Newspaper Page Text
snotess of Protestant mission in India, &c, is quite
pertinent to tne subject. 1 ooadense bis observations, cat ao not Outage a word : Streams rise not higher than their aouroes. None bat extraordinary persons rise above the level of their tunes, ana it is in vain to expect all missionaries to be -extraordinary persons. As they come from the mass. ao they most resemble the mass. If one come from a Teligioas community pervaded by a love of ease, ele gance ana gain, wbat reason have we to expect that an appointment as missionary should, as by a charm, at once raise mm to a fervor of piety, contempt of earth, courage in dissenting from castom, and a readiness to endure privations, which none of his church at home nave maintained, and for which he has neither train ing cor example In vain we harangue departing mis--nonaries upon the necessity of a holy weanedness from the world and contempt of ease, if we have no more ourselves. If then the truth of the great New Testament and Bible doctrines, and therefore of the Book itself, was first demonstrated to the old heathen world by astound ing miracles and heroic martyrdoms, if some portion of the faith thus generated has flowed down to us in a he reditary and traditional stream, and makes in reality part of Protestant Christianity, then it were unrea sonable in ns to expect that the Bible, and the mere expounding of its doctrines, will themselves serve to convert the heathen of the present day. We must have something to come in the place of that primitive, heroic zeal, and if our missionaries are of a class not able to supply it, it were as absurd in us to exclaim against the hardness of the heathen heart, when we see them cast away the Book as repugnant to them, as it were for a blundering chemist to rail at the obstinacy of his oxy gen and hydrogen for not becoming water, though he had shaken them together in a bottle till his arm was tired. What signifies it then that you have erected a cumbrous, expensive and powerful looking apparatus, if it be so clogged by the cold damps of earth, that, turn it how you will, all your labor shall not be able to draw from out of it a single spark of celestial fire, by which to ignite and combine the two discordant elements that you desire to blend together. THE POLYNESIAN. SATURDAY. APRIL 20. 1661. We present below a comparative table of the domestic produce of these islands fur the last twelve years, the only time for which such a table, as we have divided it, could with the data at hand be compiled with any degree of accuracy. It can not fail to be instructive in many respects to the political economist and the statesman. It shows pretty plainly how the whole productive energy of the country has been exerted, and that it has drawn, during the time referred to, from the whaling fleet alone about $5,993,513, or nearly half a million a year, while from all other foreign commerce, as supplies or as cargoes, it has only drawn about $3,946,119, or $328,926 a year. It shows the large, preponderating influence which the whaling business has had upon the monetary resources of the country and how seriously they will be affected by a cessation or material decrease in said business It shows that, taking the population at an average of 75,000 souls, each man, woman, and child, has earned from the foreign commerce, as shown by the table, 811 05 per head a year, of which $6 66 came from the whalers, $i 39 from all other sour ces, and only $3 09 per head from produce export ed as cargo. It shows that, were the whaling fleet suddimly annihilated or diverted to other places, over $500,000 a year would be lost to this country which are now brought here in coin or goods to pay for supplies, repairs, labor, amusements, etc., consumed by the whalers. And when we consider what can never be accurately shown in figures, but is none the less, in its general results, well known to those who are conversant with the sub ect that the greater portion of the cargoes and supplies is the produce of foreigners living here, and not of native industry, it will easily be under stood bow trifling of their kind, how precarious in their nature, are the monetary resources of the na tive population. No.Wa lalra. Nn.Mcht'a Nat'lt IVimratlc Produce ExpnrtM Huppi'd. TnC , Aa rap. to Wh'rv I. oth alips. Am cargo. IMS. in, IMl 14J... IMS lxi. IMS,.... IH5 IkS lt IMS, IT4I li.. 1-4 13. 2.Mt.. IW.74S 5 m; . 4CS U . 4M ;. 1S.... :. 111.... U. 141 til. 1U.... 111. J ml., IIS.... 1 .. !.... S ., in.... 1!.. te.ne ;;.ts.. li. 1S1.CM.. 194..'... ICS.MO.. 101.M4.. ij.m.. IK.S4. . 3I.S.'... Sa.SOS. . ?S.t.. 44.4V. . 3I.HM.. It.. . .40.. !.. . 3:.o.. s-mh 4 lt?,4 M m.cii s 1S4.C74 IT 111.154 7 113 -It CT 141. Tlit 79 147.701 l .71 II 4K.77S II 149.93 M alt Ml sis SA 1-7 tM M 123 in.... IM IS! m ... aa 7S.... M IS.... T! . t.m l.l 1.414.. 1M I.S1.41l 47K.1S . i ;,i) SI 4,929 arfcaleahlps. aTaraclnr M aara each, 147. .7 mneu c-ipndiBff S3 MCtl at thr lalaarta, 14.4M.1M Domaattr BTOdace f arnth4 aa aufMill to IN umf a amber of atripa, 1 .31-5.411 jfEBaaaia' tor repair, my Uc whaling naet, kw eatiaiate, 1 yrmxm,. . l-vi.voa Total aawant ezpeaded ay the waaltnc fleet In II year at thr lakaaaa, to,9,jll Or a yearly average of salf a hilliox or doll a! t.lH amrhaat aialila, aTeratlnr ( mea each, 17.14 nn, 4 1S nrti la port. t!!,se 14 Natioaal naell, arerajruuc men each, l.ao oica r4 lis aara la port, 4M.aft Doaaeatlc produce aapplle4 to aota clatag of vraarla, 4Tn.3S Kxpeaded (or repair by both claaae of veaaeia 3at0O9 Domestic prod nor exported aa cairoes, 3. its 19 Total, ,4,I19 Or yearly averse of tu,ML Tbeae trare at aaaenlitehlT HWw the mark of artnal fart, aa In former year ao proper allealaia waa ever peht tw ahlpttlnr statiettra, and many a whaler arrived and tranaarWd buaiaeaa that waa never reported. But we have shown in our last number that the whaling business is, and of necessity must be, de creasing in this ocean and at these islands ; and we have now Bhown to what great extent they have been benefitted by it. From both these prem ises, then, and we believe them mainly correct, it is evident that the necessity to provide against an event, which no foresight can avert, is urgent and imperious. What we lose in the desultory pro ductions and supplies to wbaleships and their crews must be made up in an increased production of ar ticles fit for export ; articles which, possessing a permanent, marketable value abroad, will be to the native an unfailing resource, a little harder to earn perhaps, but more enduring and more beneficial in its results. " Light come, light go," is an old saying, and alas, but-too true in its application to the native population of this country. IIow great a portion of the ten millions, received daring the last twelve years, has &en the remuneration for an industry, which we care not to mention, we cannot calculate, but that no blessing has rested upon it is evident. And inasmuch as the regular periodical visits of the wbaleships have been the means and the ex- usa for drawing the native population from the country to the seaports, in so much have they tended to disperse the native's family, unsettle his habits, fill his head with ideas of comparative wealth easily obtained, and greatly to discredit ystematio agricultural labor beyond the point ne cessary to obtain food. It has been said that the sin and Buffering, which bare sJSicted.tbjs people forao many years, are the result, of, or at least have been greatly aggravated by, the risita of the whaling fleet, and that the withdrawal of the whalers would be tha means and aJTord a leisure time for the physical recuperation 0f this people. Would that we ould bqld the whalers guiltless in this respect, but we do not beljeye that all the blame can honestly be laid their door, hot should be fairly shared by thoce who when in authorityand an authority tat mora unlimited fhzn at present itber wilfull neglected or openly refused to enact such laws and institutions as under the peculiar circumstances would have neutralized or counteracted the evil referred to ; and who, when out of authority, have declared their intention to upset, if possible, the late though we hope not too late precautionary measures to keep that evil from the bulk of the people. And now, after a six months1 trial of those sanitary measures, with all their incompleteness and defects, we can already form a tolerably cor rect opinion of the wholesome effect they would have produced on the physical condition of the people, had they been adopted thirty years ago, and of the tens of thousands that would have been alive this day to till the land, to uphold their own nationality and gladden the heart of the philan thropist. But it is useless to quarrel with the whalers, as some well meaning but rather short-sighted people have done, for consequences which we had it in our own power to avert. While the whalefishery yet remains sufficiently profitable to draw ships to this ocean, we feel it to be a duty to encourage their coming to these islands to recruit, while at the same time we strain every nerve to prepare for the time, which can be but a question of a few years, when their entire withdrawal or material diminution Ghall render their visits a matter of I minor importance to the national resources. Other ports in the Pacific are bidding high for the whal ers. California has enacted special laws in their behalf ; San Francisco has adopted regulations to favor their coming, and, having of late years mate rially curbed the rapacity of her lawyers and laud- sharks, will prove a powerful competitor, aided by the additional fact of its being a home port. On the other side of us Tahiti is doing her utmost to win the Line whalers and the between-season cruisers to her port. And Guam and the islands west of us pick up many a ship, coming from the Line or New Zealand, which formerly cam here with unfailing regularity for its spring supplies. The following short table, for the three last years, shows the gradual decline of the spring fleet of whalers, how the whaling ground is changing, and how they must have found other ports to recruit at than those of these islands. And when we re- fleet that of the 32 vessels which left here last fall, bound on a between-season cruise on the Line or New Zealand, only 4 have touched here, so far. on their passage back to the Northern whaling grounds, the fact that not only whaling is decreas ing, but that we as a recruiting station are being deserted, needs no further evidence : Km hme A eat tltlle Arrival htierui. bMa Whale. 1M. l-i 11 IIS 8 94 ToUl arrivals, gyring iaS, U8 " " 18T.9 110 " 18HO, srt " April 20, I8C1 47 Xow, in national, as well as in personal affairs, it is proper, and would be well if always followed, to inquire into the cause of a trouble as soon as it arises, or even threatens to occur, to ascertain whether it is owing to our own misconduct or im providence, or to the actions of others over which we have no control. It is useless to repine over past neglect when famine stands at the door. The decline of the whalefishery no earthly power can arrest ; but it rests in a great measure with our selves whether we may or not draw all the advan tages from it to the last, that it is capable of be stowing. Let us, then, hastily glance at some of the ob jects for which whalers used to come here and see if, not perhaps positively in themselves, but com paratively with other ports which now rival us for the whaling fleet, separately or in their general bearing, much may not yet be done to recall those whom we know would prefer these islands, colnis paribus, to any other recruiting station, and who now avoid or go by us, for reasons that must exist and be found here, even when by so doing they sometimes go further and fare worse." We have seen many letters from captains of whalers to their agents here, and have heard them personally complain of many things