Newspaper Page Text
18 5 4
g n, Massachusetts, Connecticut and New York,
it is one in Tour. In Rhode Island, it is one in five
about the same os on these Islands. In New Jer
sey and Ohio, each, one in eight. In no other
otate is the proportion more than one in ten; while
in ten of the Mates it is less than one in twenty,
a uis is owing to tnc iaci mat in tuese states no
efficient system of free schools is established. In
the slave States the population is generally too
sparse to admit of it. la New England and some
of the Western States, they et for educating al
the children at the public expense, and in doing so
at u)CS3 Islands we are only following their noble
and enlightened example.
The Comparative Cost or Piblic i.fSTRCc
Again, notice the comparative cost of free school
instruction here and in spine or the united Mates,
From official returns in 1834, in the six New Eng
land States, where popular education is sustained
and carried forward with as much vigor and liber
ality as in any part of the world, it appears that in
Vermont the average cost of each pupil to the
State, was $2 22; in Maine $1 34 ; in Connecti
cut $ 1 35; in Rhode Island 1 64 ; in Massachu
setts $4 54.
On our Islands as appears by the above table,
the average cost of each pupil in our free schools
iu the same year, 1853, was 1 74.
Comparative Decree ok Intelligence.
- I have made an effort, by addressing circulars to
nil the school-inspectors of the 25 districts, to as
certain what proportion of the adult native popu
lation, or thosa say over 10 years of age, are able
t.) read their own language; but the returns on this
subject aro yet too imperfect to furnish the lubis
ot a very accurate calculation, ihe nearest a
proximation to the truth, and I think it is not
from it, is three-fourths.
iy me census ot tnc tnitoi tates, taken in
1840, the population was 17,000,000. Of this
nunilier 550,000 were whites over twenty years of
age. who coum not road or write. I he proportion
of thosj unable to read or write, after excluding all
colored rtersons and whites under twenty vcars of
age, was one in twelve. The proportion of adults
who cannot read, varies m different states ; from
one in two hundred and ninety-four, in Connecti
cut to one in three in North" Carolina. In Ten
nessee, the proportion is one in four. In Kentucky
Virginia, Georgia, South Carolina and Arkansas,
each, one in live. In Delaware and Alabama,
each one in six. In Indiana, one in s?vcn. In Il
linois and Wisconsin, each, one in eight. In New
Hampshire, only one in 1-5'J cannot read. In Ver
mont, one in Mxty-three. In Michigan, one in
thirty-nine, ?ee Mayliew, p.p. 337.
I am in possession of but few reliable statistics
illustrative of the degreo of popular intelligence
that exists in the different states of Europe, and
present the following without being able to vouch
for their entire accuracy. One of the periodicals
of the day contains the following statement, pur
porting to be taken from a "worthy volumo on the
social condition and education of the people in
England and in Euroi, published by a celebrated
bachelor of Cambridge College, in 1851." "In
England and Wales, (with a population of 17,005,
821,) there are tight millions who can neither
r,ad nor write. Of all the children in England
and Wales, between the ages of five and fourteen,
the majority are not in attendance at any school.
There are not in England one-half as many school
buildings as are requisite for the instruction of the
rising generation. Many of the village school
masters can neither read or write correctly, and are I
ignorant of the contents of the sacred volume.
Numbers of parishes and districts throughout Eng
land and Wales, have no place of instruction'
Still, it is well known that vust sums of money,
perhaps as much as in any country, are expended
for education in England, but it" does not reach
multitudes of the lower classes, because it is left
to individual effort; no system cf schools for the ed
ucation of all, is provided by the State.
Ihe Loramon fcchool Journal, edited by Horace
Mann, vol. X., p. p. 320, gives the following state
ment, showing the educational condition of the
people in France in 1844.
"Unable to read or write, 10,855,000
AMa to read, but not write, 7,097,000
Able to read and write imperfectly, 0,008,000
Able to read and write correctly, " 2,430,000
Possessing the elements of a classi
people for a constitutional government, for exercis-
ing me elective irancnise, ior miroaucing iriui uyi p
jury, placing natives in omces oi nign irusi anu
power securing public tranquility ; in short, tor
sustaining the whole machinery of a Tegular go-
Thi Rotal School,
Beckicith, Principal; G. E. Beckirith, As-
This institution has 'continued to flourish, and
vernment made to supersede a despotism of the received a large share of public patronage. It
worst form, without revolution or shedding one
drop of blood. ; Without free schools diffusing in
telligence among the entire iieople, it would -be
next to impossible for the King to govern his peo
ple by a constitution and laws. Uut being brought
into the common school at four or five years of age,
and kept there until they are fourteen or sixteen,
they not only acquire valuable elementary know-
ladirA. hut ai-a emrlw irairuvl to habit nf unrmrrHnft-
tiou, learn subjection to law, and when arrived at the revenue and expenditure of the school is here-
years of maturity they are easily governed. Who wuufu, mai y f uy wuicu it wiu appear
is conducted on the plan of on Academy, in which
me orainary j-jignsn language ana the classics are
taught. -y : . ,
i f , ... . .
Ane wnoic numoer oi scnoiars aunutteu uimnr
the year was 121, the average per term. 82: ol
Al. fl , 1 .. , n
uio.se v j were maies ana iemaies ; 'Jo were
whites ; 18 half whites and 8 puredlawaiians
ine school terms and rates of tuition were the
jauae mm stated in-my last 'report. - An account of
ever, heard of a native, whether of. high rank or
ow, rising up against the law 1 Such a thing is
unknown. Why ? Because they have been accus
tomed troin youth to bow to the majesty of law
in snort, the tendency ol a diffusion of know'
edge among the entire people here is the same as
in other countries, that is, to dissipate the evils of
ifiuoraiiTO, iiicreasa inuusury anu ine proaucuve-
ness of labor, diminish pauperism and crime, Bup-
xn gooa government and dinuse general happi
ness. in proportion to the value ot these, then.
et efforts D3 made constantly and increasingly to
sustain and perfect our free schoyls
thai the xeotapts from tuition hare still been suffi
cient to pay the teachers' salaries, and meet inci
dental expenses. ( The account stood thus, Dec. 31:
Balance oh hand, Jan. 1st, ' 307 02
Rec'd from tuition during the year, 2,052 35
- $3,319 37
Disbursement to teachers' salaries, 2,042 87
" . " incidental expenses, 400 04 .
