequate force,
and that force cannot be maintained without
money. JtJoth the men who compose the
force, and the money that is to pay lor it, are
drawn from the members of the society, who
look to the Government for the proper ap
plication of the means, which they furnish,
to the protection of their lives, liberties, and
properties. Hence, in the same article of
the new Constitution, follow these words:
He (each member of society) is obliged, con
sequently, to contribute his proportional share.
to the expense of this protection; to site his
personal seiticcs or an equivalent, when neces
It was not the ancient usage of the Ha
waiian people, that their Kings should be
without an armed force. On the contrary.
there was a feudal organization, enabling
the King to muster in arms, almost the whole
able bodied population, on any occasion of
emergency, ihe old constitution implied
A I - - - !
me existence oi an armea lorce in tne pro
vision, .under the head of prerogatives of
the King : "He shall have the direction of
me army, ana oj ine implements oj war oj the
I he King is recognized as
Generahstmo of the whole military forces of
the Kingdom; and, under His Majesty, His
Governors of Islands are recognized as the
commai.ders-in-chief of the military power
in their respective Islands, in article V.,
Chapter IV., pait I, of the second act of
Kamehameha 111., of the 27th April 1816.
liy tne same article, all male subjects of His
Majesty, between the ages of 18 and 40
years, are subjected to military duty in the
respective Island, where they have their
most usual domicile, excepting the sick and
the infirm, all christian clergymen, all
lawful school-masters actually employed, all
Privy Counsellors, all heads of Department
al Bureaux, all members of the Houses of i
Nobles and Representatives, when in actual
session, all Judges and Magistrates, Sheriffs,
Registers of public Deeds. Collectors of
Customs, poundmasters and civil Constables
rwi . . rm-. I - .
ine icm ana an articles oi itie new
Constitution imply the existence of a ' milt
tary, and the possibility that the Island
may be involved in war.
J here can be no question, therefore, about
the sufficiency of the authority for keeping
up an armed force both by the Constitution
and the laws. It is the usage of'all civilized
countries whether Empires.Kingdoms, Duke
doins, or Republics, to do so. Even God's
Vicar on earth keeps up an army of 17,707
men to protect and defend the lives and pro
perties oi his z,4i,uuu subjects, .ihus it
. t tt . . a
appears mat even ne uoes not trust to his
influence with the heavenly powers to pre
serve his temporal authority, by the inter
position of a perpetual miracle. Is there any
nation on earth that does r let there are
not wanting among us a few zealots who
imply that we are such a marvellously good
and holy people, that God will fight our bat
tles, and extricate us from all our difficulties.
Upon the Almighty we cannot too much rely,
whether in peace or war, but if we are to
enjoy His favour, we must not oe guilty ol
the presumptuous sin of assuming that it is
due to us, on account of our righteousness
In every object that we aspire to, we must
use the appointed means, and humbly implore
God's blessing upon them, notwithstanding
our manifold sins and iniquities. Neliermah,
in building the House of. uod, did not ex
pect that God would come down, and mirac
ulously protect the workmen; but instituted
human agency for that end. He who de
scended from heaven, with a message of
peace, good will, and salvation, was him
self, humanly speaking, of the lineage of a
man of war yet a man characterized as ac
cording to God's own heart; and the forerun
ner of our baviour, did not disdain to recog
nize soldiers, as a class of society, and to
advise them to do violence to no man, neither
accuse any falsely, and to be content with their
4re we in the face of our duty to the King,
to prepare the way for a rebellion among his
subjects on the ground (which would not be
an unreasonable one) that the King cannot
opotprt their lives and properties Are our
planters to be left, on their estates, at the
mercv of their Chinese laborers; are we to
shut our eyes to the signs of the times, that
threaten forcible annexation, and invite free
booters to our shores, by leaving the King s
subjects, without arms and without military
organization? ' '
Not wishing to neglect anyduty lawfully
incumbent upon me, in my official position,
on the 1st March, I applied to his Royal
highness, Lieutenant General rrince L.ino-
iho for information on certain points wnicn
thought would well deserve the considera-
ilnn nt the l,eiris ature. i annex copy ui
. - ... r
the note which I addressed to him, marked
No. 1. . ..