as an annoy ance, if not actually a burden. And when we con sider that it is the small pebble which chafes the foot more than the big rock, we can well conceive how a number of petty annoyances each individ ually perhaps of no great amount but coming on top of each other, may produce a feeling of irrita tion, and serve to keep awny those who. with oth er rival ports bidding for their money, need but little coaxing' to go elsewhere. We will refer, for one thing, to the charges upon water at Honolulu. When the old water works were laid down in 1850 its principal object was the supply of shipping in port, especially the whalers, and it was thought that a small charge per barrel would not be felt as onerous, consider ing the advantages which this method of watering ships afforded over the old way of rolling the casks through the streets of Honolulu to and from some pump, not seldom with brackish water, several hundred yards from the beach. We are not aware that at that time much o! jection was made to this water-rate, coupled as it then was with other priv ileges, better whaling prospeets and less competi tion from other ports, because it was felt to be an equitable arrangement, that as the Government had incurred a considerable outlay for the accom modation of the whalers, they on their part should help to rafund that money. And we think it but simple justice here to say that though, in our personal, intimate acquaintance for many years wun the whaling fleet, we have encountered cap tains of such a singularly unhappy disposition mat they would quarrel with a brand-new sixpence because it was not bigger yet the gr&t body of mem are more reasonable, equitable and generous than any equal number of men token at a class or promiscuously. But what at one time, and under different circumstances, may be cheerfully borne, oiten becomes the reverse under altered conditions. At that time, and for years afterwards, the great A . a I iransnippmg business of oil and bone from this port was yet in its infancy, and the whalers, car rying all the catch of the voyage on board wherev er they went, seldom took or bad occasion to take more fresh water than wbat sufficed for drinking purposes during the season. But since the tran shipment of oil and bone became the rule with all who had any to send home, and whalers fitted sea son after season from this port, and weut clean to theUbing grounds, they both had the room and, had the price of the water permitted, would have preferred (9 fill their ground tier casks with fresh Pnm -.at fal. Pm Line A 2 l.y lo iT li9 l-i lsl 17 43 '. i7 1. 4 IM K Ml Sll Mil I.6M 1.7.4Sa619i ,t water instead of salt. The price now is twelve and one-half cents per barrel of water for all below three hundred barrels consumed, and six and one quarter cents for all above three hundred. Take now, for example, a whaler that has sent home her oil and ia fitting for another season North. At a small estimation she requires three hundred bar rels water for drinking purposes, and say five hun dred or over in her ground tier casks ; but the price of this, at the present rate, is $68 75, to which the whalers object as too high, considering J the increased charges in other respects and the diminished chances of a nrosDerous vovaee. ere r 4 - w the rate lowered one-half, we think that lew ves sels would jo away from this port with salt water in their ground tier. Were the price lowered to six and one-quarter cents per barrel, there can be little doubt, with those who know the whalers and the wants of the whaling fleet, that they would cheerfully pay fifty dollars for eight hundred bar rels rather than, as now, thirty-seven dollars and fifty cents for three hundred. Our own opinion is that water, like light and air, should be free, except in as far as the procur ing of it may in voire an expense to the Govern ment, in which case the charge should merely be sufficient to pay the interest accruing on the capi tal invested, repairs and keeping, and a small sink- ins fund to extinguish within a certain number of years any debt incurred or to procure new works when the old shall become unserviceable The following table will show the consumption of water by the whalers for the last two years, and it indicates plainly how little water they have taken over and above what was absolutely necessa ry for drinking purposes : From April 1, 1859, 1 To April 1, lS60r. 83,105 bbls. water, & 12Xe....84,llS 12 8,UH Btfc 194 Bi S 4,332 96 From April I, 1S60, I 8-2,195 ISVc... ..Vi'c.... 4,024 37 344 98 To April 1.ISC1,. f 5.520 84.3C9 35 We will revert at another time to some of the other annoyances which vex the whaling business at these islands, especially under comparison with other ports, and, inasmuch as conjointly thy tend to draw the whalers from here, deprive many of the small native farmers of, not the best customer perhaps tiiat he could find, were his agri cultural pursuits different, yet the only customer for the articles which his means, las knowledge and his habits now prompt him to produce. To show how sensitively alive our great rival. Sun Francisco, is on the subject of those 6mall charges which worry navigation and react unfa vorably on the producer, we quote from the Alia California of the 30tli ult.: " In all ler.iiil.it ion bearing on commercial interest, the im portance to the State' rrowinc wealth making San Francico a cheap port, should never be loat right of. Shipping com merce is particularly sensitive on port charge. Transient (ships or venneln seeking freight, avoid port having a high tar- in ! duck, fiaruor mauler and pilot rate, a they would break ers or a pestilence. Segularirader. or freight line, calculate closely the aggregate of diaries, ami add ihein to their freight. w haters, and ships neeking supplies, w ill go miles out of their way to seek a cheap port. Singapore, from a cluster of Malay huts, has built up a mighty commerce by being free from all port charges. No ship passes her