Balance on hand, Dec. 31, 1853, : 207 40 ;
. The balance of the old appropriation of 2,000,
jnsteaa or ou.j expended on each school, the on hand Jan. 1st. 185:5. lx..n. Hi J.CA v Kno
fl... 1. I . . , .-. . . ' O I
u'lrru-c ui jriir, mere ougni 10 oe at leasi t-cu nearly expended in completing
niiivu nuum ITtluiru a BUUX IUUU VI .U-tU
aside from what might be expended in books.
The School Tax.
In former reports I have called tho attention of
the Legislature to the oljectionable features of the procured for tho school, and partially paid for
$2 school tax. Being a capitation tax, it throws out of tho avails of tuition. A small debt is still
the burden ol the Iree schools alike on the rich and au-e ior ine same,
English language to Hawaiian ; but it would swell
this report to an unreasonable length, and it is the
less necessary after having been so much dwelt up
on in my previous reports. It may be well, how
ever, to state here, briefly, the reasons for urging
lorwara this work.; .
1st. It is practicable. Our experience from year V" """iu "TJ u"Ti ?au?" "i'
anorda proof thiit it is so if the natives L: r 1 j t. t
T... . -I Atrj, mo uurasm iu mib ucuunw 4aa jcar.
)n vftrmtT I At tH-haa whA HaoM hia I 1 . ... . . r ... .
females of the more remote districts from v&tLnir. the
sea-ports without a pass. Ine bill has been rejected as
often as presented, on the ground of its nnadaptedness
to meet the case, and al of its impracticability; but
the subject was referred by the House of Nobles to the
undersigned tor further consideration. It ia a subject
on which I have bestowed much reflection r years, ad
r r. 14 u l : r e m.:
a. rt tr 1 . . . ; , - ... , i i iuu39 uijacu cj jr luuui w uic vuiaum m vim iu-
aj , cur annua wuui iiUkd lb is DO it mo imilVS I ,;IW- r M . .t ; v- u
eoinmencewhcnyoung. Let those who doabt this, no law can be fcuned on this subject that will bi prvctica-
lion IU5 iW.ai UI UK KUWl Ul lAr. till. I hU n.l HL-if orwl mf nlorbM inn mn.k n(k U
and judge for themselves. liberty of the subject. r'lf any remedy is ever found for
jiu. Alio uesiro ior n among me natives 19 very this tremendous evil, that ia tmt consuming th na.tiri
sirong, aimosi universal, in January. 1 addressed race, it will be in the trener&I moral health of the bodv
circulars 10 au ine school inspectors ot tho .a Uis- j pouue. resuuiag XronvUM prograt ar Uunatum dooa
tricts, requesting them to report to mc the number 1 tion and civilization, rather than in legislation, which
of jparents who wished their chililren to be taught b8 onl7 ,0P ff the branches, while the root re-
Enirllh. fnnA xehat iVimr waki rrii;. 0.1 I mains,
pay -towards it for a term of years. Imperfect re- 1 nave ndeavored to ascertain by circulars addressed
tarns have been received from G districts, ' showing to.U -ool Inspectors, throughout the" Islands,
in all 71 persons who are willing to pledge S25 per wh?t. ProPortil of native3l intoxicating drinks
. .. -1 r r &DO tooaoeo. 1 h iWnnn 9LTm nr Tin mean. KitwfirtArr
in case they can have a good school for their child- flln
reu. a uere nas noi oeen lime lor a nroner etturt
... . .K K .
10 ascertain how ninny, natives, would come into
such an arrangement
the wall and fence
around the school grounds, and procuring a set of
new seats. , ihe enclosed account, marked O nil
show the manner of the expenditure in detail
A set of globes and a few scientific works have
poor, the strong and the weak ; instead of placing j
11, as is done in other Mates, upon property, where
it properly belongs, lleferring the Legislature to
my remarks on this subject in my report of last
year, I will only add, that the experience and re
flection or another twelve months has not altered
my opinion, and I respectfully call your attention
once more 10 the subject.
Tue Sectarian Character of the Free Schools.
The Towx School or HoxoLrLt-
The appended very full and satisfactory renort
of the Secretary of tho School Committee, marked
L, will exhibit the condition of the school durin"
the year under review.
rroin that document, it apncirs that durin? the
first quarter of the year, the Committee was unable
to procure a suitable teacher for the school ; but
the case was relieved by the appointment of Mr
Another matter affecting the public schools, and ( B- Ingraham, on the 22d of March, on a sal
1 allude to it xnta reluctance, is their sectarian ry or $7 per month, or g:yU0 per annum
character. They have hitherto existed as separate
institutions lor the children ot ITotestants and Catholics.
Jlow thev caino thus to exist. havinr firinnntri numocr oi pupils on
with the missionaries of each creed. Iwfore the or- males and 10 females.
ganization ot the Department of Public Instruc
tion, and were simply taken up by the Government
as it found them, has been fully explained in for
mer reports, especially that of the year 1851. .But
serious disadvantage has arisen of late to the
schools from this state of things. In some places
two schools are supported where one would be suf-
ncient, or three where two would answer, and
nencc a waste ol the lunds. Owii
ot the imputation, the evil from this source is in
creasing; and in my opinion, it will bo advisable to
carry out the theory ol our laws and abolish entire
ly this sectarian feature in the schools. T'ntn re
cently there were but two sects on the Islands,
another lui arisen, dcni.iiidinn- nprmmr
schools for their children, to be supported by gov
ernment. In the month of February last, thirtv
nine Mormons in Waimea. Kauai, petitioned tL
1 : 1 .' . 1 . .
uuucrbigueu ior the removal ol the School Insi
tor of the district, on the ground that he would not
grant mem a separate school for their children.