The Prince did me the honor of sending
me the reply dated 8th March, marked no.
2, which, with its enclosures, marked A. B. C.
n.R. I annex for your consideration. If any
explanations be wanted, in regard to any de
tail, I have no doubt, the Prince, if properly
applied to, will readily render them.
Most exaggerated accounts have been in
dustriously propagated, about the enormous
expense of the Military. Yet, it appars
that thewhole expense for nine months, has
been lor regular soldiers, . $6,885.94
tor flags, salutes, &c. &C . 1,553.09
In all $8,439,03
wrucn tor VZ months would be at the rate of
$11,252.04 being vastly less than the expense
of any single department of government, ex
cept that which the King has placed under
Referring to the Prince's schedule, mark
ed C, you will see that, in the project which
he submits for militafy organization, illus
trated by tables A. B. &. C. he would require
a sum of $25,000 annually, besides the year
ly pay to be allowed for one Colonel, one
Lieutenant Colonel and-one Major.
After some consideration of the subject
it does not appear to me that less than S30,-
OUU will suthce to keep up, in due efficiency,
tne small military force suggested by the
Prince, and allow something for the purchase
ot some cannon and other arms, which are
wanted. There is no use in keeping a num
U - i 1 1
oer mi oia rejected, worm-eaten cannon,
dangerous to fire, even in a salute, and
of them without shot to fit their cali-
If the $50,009 recommended by the Minis
ter ot t inance, in his report of 18o2, to be
raised for the military, by a new tax, could
be raised, and kept separate from all other
revenues, so as to be applicable, solely, to
the military, I do not think it would be too
much. What that tax should be, how to col
lect it, and how to disburse it, will be for the
Legislature to consider. Perhaps, a tax
imposed and levied on each Island, to support
the soldiers on that Island, and to be dis
bursed there, would be more popular than
one to be paid to and disbursed by a central
board. Under the former system, the inhab
itants of each Island, would have the secu
t 1 . i a
my mat wnat money tnev nav. ov Demir
spent among themselves, would soon return
into their own pockets. Under the second
system, this would be less likely to take place;
but the facility of making a great public effort,
to suppress rebellion in any one Island, or
repel a foreign invasion would be greater. In
any military tax, the great desideratum would
be to combine the certainty of raising a given
amount, with the principle of proportioning
the burden to the amount of what every man
possesses, which gives the measure so far as
the protection oj properly is concerned, of every
man's interest in supporting the military.
But it is utterly impossible so to apportion a
tax on property as to produce a given
amount, or even an approximation to it, with
out a correct valuation of every man's pro
perty throughout the whole kingdom. 1 do
not say that this is impossible, but it would
be a most tedious and dilficult process.
- For the present, the easiest mode of de
fraying the expenses of the military, would
be out of the general revenues of the king
dom from whatsoever source they may be de
rived. We have no national debt as Great
liritam. frauce. the United States and al
most every other nation has. In saving
that, under all governments, a fifth part of
the revenues, alter deducting interest on the
national debt, is applied to the military
forces of the State, 1 am rather under than
over the mark. Supposing that the whole
revenues of this country, upon ?n average
of future years, should amount to $250,000,
the filth part, if appropriated to the military,
would be exactly $50,000. Against any
such application of money to the military, it
may be urged that, such an appropriation
would slop all internal improvements. I am
very far from being'of this bpinion, because
I believe that, under proper training, the
most of our important public works might be
done by the military. I gave some memora
ble examples of this, in my report to the
Legislature of 1853. In October 1847, one
of the present representatives, George M.
Robertson, Esq., and the late John R. Jas
per, offered their services gratuitously, to
train a body of one hundred men to military
discipline. Had their offer been accepted,
the men trained and systematically employed,
on the public works,iader their own officers,
ggided by a competent engineer, I believe
that many of our roads and bridges, since that
period, would have been more creditable to
the country, and shewn more for the expen
diture on them, than they do at present.