harbor without anchorage ; many pas other port to seek there the supplies necessary to their voyage. We must encourage commerce by the removal of restriction. K very charge, every inspector, every unne cessary meddling with commerce, drives away our trade and prevents its rapid extension. We want to encourage the coming to our port, from all the port of the Pacific, of vessels seeking freight, and this would be not for the benefit of our city alone, but for the whole of California. We have become an exporting State, and while we export, every dollar of freight saved adds to the general wealth and the amount left lor further business ; every dollar caved on our import freights is so much lessened to the gen eral cost of living. The difference made to our agriculturists between a high freight and a low one, in such seasons as the past, is the whole aunt ot profit in their year's labor For instance, grain may be sold at $1 75 per hundred, on a five dollar freight, while the buyer would give, with a ien dollar freight, but $1 60 per hundred ; the cost in both rases is the same to him in the end, but the result is to California that our fanners have madr on every ton of grain five dollars more of profit. This example will show the mutual interest of city and country. No legislation can be made which will make high rates in San Francisco port charges, without di rectly conflicting with the interests of the country. Our ex ports will for many years be of bulky, low cost products that will not hea.-any more burdens than absolute necessity will impose. The mutual interest between city and country has only to be understood in regard to this matter of cheap port and low shipping charges, to secure a remodeling ot ail our legislation in this respect." FOREIGN NEWS ! By the arrival of the clipper bar't Vickery, Capt. C. X. Brooks, in 19 days from San Francisco, en route for Japan, we were furnished, through the politeness of the Captain and of Messrs. W. F. Ladd & Co., of San Francisco, with the latest news from the East ; San Francisco, March 30 ; St. Louis, Mo., March 16 ; liverpool, Feb. 26. The Vickery, contrary to expectation, did not bring the foreign mail, because the charter under which she sails expressly forbids it, and had she made the Islands in the night time, she would have gone by without touching. The Vickery was bound to Hakodadi and the Amoor, for which places the bark Carib and the schooner C. E. Foote had left about the same time, and hence the injunction for the Vickery not to be detained by a maiL The Yankee had not arrived when the Vickery left. The U. S. S. Wyoming arrived on the 19th March, 18 days hence. The inauguration of President Lincoln, in Washing ton, was peaceably performed on the 4th ult., without any interruption or disturhence, as it had been ex pected by many would be the case. The most thorough precautions had been taken, and a strong military force, equal to any emergency, had been drawn to the city. We read that sentinels even had been placed on the tops of houses commanding views of the streets and corners, with preconcerted signals in case of alarm, and that Gen. Scott remained at head quarters most of the day to issue orders and direct movements of troops, if necessary. The inaugural address of the President comes by this conveyance, and is variously commented upon by interested parties. It reiterates portions of the Republican platform, and the President quotes himself to prove his respect for State rights short of secession, which he denies they have a right to. He announces his determination to take, keep and defend the United States property, mints, forts, arsenals, &c. wheresoever situated and by whomsoever appropriated contrary to the Constitution and laws of the United States ; but he qualifies this threatening attitude by saying that if the people in the revolted States were too much opposed to the Federal officers whom he may send among them. or the steps, which be feels it his duty to take, should at present be impracticable, then he will bide his time. As a whole, it is a sensible, peaceable, moderate docu- roent' nd Wl11 no doubt produce the impression on Ala. t ... a a. a. . many that the South had better have waited until they had seen the President's hand. But time is what the Southern Confederacy wants, and they are making the best use of it. We bear little from the South, out here, except through Northern papers, but certain little facts do transpire which show that neither the pressure of want nor the fear of invasion and coercion are spe cially felt by Southern legislators or apprehended by either section of the country. A loan on behalf of the Southern Confederacy of $15,000,000 is being negoti ated and taken up at par. The Southern Congress issued notices to the various collectors of ports in the Confederacy, to levy the same imposts and charges on Northern vessels as on other foreign shipping and goods. The Ambassadors of the Confederacy had not yet been received at Washington, but Mr. Seward had said thai he would consider of it. And at latest dates it was concluded to evacuate Fort Sumter. St. Locia, March 8th. Psesidest Lixoout's Cabihet. The following gen tlemen will compose the Cabinet of President Lincoln : Wm. H. Seward, of New York, Secretary of State ; Salmon P. Chase, of Ohio, Secretary of Treasury ; Simon Cameron, of Peon., Secretary of War ; Caleb B. Smith, of Indiana, Secretary of Interior ; Gideon Wells, of Connecticut. Secretary of Navy ; Montgom ery BLiir, of Md., Postmaster-General ; Edward Bates, of Missouri, Attorney-Oeneral. The Cabinet has been confirmed. The Southern sentiment generally, at first, loked on the Inaugural as meaning war, and consequently great excitement was produced, even among the most conserv ative of the Union men. During the last day or two, things are more quiet, and all parties seem disposed to await the acts of the Government to ascertain its inten tions. It is understood that the action of