The petition was submitted to the Cabinet and
Privy Council on the 20th of Tebruary, with my
report on the same, a eonv of which, towthpr nHh
the resolution of the Council on the case, marked
is appended for your information. Other,
1 x l i a 1 f
iiigranam uiugiit at wee ks uuring the year, and
gave very good satislaction. lho school has re
vived and flourished under his care. The whole
number of pupils on the school-roll was C7 : 48
The attendance was,
lstTerm, -, 40 Scholars.
2d . ..j " . - 41
3d " 50
ihe small attendance during the second term
was owing to the prevalence of the small pox,
which, however, proved fatal to only one of the
scholars. The studies' have been the ordinary End
owing to the decrease elementary branches, in which the progress of
ine scnooi nas Deen encouraging. The want of
punctuality so much complained of formerly, has
fieen remedied almost entirely by the diligent ef
forts of the teacher, with the countenance of the
trustees. The discipline of the school has also
improved ; but the teacher complains of the effects
01 tnc iheatre on his pupils.
The financial condition of the school will appear
r a. 1 . j . . . . .
iroiii me encioseu accounts marked A and li.
The total receipts from the local school tax dur
ing the year, including the old balance of $762,
were - - - $1,460 00
Paid for Teacher's salary, $680 60
Withdrawn by aprr'n bill, 007 00
Balance on hand, J)ec. 31st, 181 401,460 00
navuig a complete classical education, 315,000
ntwnuu- m mv c ensus returns in cpain in
1803, the nunilxir of children receiving education
in that Kingdom, exclusive of those brought up
mucins xuu monasteries, was only one in every
three hundred and forty-six of the population ; and
M. Ionnes as quoted by Mayhew, estimates that
not more than one child in 35 in Spain ever "ocs to
Nothing invidious is intended by this comparison
of our scnooi statistics with thasc of other coun
tries ; much less is it introduced by way of boast
ing of our success. The undersigned is too pain
fully sensible of the wretched condition of manv of
our schools, kept as they too often are, in cheerless
and unlurmshed grass huts, without floors, and
many of them without even a Ixnich to sit upon :
1. rr l 1 1 . .
biuiuuv n euiucieni nuraoer 01 nooks and appara
tus : with bad government, and but poorly qualified
teacners, lo inauige sucn a thought lor a moment.
The object is simply to show what provision has
been made by other governments, and some of the
most enlightened and christian, for the instruction
of the whole people; what it has cost ; what derce
01 popular education has Iieen attained, and what
has been the result where the State has made little
or no provision for the education of all the neor.le
with a view to afford encouragement and hope, and
to show that poor as our schools are, our success
has been great, considering the time and the efforts
made ; to drive away despondency, and to lead to
greater and more wisely directed effort in the cause
on the Islands. It is less than sixteen years since
the King's Government, as such, niade any attempt
t supporting a system of free schools! and this
Department has not been organized ei 'ht vears
yet, the proportion, ol our islanders who can read
their own language is already, as we have seen,
greater than in some old and'enlightoned states.
In the Sandwich Islands only about one adult in
four cannot read his Bible, his newspaper, the
constitution and Laws under which he lives, and the
naliot he throws into the box, while in North Car,
1,n. tnA . .. . A C XI It .
turns, unc out i rcrv iiiree ia una'ae to do so.
This result is more worthy of notice since here the
State has done almost the" entire work of educating
the masses, while there the State has done little or
But you arc told that the knowledge acquired in
our native schools is of no practical value ; that the
pupils learn merely by rote, and do not comprehend
what they arc taught, or make any use of it. Such
assertions are not founded in reason, or supported
by facts. True, our Islanders who read their own
language, may exercise less the power of independ
ent thought, and possess really less practical know
ledge ana gooa judgment, than those people of
isortn Carolina, who cannot read at all : and this
is not strange. AU knowledge is not to be derived
from books. A people surrounded by intelligence
and active enterprise, keeping all minds and all
hands in motion, and, what is, perhaps, more than
all, disciplined from infancy by the use of a lan
guage rich in the accumulated thought of aes,
will necessarily acquire much mental strength,
habits of industry, and perhaps elevation of general
rnaracier, wnicn a people situated as these Island
4 4 v mv, f
ana perhaps numerous sects, may spring up on the
Islands, as in other christian countries, demanding
the same thing ; and to support a distinct and sep
arate class of free schools at Government expense,
for every sect that may appear, is entirely out of
the question. With a view, therefore, to, remedy
this evil, I think it will bo advisable to organize
the iree schools according to " territorial limits,"
as the statute provides ; so many as will afford the
means of elementary instruction to all the children,
without any regard to any religious sect whatever.
This is the course pursued bv other srovernments.
1 : e 3 "1 1. v. . . '
auu 11, ia iouna 10 worK wen. uut it will be ncces
ourj m mat case, 13 cxciuqe iroui the government
schools all religious exercises and instruction tliat
may onend the consciences of parents interested.
Ihose who pay the school tax have a right to ex
pect that it will be ; for the King's Government
intends that the principle of religious liberty shall
he fully carried out. I am not sure that any legis
lative actiDn is reouired in the case, but the uTih.
ject is respectfully committed to your considera
II. Select Schools.
These are of two classes on the Islands, such ai
are endowed or aided by Government, and such as
are supported on the voluntary principle. Of the
former class there are three, the Seminary at La
hainaluna, the Royal School and tho "Town S.-1W.1
of Honolulu ; " and these being under the eontml
of the Government, the Legislature is entitled to
full information concerning them.