That the natives, by proper training, can
be made good and effective soldiers, cannot
be doubted, without undervaluing the testi
mony of Lieutenant Cambell, the marine
officer of the Right Honorable Iord George
Paulet; of Lieutenant Read, Marine officer
of Captain Gardner, and of Sir George Simp
son. in the instance's which he gives, in his
published voyage round the world, of the tried
bravery of Hawaiian natives in the territo
ries of the hoiiorable Hudson's Bay Com
But, it may be asked, do civilized govern
ments devote one fifth of then revenues to
the support of a military force? I shall meet
this question plainly; and shall begin with the
example of the United States, which many,
born in that country, and who ought to know
better, cite as an example of a country great,
peaceful and prosperous, with scarcely any
After the peace of 1783, the standing army
was reduced to 800 men, in 1790 it was 1200,
in 1796, 3000, in 1812, while at war with
England, 100,000, in 1S21, 6000, and in
1840, 12537. Add to that force about
1,503,952 militia, and we find in the United
States a military organization embracing
1,516,489 men, while their population was
onlv 17.069,453, slaves included. This
eives nearly 9 armed men for every 100 of
the whole population, which, l oeneve, is a
higher proportion, than that lound, in any
emoire or kingdom in the wlrole world.
Were this kingdom to follow the example of
the United Slates, assuming the whole poptir
lation to be 75,000, the proportion of armed
men should be about 6700.
In the city of New York alone, the regu
lar military force is 5,833 men, consisting of
3,300 infantry, 1,289 cavalry, and
The whole revenue of the United States,
in 1810, was $28,234,512, of which, for the
I - - - ' - , m.
military alone, the appropriation was $8,750- stand, at the least. Supposing only 500 good
784, being about one third, and one fifth of a and effective, out of the 884 now on the Is
third,.of the whole revenue. - Therefore, by lands, 2,500 would remain to be imported,
the U. States rule, if we have a yearly reve- I have reason to know that 2,500 muskets,
nue of $250,000, we ought to spend about with bayonets, percussion locks, and car
$97,999 on our armed forces, exclusive of J tridge boxes complete, could be supplied,
our militia. from Birmingham, at a cost not exceeding
I have gone into these details, not because $10,000 to which would have to be added
I would recommend that this kingdom should freight and insurance to this port. The same
follow the expensive example of ihe United number of inferior arms might be procured,
States, but to show you that that example io Birmingham, for $7,500, but, in arms, as
cannot, with honesty or truth he quoted as in most things else, it is bad economy to
one of a ' Wise people, who spend nothing prefer cheapness to quality.
on their military, but appropriate a vast deal Five hundred good cavalry sabres would
for public improvements." You will be sur- cost, in the same place, about $817 one
prised to hear that, in 1840 (the year on hundred pairs of pistols, for cavalry, with
which I found my illustrations) there was not holsters, complete, about $600 and one
one dollar voted, under the head of public hundred lances complete, mounted on shaft
improvements, though I believe the appropri- sand shoes about $844
ation of $8,750,784 for the mWitary, includ- Of the 87 pieces of artillery, now on the
ed some engineering works, that might be Islands, I believe very few effective cannon
justly called public improvements.
As a safer rule, 1 would refer you to the
table, No 3, which gives the 'area in square fence, they are absolutely useless,
miles, the total population, the population It might be advisable to import, say twen
relative to the square mile, the annual reve- ty-four cannon of heavy calibre, and of three
nue in pounds sterling, the public debt in mile range, with a sufficient quantity of shot
pounds sterling, and the standing army of to correspond, and to place, of these, 12 in a
three small European kingdoms, twelve
Duchies and principalities, and four Repub -
lies, all, of less extent, than this kingdom, side, also as far to seaward as possible. -except
Wirtemben. I We would, then, be able not only to defend
You will find that, in the fifteen States un-
der Regal government, the armed force, in time of war, between foreign nations, to per
place of being about 9 in every 100 of the form our neutral duties effectually, which,
population, as in the United States, is less under the laws of nations, we are bound to
than one in .70, and so also in the four Re-
publics, one in .88, and 500 soldiers for the
Hawaiian Islands, would be less than either
of them, that is only .56, for every hundred
of the population.
In Great Britain in 1845, the proportion
of public funds applied to military purposes,
was 13,961,244. Taking the whole reve-
nue at about 53.000,000. and deducting
say, 29,000,000 for interest on the National
debt, there remained 24,000,000 for the
whole administration of the nation, so that
more than one half of it, went to the support
of its military forces.