the Border States will be withheld until a correct understanding is ob tained of the policy of the new Administration. If not coercive, there is no doubt that every one of the Border States will stick to the Union ; but if coercive, it will be a doubtful matter. St. Locis, March 9 p. at. A dispatch from Washington to the New Tork papers says that the Overland Mail Contrectors on the Central Route have determined to run the Pony Express between St. Joseph and Placerville three times, instead of twice a week, after the July next. They also pn pse, when they get ready to run their coaches across the continent, to arrange for conveyance of passengers at a cost of not more than $150 each. St. Lor is, March 11 a. m. The Washington correspondents of the N. Y. Herald and Time both give credence to the report that the Administration is considering, with the probability of adopting, the policy of withdrawing the troops from Forts Sumter and Pickens. It is said the matter was under consideration in the Cabinet on Saturday night the Oth of March. Even Southern men acknowledge that this would be the death blow to secession. The report, however, decidedly needs confirmation. It is also said by the Bame correspondent that Major Anderson's supplies are growing short, though he gets fresh meats every day. He has salt provisions for only fifteen days. It seems that Roman, one of the Southern Commissioners, has not yet arrived in Wash ington, and that nothing will be done by the Commis sioners until he does arrive. The Constitution of the Southern Confederacy has been ordered to be engrossed. It is said to be extreme ly conservative. Five millions of the Southern loan has been taken at par, and no doubt is entertained at Montgomery that the balance will be taken at the same figures. Nothing is yet decided about the California appoint ments. The latest rumor from Texas, is, that Gen. Ben. McCulloch is about organizing an expedition for the invasion of the Northern Provinces of Mexico, with the view of annexing them to Texas, and thus forming a new Confederacy distinct from that of the Gulf States. A dispatch from New Orleans, of the 8th of M irch. j pays that on the 4th inst. the convention ueciarea Texas out of the Union ; and that Gov. Houston issued a proclamation to that effect. An ordinance was passed authorizing the appoint ment of delegates to represent Texas in the Provisional Government at Montgomery. Gov. Houston, it is said, will not resign, nor will he take the oath of allegiance. The Convention was discussing an ordinance defin ing treason. In the Southern Congress, on Saturday (9th March) the Array Bill passed as reported, and 6o,000 men will soon be in readiness to take the field. St TkrrTS Xfafrli l.fli This Mail Contract Closed bt Bcttebfield! 1 The contract has been closed by Butterfield for service from St. Louis to Placerville in sixteen days, d uly. Ihe Pony will run three times per week, making the trip in eight days. The contract will commence June loth. The Overland Mail will be discontinued. St. Lous, March 16" A. M. Although orders for the evacuation of Fort Sumter have not vet been issued, all accounts agree that such will be the ultimate policy of the Administration. No other course could be pursued, as it would be impossi ble to provide reinforcements in time. It is generally conceded that it would require ten thousand men. aided by all the naval, forces at the command of the Government. Gen. Scott says it is a military necessity, and, it is reported, takes the entire responsibility of the step. borne ultra Republicans denounce the policy bitterly. hut others, while differing as to the necessity, concede that it is unavoidable. Among the" latter is the New York Tribune. The Republicans throw the entire blame on the previous Administration. The tnion men in the Border States strongly urge the policy of the withdrawal of the troop? from all the forts, but there is no indication, as yet, that this policy will be pursued, except as regards Sumter. The Southern Commissioners have addressed : com munication to Seward, and the latter has asked time for consideration. The matter will probably be re ferred to the Senate ; meanwhile everything at the South is quiet. No important movements are reported. The Texas Legislature ? 1 has passed a resolution authnrizipg the transfer of State military to a Provis ional Gov rnment. Governor Houston refuses to recognize the Conven tion, and says that he and the Legislature, which meets on the 18th, will attend to the public questions now arising. 1 he Georgia Convention has made a similar transfer of forts, arsenals and arms. The Southern Congress has adopted a permanent Constitution. The President is to be elected for six years. 1 he umcers in tne laoinet uurmg goou Be havior. Cabinet (Jtncers to be eligible to seats tu Con gress. No difficulty is said to exist in obtaining the fifteen million loan. The Virginia, Missouri and Arkansas Conventions have not yet come to any conclusion or test vote. The indications are in favor of a Border Slave States Con ference. The Pony Express is to run three times a week in eight days, to commence on the 15thof Jane. 1 he mail on the Southern route is expected to stop very soon. Miclliteaia Itrana. Particclabs or rax Ivacgcratios. Mr. Lincoln read his Inaugual in a loud, firm voice, so that he I couia do neani at a great distance. Me delivered it with much effect, and was loudly applauded in the intervals. Only one copy of the address was made, and that was for the Associated Press from original slips printed at the Springfield Journal office, with interlineation made in accordance with new developments after the first draft. Gen. Scott was not in the procession, as was gen erally believed, but remained at the War Department all day, in order that he might receive early notice of any uiBturoance or tne peace, and issue the necessary orders. Sentinels, taken from the regular troops, were placed on the tops of