The Seminary at Lahainaluna is still under the
care and instruction of the Rev. W. P. Alexander
ani Rev. J. F. Pogue. The late tutor. L. S. T'n
has been removed by death. He was Ion? connect
ed with the school, having entered it as a pupil in
rnor 18.1S Tr. ,.. 1 1- ..i. A
-'- v iiiucui-u his ciuuics ior eigni
years, ana was then appointed tutor, which post
he filled with much ability for the last eis'ht
of his life. He was a man of a strong and clear
mind, tolerably well cultivated and stored with
knowledge. His deportment was that of a chris.
: j? c . j -i A . .. . .
nan, uigiuneu ana circumspect, and he was hel
in high estimation among his own people, having
been chosen for two rears as one of their Repre-
. : l t - i . . ... . . .
Bi'uuiiiius in inu ijecnsiaiure. in unicn iwir h.
tX)k a very active' part, and was much respected.
a iuu ana detailed report of this institution fnr
the year 1853, by the Board of Trustees, together
with the account current, made up to Dec. 31st,
marked L and X are - appended. From them the
following facts are derived. The whole number of
scholars in the school during the vear was 74. A
class of 1 1 was graduated in A nril ; and nave
lass of l'J was admitted in Julv. Four wern dis
missed lor bad conduct : but the jrener.il dennrt.
... .. . D I
meni oi the scholars has been verv rod. Thrnn
. . . - ml J-l "
who went to join the new class died ui Kmnll nt
ttliAirun tlii l.svnltU C iL 1 , , . , .
iiviiiLu vi me ecuooi nas uoen umn.
terrupted. The experiment of having the pupiM
provide tneir own support has thus far been quite
ruwcMiui, uuu oa.-8 KJ ine institution not losa
than $1500 a vear. The Trustees sav. 'Vn mi nil
has lieen compelled to leave the tu-hcJA
Of the failure of his resources ; and it is believed
there will be no difficulty hereafter in selecting pu-
gratifying result. The pupils will doubtless make
better men, from the efforts they are obliged to put
forth, to support themselves while pursuing their
Another encouraging circumstance in relation in
this school is the progress the pupils are making
in the English language. The Trustees say in their
report, "in addition to the branches taught hereto
fore in the school, all the pupils have been prose
cuting the study of English this vear. in which
tudy their desire, though ardent at first, inr-rmuio
with their progress. We feel an increased convic
tion of the importance of urging forward this De
partment of instruction. The learning of the En-
ish language is the only practical means of un
ocking to the Hawaiians tl lie vast store rif tnnw.
edge treasured nn in English books : and hesips
i - j'i . - . . i .. .. o .u
ere are cannoi so reaauy ootam, even with a con-Uhis, the constant influx of foreionera ia constantly
aiaerawe xnowieogo oi dookjit xiut this does not augmenting the business which must be transacted
prove that such knowledge is valueless. It only in the English language. The Hawaiian there
fore, who would keep pace with the age in which
he lives, must learn the English language." lo
this I most cordially subscribe, and shall return to
the subject again.
recrepair" on 106 Duiluing for which a grant
of $3,500 was made by the legislature of last year;
are in a state of advanced progress, and can be
completed with the sum granted. . Schedule mark,
ed JS will show how the money has been expended,
and the balance on hand, Dec. 31. The Trustees
ask for only $4,000 to meet the current expenses
oT the school the coming year, instead of $JJ,U00 as
heretofore. The reduction is "owing to tho fact
that the pupils now provide for their own support
prove that such knowledge is valueless. It only
shows the vastness and difficulty of the work it has
to do. Knowledge is power here as well as else
where, and if combined with virtue, it is power for
rood and good only to its possessor and to the com
munity. This is aa well established as the laws of
cause and effect, but time is required for general
education to work out its legitimate results here or
a ly w here else. ,
Several of ' tho h.wioraMe members of the House
of Representatives leing School Inspectors, have
had a practical knowi-xJge of the working of our
free school system fir years, and need no argument
to convince thenr that the TomiBon."sch)ol has been
on-i of the roost pit -Tit instrumrn!s in pieparing the
The withdrawal of the above $007 from tho
funds of the school was evidently owing to au over
sight in making out tho appropriation bill of last
year, in consequence of which, the Minister of Fi
nance did not feel himself authorized to pay over
the old balance. But the school is entitled to the
money, and a Resolution of the Legislature I have
no doubt will be passed, authorising him to pay it.
It should bo done as soon as possible, else the
school must be suspended for want of funds.
The Teacher's salary is quite inadequate, and
the Committee resolved in Dec. last to nav him
$100 per month for the future, if the funds could
I oe raised. Ihe local tax is insufficient to snstain
the school as it should be, and tho question as to
how the revenue can be increased is commended to
the attention of the Legislature. The teacher was
authorized by the Trustees last year, to collect $3
per quarter, of those pupils whose parents were
able and willing to pay the amount. $52.75 were
collected, of which $33.25 were expended for books
and the balance was credited to the funds of the
school. One of the parents, a laboring man, has
generously paid over to the Treasurer the sum of
$20, as a good-will offering to the institution.
Although due notice was given for the election
of Trustees for this school on tho 26th Dec. last.
none was held ; and I respectfully suggest that the
Legislature, at as early a stage of the session as
possible, order one to be held ; otherwise the schoo
must be seriously embarrassed.
As regular reports have not been received from
the select schools on the Islands, not supported by
Government, I will only mention those that were
in operation during the year 1853. They arc said
10 nave ncen generally in a nourishing condition.
The Mission Boarding and Day School at Puna
hou, Rev. D. Dole, Principal.
Mr. Joseph Watt's English School for native
children, in Honolulu.
Mr. Simond's Private School.