In France, about the same time, the pro-
portion of public funds applied to military
purposes was 16,581,000; what it is now, I
have no documents to show; neither can I ensure that that portion ofthe King s reve
exactly say what are the exact amounts of nues, which may be appropriated to military
the revenue, and of the interest on the na- purposes, should not be diverted, under any
tional debt; but, I believe it will be found
that quite as large a proportion of the net!
yearly revenue, as in Great Britain, is devo-
ted to the support of the military forces.
In Russia the suooort of an army of about
750,000, and a navy consisting of 50 ships of
the line, 25 frigates, 36 steamers, besides
brigs and other small vessels, costs, yearly,
about 6,800,000; in Denmark the support
of an army of 25000 men, in time of peace,
and of a navy of 7 ships of the line, 8 frigates, compared wun tne constaouiary iorce, w nica
and 16 smaller vessels, costs, yearly, about is found sufficient in those large cities of Eu
457,000; in Sweden and Norway the sup- rope, where murders, prostitution, house
port of an army of 54,146 men, and a navy breaking, pocket-picking and drunkenness.
of 21 ships of the line, 8 frigates, 6 brigs, are represented as being rile, witnamii
255 small craft, and 117 gunboats, costs, itary force organized on the footing suggest
yearly, 578,000; and besides a large prop- ed by the Prince, perhaps the police lorce
onion of the revenues arising from the es- might be reduced to one half of its present
tates of the crown is applied in aid of the number. This, if thought advisable, would
support of the military.
In nil these cases, the proportion of the
public revenues applied to military purposes,
far exceeds that of one fifth of the whole; and
the number of the armed forces kept up,
relatively to the whole population, is much
greater than what the Prince, modestly, sug-
gests for this Kingdom.
I know of no country where the Govern-peelings
ment applies money to purposes of public im- several thousands ot volunteers, wno wouia
provement till after fully providing for all arm and equip themselves, at their own ex
its own executive and judicial Departments, pense, and follow him to the field, on any
and for the military required for the support occasion of public danger. Something ot
of its own authority. Yet, I am no enemy
to public improvements; on the contrary, 1
advocate them, when there is a surplus re-
venue to pay for them, or where money can
be borrowed with the certainty that the im-
movements themselves will amply secure the
principal, and provide for the interest.
Th forrA snarled hv th Kinr' T.iu-
tenant General in schedule D, is only 210
infantry, to be stationed in the capital.in four
series of 60 men each, upon the rotation plan
used in Prussia. Of these, only 60 are to
e in barracks, at one time; but, besides, he
appears to calculate upon 75U volunteers,
' ... . ' .... - I
and 200 militia for Oahu 300 militia for
Hawaii 250 for Maui 50 for Kauai, ma
king in ail i,uu men, as per tame j, ap
pended to his aforesaid schedule.
This is a very small force, indeed, even
relatively to our small population, and to our
scanty revenues. .
Hut since the serious sailor riot of Novem
Kpr l.nst npw plpmnta of ctmnffth have
Cal1 i,n in thp. Inval foolintr tnwnrda thfi I
c.a.ivu " ('J ' --J - , I
eigners, and sons of foreigners, who, from
that feeling as well as a love of order and of
neace. with the permission of the Govern
ment, enrolled themselves into a Company
of Infantry, under the name of the First
Hawaiian Guard, and a squadron of Cav
airy, under the name of the First Hawaiian
Cavalry. Both companies were reviewe'd
along with the native troops, on the King's
late birth-day, by Lieutenant General Liho-
liho, and, considering the brief period of
their training, made a most respectable ap
pearance. The Hawaiian Guards content
ain number of
am numoer oi
plate to attach to them a cert
well trained artillery-men, and to expend, for
that purpose, about $2,000. . I
I append copies of the by-Iawa of both
1 1 i kt t j r .!.. k. I
companies, maiaea ivos. T w GREGORY has the only Express running
principles and objects of these eminently bctween yew York and San Franciwo via Nicara
patriotic institutions may be fairly known to thereby enabled to bring intelligence
tne jjegisiaiure. i consiaer u moo
vorable omen for the stability of the King's
-r . ...! r.tiintion that it
x nivu-'L, . . " I
has been ushered in, with a spontaneous
amalgamation of all the elements of which
the population" iS composed, in OSK feeling on
K r t :.
i ai m- m i a ia n i hi w mm aui iiiiriiw fc
of peace and of order.