prominent buildings, with previ ously arranged signals to communicate with different stations, in case of an outbreak. Four batteries of artillery were drawn up in front of ine city Hall all day, with men standing ready, at a moment's notice, to repair to any scene of action. By the arrival of the St. Louis, we have dates from Central and South America to the 10th inst : The Rivonmoji. The revolutionary party, headed by Nieto, have obtained possession of nearly all New Grenada. The people of Panama'are much afraid that he will soon take their town and sack it The Star appeals to the foreign war-ships to protect the town and railroad. Alta CaL Prospects op the Speedy Completion op the Pacip ic Telegraph. Some weeks ago. a gentleman having power to represent all the Telegraph Companies east of the Rocky Mountains, made a visit to California, to open negotiations with the Telegragh Companies here, for the purpose of uniting all the companies on both side of the continent in an undertaking to complete, during this season, a continuous line of telegraph from Fort Churchill to Fort Kearney, thus uniting the entire magnetic systems of the whole Union. We learn that the Eastern agent succeeded in all his plana, and departed lor the East by the last steamer. It is stipulated that all the Telegraph Companies of Califor nia are to enter into a common undertaking, binding them to commence within lew days extending ta p resent telegraph from fort Churchill towards Salt Lake. The capital is secured, so that there is believed to be ao impediment in the way of poshing the work forward as speedily aa there is any object in doing it The Eastern Telegraph companies are to commence extending their line westward from Fort Kearney so toon as they are advised of the satisfactory arrange ments made in California ; and a handsome premium is provided to be awarded the company which first completes its line to Salt Lake. ThU premium the California companies will strive for energetically. There seems now scarcely room for a doubt that the sreat Continental Telegraph, which is to place San Francisco in hourly communication with New York, will be in successful operation before another winter season commences on the plains. This great under taking, and the inauguration of a Daily Overland Mail and passenger line of stages on the Central rout-, are undoubtedly the commencem-nt of an important epoch in California progress. S. F. Et. Bulletin. Earope. From Europe the news are rather meagre. We copy from California papers : Italia Affairs. One of the most significant facts which has for a long time- occurred, is the passage, by the Prussian Chambers, of an act declaring that Prus sia has no objection to Italian unity. This was passed in spite of the remonstrances of Baron Scbleinits, and it shows that Prussia is preparing to break away from the Austrian policy and shake off the Austrian influ ence, which has weighed down this great nation, and prevented it from being, as it ought, the leader of Germany. The new King seems determined that Prussia shall assume this position, and if he does not unwisely involve himself in a war with France, he possesses the popularity and can obtain the power to unite Germany under his rule. Some of his recent speeches have been of rather a threatening character, but I do not believe he will be so foolish as to precipi tate a war with France. By the steamship North Briton dates from Europe to the 22d of February have been received. The capture of Gaeta is confirmed. There were 11,000 prisoners taken, besides 700 hundred cannon, muskets, etc., etc. The King of Naples was at home, but would shortly leave. Cialdini had left Gaeta with troops for Messina, which fortress still refused to surrender. CORRESPOND E N C E . TO THE EDITOR OP THE POLTSESIAX. Sib : Being the ostensible defendant in the case of Davis vs. W. L. Green to the decision in which the Ad vertiser of yesterday devotes a leading article, I beg leave in the first place to correct the erroneous idea advanced therein, that all interested are " disgust ed " with the decision. That the losing party should be somewhat disgusted " is not improbable, nor is it very unusual in such cases. The train of argument by which the writer of said article arrives at the conclusion that the defendant, in whose favor the decision was, ought to be disgusted with it is by no means so conclusive to my mind as it appears to be to his. In fact. I must confess I found the same difficulty in discovering the point of many of the paragraphs that Puddy did with the flea which lie reminds us of : he puts his finger on it and thinks he has it, but it is not there. As the article, however, comes out as an "editorial," it is a reasonable supposition that the editor has care fully examined this question, and deliberately come to the conclusion that the decision of the Judges is wrong. unjust an 1 injurious to the public, and presents itself apparently as the criticism of one who. as editor of a public paper, ought to be an impartial writer on the subject. In this guise it would naturally, unless expos- . have an influence on the public mind, and on pub- lie opinion, by which it seems the fashion to assume that every question has to be settled. Should there, however, be any probability or suspicion that the article was written by the advocate of either side of this ques tion, or by an interested party, and inserted as a leader by the editor, for want of two columns of more exciting matter, in the absence of the mail, then the public would be on their guard, and would not be apt to take either the arguments or the statements for more than they are worth. Li there, then, any peculiarity in the style of the ar ticle by which the writer can be identified ? If one was inclined to be critical, the style might perhaps be add to be discursive ; taking the advantage at the same time of short sentences, which, however, are rather in terjectory than epigrammatic. The writer delights