Mr. Bingham's English School.
Rev. E. Bond's Select Boarding School for native
hovs, m Kohala, Hawaii.
Mr. Wilcox's Select School for native boys, at
u aion, r.auai.
Mr. D wight's School for natives, at Kaluaaha,
Mr. Lyman's Manual Labor and Boarding School
tor native bovs, at Jlilo, Hawaii.
Catholic Ifigh School at Ahuimanu, Oahu.
The character of these voluntary institutions has
been described in former reports ; and as I am not
aware that they have changed materially, it is un
necessary to report on theni more fully. They are
doing a great work lor the good of the nation, in
their respective spheres, and well deserve the coun
tenance of the government. The whole number of
pupils in the three select schools under the control
of the government may be stated at 252.
To one of the above select schools, that of Rev.
D. B. Lyman at Hilo, I am commanded : by His
Majesty in Council, to call the special attention of
lL T - i -1 . A T Al. A.t I tA A 1
fit in u m w ru i ri w nn vnnm r n ir r. nir ar w nn
school buildings were consumed by fire ; and the
institution has suffered greatly in consequence. : By
a liberal subscription on the part of the 'foreign
residents and natives of Hilo, a temporary building
was erected, and the school continued. Two very
respectful petitions, one in native the other in Eng-
1 " L " 1 I T. " r i T" rri t irril
f na 4.,1t,.T.i. 1 a.. X" k .
i ovuuitu, iui uvui iiuw iu, luurieeo years, .u-r.. t
? .i .... .. . 'laud therefore. I win not limnt to mm tiM rMiiit4 m
LL i he following will be read with interest :
On the Island of Molokai. with a native Dopulation
of 35G5, only two persons, one native and One foreigner
ftra FMVkrtail , mm Kvnr Rao. iwMAwl .I..!- -.L -
o l mi r ' , i . ' ' " . . " I - . -e iohuivww uurilJX "1
oru. ine raigusu language is already, to a very year 18o3; and no habitual drinkers of spirits. 6C3
great extent, the business language of the Islands, only are reported as using tobacco on thai kland. .; In
juiv uu icu-u ui i. ia oecoming more and more e ourtn and nnh School District on Kauai, with a
iiiuispcnsaoie 10 the native, to enable him to cope population or J13 not a case of drunkenness is reported
with the white man. Without it, he is lame in m 18o,J and no habitual dri.-ikers. There are 72
every joint, and, a gentleman of much observation wreigners in the district. In the becond or Koloa district
has remarked, will bye and bye be a "stranzcr and -n Kauai with a population of about .1200 natives, only
and an alien on his own soil."' rour are reported as given to strong drink, ani five
4th. The language is a very difficult one for the feigners. On the Island of Suhau, population 790, all
natives, and to acouire it well they must Win T.?"T9-M.Ktot,B.8
SATURDAY, APRIL 15, I854.
... 1 , , . . . .
jwuug uuu persevere long ; dui ine mental vigor.
uiM-iiiue, connaence ana seii-respecs to be acquir-
drinks; 877 use tobacco.' In the first district of Maui.
the Lahaina district, with a population of 4684 natives,
101 natives are reported as habitual beer drinkers to ex
V- I Ji 3 . . .. . w - . K iuuiiui
... mc-.iu5 uiiu ttruuoua Biruggie, coupieu wun cess, and 15CO wha ae tobacco." In a part of the
the advantages arising from the boundless fields of second district on Maui, that is, from Waihec to Wai-
Knowieuge, thug opened to the native mind in Eny- karu. 303 natives and foreirs nr .nnrtl nT.r
i:i. i: l 'n . 1 . . ... . . r a
iou nturubure, win insure a vicn return to ail who I mioxicaimg annKS, ana iuu use tobacco.
persevere until success is attained, as well as to -the above statistics are not wholly reliable, and can
the fetate. It is an undertakin!? attended with too on,y regardeil as an approximation to the truth. Of
much difficulty, and too much exjiense, and clothed the.otner "ck have hot "received reports on these
with too ranch importance to the native race to be ubjecta' :i : . ! 1 : 1 "s -"1
lelt to mere individual effort, and hence, becomes a .. , , U"!.U",-B, ""caunff unnas consumed on
1 r 11a laiumia m Mr A a 4. Ari a 11 A ikA a
concern of the government, one of whose first duties Z. "TJ or . f""
is to provide for the educational wants of the peo- 10 J J consamed dunng the year 18o2.
i, tun. I.- t -l j .1 . liy those moat acquainted irith the natives, their in-
ple. bo the last Legislature, viewed the subject, veteran, wi.ii.rfinU.- .n ."7T7ir.
m- - v miuwvuv v o vAa i.auucu im uic
A n.T . r AV-I - TTA T -
English schools for natives, which has been partial- wUling to work, they are apt to resort to any means
the however reprehensible, for obtaining a livelihood.
hsh in I - I haTer heard, also. Judges f Courts eomnlain much
ly expended already for the object, in securing
services of S. L. Austin. Eso..to teach En?li
the Boarding School of Mr. Lyman at Hilo, in aid- of the practice of false swearing among natives.
ing the English department in M. Dwight's school TerJ marked instance of it have come to n
Tke Wreck of the " John Weaie
W have obtained the following Dart;-1
the loss of the bark John Wesley, aiiadP(, . .
our last issue, which sailed from this nm .
m ultimo, ior ban Francisco, touch;,!