It auuears to me that when
we have the
means, it would oe ezceeomgiy ueairauie m
wouia ue ezcveoingiy uMinureiu
f.a 1: 1 1 L. I . a
"have a su
pply of good muskets and-
r for any emergency say of 3000
nets ready for any emergency say
could be selected, for which we have shot to
ht, with out which, for all purposes oi ae-
I battery on one side of the harbor, as far to
I seaward as possible, and 12 on the other
our harbor and all the shipping in it, but, in
do, though we had not a single Treaty in
It might also be advisable to import a
battery of twelve light-field pieces, with all
their appointments complete.
In England the price of 24-13 pounder iron
fort guns, rammers with sponges, and ladles
complete, would be about $6,660; if, of
double the calibre or more, the price, of
course, would be proportionally greater.
ou will not tail to observe mat tne
I rince strongly recommends that, what lunda
you may appropriate to the support ol the
military forces of the Kingdom, should be
paid into, and disbursed oy a uoara ot ora-
nance. AVhatever the name of the Board
might be, it certainly would be desirable to
circumstances, to any other object.
In his estimate for the mihtary tue 1 nnce
says nothing of the pay to be assigned to
himself, or to General of division, Kameha-
meha. It will be for the legislature to con-
eider what provision should be made for
the support ot their princely and military
Our police force throughout the islands is
excessive, relatively to the population, when
be so much money saved, to come in aid oi
wnaiever military iunu may ue proviucu.
The loyalty of the population towards the
king is so great and universal, that, I firmly
believe, H the rTince were driven io u trom
the absence of all pecuniary provision by the
Legislature to support the military,) by ap-
pealing, in the King's name to the patriotic
oi me iniiaunauu, c couiu rui3
this kind existed m the days ot jeudalism,
when the militia, was the entire able-bodied
population, of which every man bound him-
self, not onlwto aid personally, in tne ue-
fence ot theVJale, in the contingency ot a
toreign invasion, dui neia diidwu prtmueu
'th arms and equipments suited to lus con-
dition; and to parade these, for inspection.
before local officers, twice in each year. In
the reigns of Henry II aud Edward I, of
England, such a militia system was compul-
sory. ine arms wun which tne mimia pro-
Tided themselves, in those days, were eacl
nauuei, an iru ui K.aiC, anUiU
i - r T... A T ' : L' ... I. l,
U Kllllo. DUI our gunu nin ivaiucnaincim
III, has abolished feudalism in this Kingdom.
He is now a constitutional sovereign, upon
the most enlightened principles; and, I have
no doubt that, in your wisdom and patriotism,
you will devise means to support his authority
by an adequate military force upon some
plan harmonizing with the system of ILeir
GoD FRESERVE THE Kl.tc!
0 w vr Til?
Honolulu, April 9, 1853.
TO ALL PARTS OF THE WORLD ! f
THE UNDERSIGNED has for the present as
mninl the Honolulu agency of Gregory's Ex-
P. and forward by evc7 W1"1 to Cal:
f n ,nd ptrCg for the United States and
Vnrnnm San Francisco. He will lso shortly be
n the receipt, by every arrival from California, of
ihe latest newspapers rrom Europe, uw vmuru
tStatea and California.
la-twrougn ktcw ubs u auuiv .v6
by the way of Panama- .tttlon to the
Mf. Gregory gives ms personal ttat.on to
business in California, and is now engageam uor-
onvi , ronraninne his Exnress arrangements.
a branch of Gregory's Express is to b established
in New Bedford for the that
tMnimaunn f letters and parcels between tnat
place and these islands.
FRED. L HANKS,
at the store of T. Spencer.
KUBtNSO, ULL, A-u tuuitsiuiu,
Dayo-14,, painter. Glazier and Paper hanger, rori ft.
1 Honolulu, April 2, !. 3m