in interrogatories, propounding knotty questions, which he triumphantly answers himself, at least quite to his own satisfaction. He is fond of enlivening the dry matter-of-fact part of the argument with funny allusions, not always strictly appropos, sometimes, indeed, getting led off by the funny idea, at the risk of losing the main thread of the story. He exhibits an unusual coolness and boldness of assertion, and has a still more daring style of inuendo, tempered, however, by a serio-comic view, which fortunately leaves the reader a welcome opportunity of entertaining a charitable doubt as to when he is in earnest or when he is only joking. If the public, or those who have read the article in the Advertiser, recognize the style, they will prob ibly be able to identify the writer ; if they do not, they will perhaps give the editor the credit of it. Having said this much by way of caution. I may safely hand over the Advertiser' ficts and arguments in the wild cattle case to the public without a word of comment There is one paragraph, however, which I must beg to trespass on your space and patience to quote and comment upon, remarking, however, that it by no means does full justice to the style. The writer says : air one were not are of the integrity of ear court, he might suspect the decision was made with a view to coerce the numer ous landlords into paying the defendant a round sum to coin promise matters, but we don't think they will if they are con scious of their own position. If the parties will not compromise matters the alternative is a lawsuit, and that appears to be the whole aim and burden of the decision as it now stand. No? Suppose a landholder refuses to compromise with defendant ; then the wild bullock on his land will eat and die to no purpose, for no one can take them. Suppose again that the landholder does convert them to his use, the defendant will sue for the hides; the landlord off-sets for trespass and damage; of course a jury or court must award them ; the cost are divided between the parties litigant, which will amount to more than the hides are worth; then Anally each pays his lawyer's fees. There is fun ahead and plenty of it, if the half-wild acd hirsute mountaineers of Hawaii condescend to take notice of this judicial behest. Whoever says or does aught to encourage litigation is a public benefactor." Now, overlooking the preposterous insinuation con veyed in the first instance, I would call the attention of the land owners and " mountainers" of Manna Kea to the above extract, and ask them to examine it and con sider whether the object of the writer is not to encour age the litigation he pretends to dread. 1 will also take ithe opportunity of suggesting to those land-owners another way by which they may now settle these ques tions more satisfactorily than by dividing costs of Court " and paying their own 1 .wyer's fees " in law suits which the writer him-elf shows can settle nothing; and that is by each party naming an arbitrator with power to name a third, so that in any case where the landowner may consider a strict adherence to the Lw works harshly towards him, he may have the advantage of a friendly adjustment by disinterested parties. To the " h .lf-ilJ and hirsute mountaineers of Ha waii," if such a species exist, I would merely say, take care how you are advised. You who have lived on the slopes of Mauna Kea, from B.ll Hughes down, who know the history of the Government bullocks," and the practice with regard to them, who know them when you see 1 hem as well as you know your own horse, and know also the penalty for taking them ; to you I say, whilst you carefully protect and resolutely defend what in your conscience you know and believe to be your rights, take care that you are not made cat's paws " of. Do you remember the fable of the monkey, the cat and the chestnuts ? Let the editor of the Adcerti er, or the writer of the above article, argue as they j please, but if they want the Government cattle, let them go and take them themselves. Don't lend your paws to take out the chestnuts that are too hot far their fingers. j You will perhaps be told that you will be screened ; you have been told so. but your defenders have failed to protect you. Whatever quibbles and questions bav been recently got up to throw a doubt on the owner ship of the wild mountain cattle are now set at rest. They belong to the King and Government or their as signs. A jury of your ft: low citizens, after a patient hearing, have so settled the quest on. and the full bench of Judges have reviewed their verdict, approved and confirmed it All the witness -e. the learning and the eloquence of the counsel on the other side hat only resulted in adding a complete legal titl to what was previously held by the good tenure of universal consent and immemorial posssssion. The attempt t wrest this property by W.l gems from those who now hold it was a bold ! . the attt-mDt made thronch the. mlnma..rL. . , nf . - o- .w u, 'uc iiar,. to encourage yoo to disregard the laws as now mnZ is in keeping with the general tactics. Tha fit i failed as will the second, but thy both lead us to pose that the sentiment which the writer advancl??" jest is sometimes practised in earnest, vis : that m dacity is a money-making virtue." It is true that this instance there has been a failure of the m making result, but it was not for want of the n-J!?7 virtue " We cannot .1 way. expect that in 5Tw2 merit will meet with its full desserts, but my odbo In this case meat rest satisfied with the tdixl - Virtue fa its own reward." I am, &c. g Honolulu, April 19th, 1361. W" L Gmci- TO THE EDITOR 07 TUX POLTXESUX. Sib: "Let us have a sidewalk up Nuuanu,-,, the on dit Gazette. We who live in ther parta0f th district do sometimes think that Nnuano, "as &r Rosebank," has bad more than the lion's share of th road money ; but then we are a quiet, ham-drura ton of people, and, what is better still, we never blow 4 in each