. vvm.. v w .uo Tcrj xirong wind aiw)
rent sne uia not
after ftrrtting off tMt'port
On the Saturday evening prerioua to th
westerly gale,' she had taken in nearly all he do.
toes, 1250 bbls. and 144 hoU. T.;mi- .
to be done but to get on board the poultry . t
X. 1 !. . . - I'-XW
uuga uu 1 oc passengers, who had
shore to stop, till the
come to anchor till tfW tain g'
r tiiarpo'rtr" r?
on Molokai, and more especially in paying part of
the tuition of poor native children, who attend the
English schools in Honolulu.' A copy 4 of the ac
count current of this appropriation, marked W,
will show in detail how the money has been expend
ed. . ;
What is wanted, as it seems to the undersigned.
is some ten or more good English schools for natives,
properly located on the different islands, under well
qualified and devoted teachers, and should the pres
ent Legislature be able to raise the sum of S10.000
to aid the parents in their work, and to provide the
same amount for a few successive years, it will only
be acting wisely in view of the snmifieant "siena of
the times, and the wants of this interesting people.
ine 8uoject is again respectfully commended to
your most careful consideration.
III. GENERAL ITEMS.
The Census was taken on the 20th of Dec. last.
under the general supervision of the American Mis-
uinn,iri... V I L... ..F f :i V : j
. Ap Jones of Lahaina, to all of whom the go
nent is under obligations for the great pain
hsh, signed by Benj. Pitman, Esq., Thomas Miller,
Esq., Kaapa and others, and setting forth in a for
cible light, the loss of the institution, and its great
value to the schools on Hawaii, were forwarded to
the King, soliciting the aid of the government in
rebuilding the house. The report of a ' committee
of the Privy Council on the petitions, and a resolu
tion on the same, I append for the information of
your honorable body. His Majesty's Government
highly appreciated the views of the petitioners in
regard to that school, as one of the most valuable
on the Islands, but not having sufficient funds
available for such an object. I was directed to
make this appeal to the Legislature, and I have no
doubt it will be met with all the liberality that
the cause of education 1 on that Island demands.
About $3,000 are needed to repair the loss and fur
nish the school with suitable accommodations.
( T111 English Lasgcage.
One fact in regard to all these select schools, ex
cepting those in Kohala, Hawaii, and Koolau,
Oahu, is, that, whether composed of white children.
half-whites' or pure natives, the English language
is taught in them all as a daily exercisa ; and , the
progress of the natives in acquiring this, to them
most difficult language, gives more and more encour
agement to teachers from year to year. . There are
now estimated to be about 300 pure natives, who
are pursuing the study of this language with teal,
and a determination to accomplish the task, how
ever difficult; ' : ' ' '
I feel a disposition to sav much in this place nn
the importance of imparting a. knowledge of the
trruiuuiu 19 unuer obligations ior the ereat nam
and labor they bestowed on this tedious and diffi
cult work, without any adequate compensation.
The native school teachers were employed as the
subordinate agents in the work, under the superin
tendence of the gentlemen above named. The
School Districts were subdivide.! into small ones.
one of which was assigned ?. et- h teacher, who.
aving been previously furnished with stationery
and blanks, on the day appinsed, proceeded to
write down the names of" all thu people in their
respective districts and fill the cwt-ponding spaces
for sex, age, Jfcc. The advantage in writing all the
""" ', '"n m tutx; cirurs ur. viivoi crvu, ine pa
pers can bo revised and corrected more easily than
11 no names were written, ror the ennre accuracy
of the work I cannot vouch, but in my opinion, it
is as correctly done as is possible, with native
agents. TI'O sum total is probably not far from
the truth. The gross amount and tho numbers of
the sexes are the mwt reliable part of the returns.
Not much dependence can be placed in those for
ages, as few natives know what their ages are.
The cost of taking the census has been kept
within the appropriation of 1,200, which would
not have been the case had the gentlemen who su
perintended the m-rk, received an adequate com
Iensation for their labor.
The tables n.."rke i P. 1 and 2, gives the result
' ail, Irora which the
is tak?n. '
of this census v:
SrM.MABT or Cr
k Returns, taken, Dec.
Men. Women. " Total.
Island of Hawaii, 12,443 . 11,750 .1 24,188
" " Maui, 8,105 , 8,425 17,330
" " Molokai, 1,791) 1.7GG 3,565
" . " Lanai, 317 283 000
" Oahu, 9,551 , 8.2C4 17,815
" "Kauai, 8,672 3,054 . 6,726
" " Niihau, 8"J2 398 7U0
Total, 37,079 33,940 ' 71,019
Island of Hawaii, - - - - 259
" " Maui, - - - - - 244
' " Molokai, - - - ' . 42
" " Oahu, - 1,311
" 'Kauai, - : - - . 264
Total," - " - , - 0 - ' - 2,118
Natives, ----- 71,019
Natives and Foreigners, grand total.
Marraiues, Births and Deaths.
The number of marriages licensed during the year
1858, was - . - 1954
The number of births was - - . ' 1513
" " deaths " - - 8026
It is estimated that from five to six thousand of the
last were occasioned by the small pox.
'A list of all the lands appropriated for educational
purposes, excepting school-house lots, together with
those which have been sold, and the amount received
for them, is enclosed herewith marked E. The whole
number of acres sold from the begianinz is about
16,891, including some 13,000 for which the papers are
not yet made out The gross amount thus far received
on these lands is, in cash or bills, $ 10,839 26. The en
closed land account, marked E. O., and also the interest
account L. M., show in detail the amount received, and
the manner ia which the interest has been expended, --
1 Tblic morals.
I am much indebted to the several District Attorneys,
Baker Esq., of Hawaii, J. W. Austin Esq., of Maui.
A. B. Bates Esq., of Oahu, and O. Rhodes Esq.. of
Kauai, for their valuable statistics of criminal convic
tions in the oourts of their several districts, and lor the 1
valuable letters of two of the above named gentlemen
accompanying the same. Such statistics do not form a
perfect criterion, it is true, of the state of public morals
on ' the Islands, as many offences against the law,
doubtless escape detection. Tet. they enable us to
form a tolerable correct judgment on the subject, By
these returns, it appears, that the whole number of con
victions for crime in 1853, in'all the Courts, was 3173;
or one to about every 23 of the whole population ; and
lou more than were reported lor the year 1002. -5
ur the above convictions, 10o9 were for drunken-
ness--55 less than were reported for the previous year.
860 were for fornication and adultery: that is 40 more
than were reported during the previous year. 109
were for disturbing the peace; 199 for. thefts and lar
ceny, and the remainder for gambling, violating the
onouuia ana minor onencm. s
Let it be observed that, of the 3173 convictions for
crime on the whole Islands. 1369. or nearly onaJt&lf
were in the Police Courts of Honolulu; and as near as I
can ascertain, about 692 occurred in the Police Courts
of Lahaina; making in all 2061, or nearly two-thirds of
the criminal convictions on the Islands in these two sea
ports, confirming what has been often stated, that these
are the great hot-beds of vice on the Islands. Purify
these populous towns, and you purify the nation.
How can it be done? W here 19 the wwe nan who will
dense the proper means i
One ef my respected colleagues has introdneai a. bin
during several successive meetings of the LogishUare,
' . o
But on the whole, the state of nublic morals as re-
portea dv the School inspectors and District Attorneys
cannot be said to be bad on the Islands. Life, property
and reputation are as secure as in most Christian lands:
and we are almost entirely free from the more aggrava-
m-m species 01 crimes, sucn as robberies, murders, incen-
uiaries na ine like.
I beg the attention of the Legislature to the valuable
suggestions of Attorneys: Austin and Baker, ia regard
u puonc morals, in their letters herewith submitted,
particularly to the common practice of married persons
forsaking their partners on the most trifling grounds,
thus breaking up domestic relations, and exposing the
panics 10 greai temptation .
Publications is Hawaiian. . .
Andrews Grammar of the Hawaiian language.
work greatly needed, and for which an appropriation of
9 was maue oy the legislature of 185 has been
puonsnea, ana is an important acquisition to our Island
Ihe Hawaiian AtLut ivforml nv ..nrf
I regret to say has not yet been "received from New
York; but I have intelliirenoe that it wm in th hamix
of the engraver, partly comnleted. and I
The appropriation of $1000 to meet the expense of this
publication and other school-hooks, so fer W it -t
" vwirsc, wui remain unexpenaea until the arrival
of the Atlas. The schools have suffered much for wnt
of this work, as the important study of Geography can-
uuv ue pursuvu WItnOUl It.
The sum total of printing issued from the nre nf tf
American Mission from the beginning to the close of
ioa, was ivi,zzv,iinj pages; and I am happy to say,
that the work of printing in tho native language is
being prosecuted in that establishment with renewed
vigor uuring the present season.
CnANOE IX THE L.VW.
The law exempting clergymen from certain taxes has
been abused, if I am correctly informed, by some
parties, and is liable to still greater abuse, and I re
spectfully suggest to the Legislature to abolish it alto
Medicines roa Gratuitous Distribution.
ine appropriation of $1,003 'fur the purchase of
medicines for poor natives, has all been expended for
that object, and the medicines have been distributed in
parcels to missionaries, physicians and others who were
wming to administer them to the sick. The account
marked 11. N. appended, will show how the money has
been expended. -Provisions
roa the Insane, roa Paupers and tor
the Deaf Dctib and Bund.
This subject has had no particular connection with
this Department, but from a feeling of humanity, I
ventured to call the attention of the last Legislature to
me negiectea condition of the unfortunate classes of
persons above named; but as nothing was done, I re
spectfully call your attention once more to the subject.
To make no provisions for such sufferers among us,
is certainly not following the example of other civilized
and Christian government.
from the returns of the Census, it anoears that ther
are on the Islands 106 deaf and dumb, 329 blind, and
Chaplains or Prisons.
Of chaplains and teachers of prisons I make no re
port, because none have been mpIoyed under the De
partment, from the sober Conviction that in the tirwn)
wuuiuuu ui vur prisons, meir moors would be unavail
ing. Jutenile Delinquents.
The importance of a House of llefuge, or some suita
ble provision for the reformation and training of juve
nile offenders against the laws, was set forth in my last
report. It will save repetition ttf refer the Legislature
to those statements, and I shall be prepared to show, if
called upon, that such institutions in other countries
have been attended with the most beneficial results. Sb
reason appears why they should not produce similar
, Accounts. ".
A summary account of the reprint n,l r;f .
- - f ' Aivuuuica
or the Department under the appropriation of 1853
"if." ". nerewiia appended marked
i 1. Also, for the sake of information, the accounts
as they stood on the 31st of March, of the current
I have collected the material for & Rm.11 minm.
popular education in the native lammaa. mWn. .
. " w oauaoca, reasonings and management
or different governments in regard, to public schools,
which I hope to be able to publish durinir the current
year, for the benefit of the native population. On a
subject so vital to our national welfare, too much can
not be done to secure enlightened public sentiment and
a wise legislation. God Save the Kino.
It ARMSTRONG, ' ' ' -
Minister of Public Instruction.
vessel waa ready for sea
A few boors of good weather would have suffice w
have got the bark ready for sea. On Sabbath th
2Cth, the S. W. wind commenced blowing lirf,,?.
at that port, aa it did also here, but not sufficient to
cause any uneasiness to. the oJEcers of the vand
though we understand, the Captain was advised n
that time bj one of the oldest resident of Fok.
Mr. Gilmore to put to sea, as he thought it wooli
be unsafe to remain at anchor. Other resident.
at Koloa expressed however, s different opinion,
and thought it perfectly safe to remain.