others' faces. So. by all means let Nbomj have her side-walk as soon as the Palama road til Waikiki road, the Pali road and the Manoa road kar, been repaired so that two waggons can pass each other' Your contemporary says that " all it wants is fcCe vim.' What it does not lack, apparently, U a gr.at deal of whim. Respectfully, Ncpasc, above Rosebank ; Waikiki-xai ; Maxoa-cka ; Kapalama, to KalihL CP The Advertiser having, last week, with its usual wisdom and penetration, taken us to task fcr what i; chose to imagine as treasonable designa upon the Con stitution, we were compelled in our last number to tj. minister one of those severe rebukes under which sen sible men would have been silent, and profited by in future, even if their sense of honor did not prompt them to an acknowledgment of thtir error. But our con temporary, or those who abuse its columns, coolly turn round upon us and say, we accept yoor apology - Good words are lost upon such parties, and discussion must be out of the question. t Some minds are very small in stature, but they can't help it, poor souls ; and they never omit an op portunity to convince the world that they never win grow any bigger. The Advertiser's gratuitous remarks upon the Road Supervisor is an instance of this. We merely notice it as the grossest, most gratuitous piece of personality that has appeared for some time on the pages of that Mirror of Courtesy and Gmtleman's Guide," the raciic Commercial Advertiser. tF Some one has been allowed to spread himself ia the leading article of the Advertiser of Thursday upon the case of Davis vs. Green, lately decided in the Su preme Court. The article will be duly noticed in our next, after we have had time to examine the subject. In the meantime, our readers will not forget that inter ested parties are apt to take a leetle one-sided view of things. ft? We have a communication from Pomaikai on the subject of diplomatic privileges, which for want of room is unavoidably left over till next week. Cn utljoriiu IT HAS PLEASED His Majesty to approve of Daxixi C. Waterxax, Eso,, as Acting Consul for the Repub lic of Chile, till the further pleasure of His Excellency the President be made known. Foreiox Office, 18th April, 1861. L.ATKST FOREIGN DATES. Hongkone, .jin. !.an Fraactser. Mar Liverpool (per P. Ej,.)..Keb 2 Si Lmii,, (r. Tel.) M.r It Sydney, N d V, .......Nov 3 Tahiti.... Jnn Kanagawa Dee 28 Victoria. VI Marl ,Z Vf' IlPK. ?eb 1 ' Sb.ngha. Io, telegraphic Mar 16, COMMERCIAL. ritlDA T, APRIL 19, I96t The American bark Oriental, Capt Johnson, arrived on Uth, 156 days from Boston, bringing some 365 tns steamboat coals and a variety of sundries. She ia under charter to the Pbenia Guana Co to take a guano cargo. The English briganUne Marctlkt, Capt. Parker, arrived yes terday, 160 days from London, with a cargo of assorted BMr chandise to Messrs. Jaaion, Green k Co. But a portion of her cargo is to be landed here, the balance to go forward to Victo ria, V. L, for which port the Marcella will aail at an earlj date. Th American bark Fiekery, Capt X. C. Brooks, touched S this port yesterday, 13 days from San Francisco, bound to Japan and Amoor River. She brought San Francis newspapers to 3nth March. The bark Comet, Capt. Smith, tailed for San Franeisc on tha 15th inst., taking a cabin full of passengers and a roll freight of sugar, molasses, pulu, salt, gunny bags, Ac , c, and a quantity of oil, bone, hides and goat skins, for transhipment to Siew Tork. The schooner r Witch, Capt Taylor, saUed to-day on a trading voyage to the Ochotsk Sea, and the JfarCdo, CapL Chapman, for Fanning's Island. We learn that the ship SpeedtveU has been parchaaed by Messrs. C. A. Williams A Co., on private terms, understood to be a boat 11 1,000. She is now andergoing thorough repairs, and is adrer tiaed to tail for San Francisco about May 1st, under command of Capt. Jat. M. Green. We understand she la to be offered for sale in San Francisco, The Hawaiian schooner Kalama hat been told by Capt. Wm. Stott to J. L Dowsett, Esq., for 1,200. She is to be fitted out at a tender for the whale bark CyntAim. We note tale of 10 casks Polar OU ez John Borland, at auc tion, at 3S&4lc per gallon. S Fraaciae News. From the newspapers received per Pickery, we gather the following prices of tome of the articles which are of Interest to ear Island readers : SCOAR-Saletor China No. 1 0 7;&8c; Crushed lOtfe 19 ll.V- No sales of Hawaiian. MOLASSES Sale at.auetion f 50 bbls 8. 1. 0 29c. S, I. Syrup, in 14 gall kegs, 3&&35c. - In 8-gall kegs, 3Gc M in hif bbls, 0 81c. FLOUR Market very dull, prices notn. aTt3S$8 SS for best brands. POTATOES Sale 45c ? 100 fta. HIDES-Dry, quoted 14c WOOL 8000 Spring clip choice American told 16e. The papers are full of political newt, business generally it re ported aa Tery dull. The Tank had not arriTed. She waa 18 dayt out from Ho nolulu. The C. 5. 9. Wyoming arriTed on 19th March, re porting 18 dayt passage. PASSENGERS Cast!!. J For San Franrixro prr Coint, April 13 E Woodbury, T Goodale and 3 children. C H Lewers. wife and child. Miss Lev ers and servant, C G Hopkins. S Spencer, T G Harding. Mr Sequiera, Misa Emme. D N West on, wife and son, Jose M Mea dot. A Anthony. A McPherarm, Capt Ker. worthy (late orbarfc Delaware). P 8 Wilcox, R 0 BloriiP-tt, Mrs Rogers, Capt Bailey (late of ship Vesper), Mrs Pterson and ton 8. Stiuaub. J Porter Green, Jas Patterson, M ETanhoff, Dennit Dexter.' Broofatit, Philip J Becker, John Gatoly. Frank P Gardner. Warrew Johnson, E D Ensign, Mrs Pearson and ton 13. from Lomvion per Marcella, April 13 Mr Self, Mr.Roddell. Caroline Harris 3. Ea mil tor Victoria, V l Mrs iUCm.ll and 4 children. Mitt Laurence. Mite Croas lands, and Mrs tiUl i From Sea per Tamerlane. April 13 Ahai, Chinaman L JVofl &Moa-per Oriental, April 14 James M AWXaodtr. I Ashmead- From San AVamriaro-per Vickery, April 19. et) route for Ja panMr Capt X C Brooks. S Sileeratone, lady and three chil dren ; K Kawawaj. U Uailub. P Praos .