On Monday the 27th, the wind was mooW
from the west, and "nearly everything was put 0,
board readj to go to sea the next day. Dnrinr
the night, however, the wind increased to a S. W
gale with a heavy srwell, and the vessel conunenaj
dragging her anchors, till she came into shallow
water and unshipped her rudder by it striking th
reef. . Both the flukes of the starboard anchor had
been broken off, and also one of the flukes of the re
maining anchor. It now became impossible to
put to sea, and on Tuesday morning effort wen
made to warp the vessel out of her position by
kedge anchors, and every assistance wa afforded
by Capt. Goosman of the Bremen Bhip " Joaepfc
Hayden," for which he charged $600.
During this day the greater part of the baggag,
of the passengers and seamen waa saved at mca
risk, although some of them have lost all they hid
on board, and all lost more or less.
On Thursday morning having parted from her
cables, the vessel was thrown up on the roeki
above the usual hih water mark. nA ,.
o J ui I W'J
hours went to pieces, all the spars, sails and hull
beipg entirely destroyed.
There were on board about 6000 gallons of oil
of which only 500 gallons were saved. About 60
hogs floated ashore from the wreck, the rest hav
ing been destroyed. r ,
The timber and frame of the wreck was sold u
Pt lay high and dry on the rocla for $300.
u- 1 ii .
n c utppy to learn tnat the mail for theC.
S. consisting of three bags, was saved undamW.
and brought up in the steamer. - It will be for
warded by the first vessel. It will be recollected
that this mail contained the correspondence deDo-
sited at the Post Office from Feb. 8 till March IS
In conclusion, we cannot avoid cautionibg 0fS-
cers 01 vessels trading about the islands to be ex-
cceuingiy wary at tho first signs of a southerly or
westerly wind, when at the leeward ports. Even
if the wind does not blow strong, the swell is fre
quently so great, as of itself to cause a vessel to
It was but a few weeks since that two
California schooners were caught in a southerly
gale in the same port and come very near being
wrecked. An old Captain, long resident at the
islands, has often said that no quare-rid ves
sel ought ever to anchor at either of the ports of
T t. . .
ivauai Dctween the months of .N ovember and April.
Ship, Shippiae;, Ac.
The Clipper ship Staghousd, Capt. Behm. mad
the passage from Anjier to New York in 63 days.
The Ericssox had again appeared, and was at
anchor in the North River, where she attracted
IW The great length of the Ministerial Reports
of which we publish two in our present number,
obliges us to exclude almost every thing else from
our columns, and even to trespass upon the space
usually devoted to our advertising friends. But
we regard the publication of these Reports as of
sufficient : importance" to give them entire, especial
ly as a subject of interest abroad, where the pam
phlet edition published for the use of the Legisla
ture is not circulated. , Ve hope to conclude them
in the remaining three numbers of the present vol.
ume of the Polynesian, so that when bound, they
will all appear in connection. . We ask, therefore,
the indulgence of our readers, as well as our adver
tising patrons, until the Reports are completed.
Hawaiian Preface ia Sam Fraaeiseo.
Advices from San Francisco of, the 11th March,
give the following rates for some of our island
product8:-yrnp,inhalfbMs. 45cts.; in Barrels,
40 cts!, alow of sale. S. I. Coffee clean, 14 and
15 cts. .Sugar, best grade, in kegs, 8 1-2 and 9
cts. In bags, 8 and 8 1-2 cts. No. 2, in mats, 7
and 7 1-2. No. 3, in mala, 6 and 6 1-2 cts. All
the above klow 'of sale." Polar oH,!goo4 per gall.
6a and, 0 cts. .,
The general market exceedingly depressed, and
several failures had opcurred the week previous to
the 11th. 1
a. new steam-ship, the Van eke Blake, sailed
from New York, Feb. 3d, for the Pacific, to take
her place in the Independent California Iine.te
tween Panama and San Francisco. She took out
50 passengers for S. F. and intermediate ports.
The ship Washington Alston is advertised ia
he Boston Atlas of Jan. 25th, for Honolulu.
The fine new clipper schconer Ka Mor, (Sover
eign,) arrived at this port on the 10th inst. direct
from N. London, in 120 days. The hunch and
trial trip of this schooner we have already noticed.
he was built expressly for Capt. Ilobron, long and
favorably known as the owner of the Maria, and is
a first rate vessel in all respects. Her sailing quali
ties can be inferred from the fact that she was bat
40 days from Cape Horn to this port, which was
A. 1? A A. . - .
most excellent passage. &he is designed lor the
coasting trade, and will fill the place" ot the Maria,
which has been sold to engage in foreign
merce. . . , ; , ,
- Akamai arrived on the 11th, in 24 hour
from Kauai, with cargo of sugar, Jtc., and thepa
seugers and mail of the wrecked bark John Weslej,
(formerly the Fellows.) She had a rough passage
up, and was 10 hours longer than usual.
The schooner jSovkbsigk is advertised for Su
Francisco about the 19th inst., if sufficient induff-
ment offers, which we hope will be the ease. A
number-of passengers are now waiting an opportu
nity to embark, and a large mail, including that
ongnally sent by the John Wesley, is now lying in
the Post Office, ready. to be despatched.
The Match li M sails this afternoon for Austra
lia, at 4 o'clock:1 ' '
It is expected that the N. B. Palsib will br
Lahaina for Honolulu on MondaT, next,'' and that
she will remain' here some' thre ifor fofore sail
ing for the United States. ' ' . ' '
The steamer Akaxai is laid up for a season,
being out of coal. ,: ta , : ;
. Removal ot the Register's Office.
The office of Asher B. Bates, as District itfei-
ney of Oahu, and Register or Conveyancea, l
been removed to the makai rooms on the first floor
Of the Court Houae ahink h&M bean fittMl 01) fof
that purpose. - - - . . "?7
A Mail for San Francisco will be despatched bj
the clipper schooner "Sovereign," about Vs"1"
day the 19th inst. ; ;: . ' ' . f
For Lahaina this day 3 P. M.
For Kawaihae and Hilo this day 3 P- M:
. Hanalei, Kauai-thia day .3 P.M. . -