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—— By HOBART T. MITCHELL -■■■— ■ A COLOR SCHEME What is the difference between a Negro and a “person of color”? In a legal sense the words have an interesting history dating back more than a hundred years. What were those persons to be called who had a splash of Indian blood, a dash of white, and a portion of African blood? Legally the line had to be drawn—where to start and where to end was somewhat perplexing. Mr. Beauregard, a citizen of New Orleans in 1810, started this legal ball to rolling when he brought back from the West Indies a young girl, Adelle, born of mix ed parentage. Miss Adelle, after a short stay in the home of Mr. Beauregard, was sent to New York and placed in a boarding school. Her expenses, while in the school, were paid by Mr. Beau legard, her guardian. After a few- years in the board ing school Miss Adelle was re quested to return to the household of her guardian in New Orleans. Residing with him for a few months, she left his home and brought suit for her freedom and pay for her services for the time she had been in his home. She maintained that it was up to her master to prove ownership by some written title or at least he acquired possession of her without fraud. But her guardian argued that in order to receive her free dom she would have to prove that she was born free, or had been emancipated. To dispose of the case a legal definition had to be made be tween a Negro and a person of color. If Adelle was a Negro she would remain in slavery. If she was a person of color she would go free. Afer heavy deliberation the court finally decided that our he , roine, Miss Adelle, could not col lect her wages which was offset by the gratitude of the master in giving her an education. With a further stroke of .judicial wisdom the court decided that persons of color were not necessarily Ne groes but persons of color only, for they may have descended from Indians on both sides, from white parent or mulatto parents in pos session of their freedom. Miss Adelle, being a person of color, secured her freedom on this de cision. What is a Negro? Absurd as the question apparently is, it is one of the most perplexing and, at times, most embarrassing that has faced our legislators and judges. CONTEMPT FOR SEGREGATION — •« - Henry W: -Ltmgfellow, famous American poet, to show his con tempt for the segregation of the Negro by the whites once rode in a car set aside for Negroes. THE WILL OF MARY WASHINGTON Mrs. Mary Washington, the mother of General George Wash ington, in her will dated May 20, Scores Hospital Refusal to Treat Badly Injured Boy The Holy Cross hospital's re fusal to give first aid to young Robert Davis, 19, Morgan Park youth whose fingers were ampu tated and his left arm badly man gled when he caught them in an airplane propeller at the Harlem airport on June 26, was soundly criticized by the John Brown or ganization in a release to the BEE this week. Young Davis, it, was disclohed, was rushed to Holy Cross follow ing the accident, but. hospital au thorities, upon learning that he was colored, refused to operate. After the boy had been in the hospital more than an hour with out first aid, and was losing blood freely, the hospital finally agreed to give him first aid, but request ed that he be removed to the county hospital. He was removed to county where he is now a patient. His condition remains critical, it was stated, and doctors there are working to save his left arm from amputation. Young Davis, it was stated, was formerly of the C. A. A., but was forced to discontinue bis studies because of lack of funds. He was injured when he attempted to crank the propeller of a plane and his left arm was caught. PIONEER BRINGS ROAD TO HIS C ABIN DOOR In the 1830's when Illinois roads straggled across unsettled lands, a pioneer decided that his cabin was too far from the great Ga lena Road, an important highway in early days. To move his cabin would have meant much. work, and the new location wculd have been less pleasing. The settler, thereupon, says the Illinois Writers’ Project. W. P. A., staked out a spur in the road and drove over it time after time to “make tracks.” Trav elers, noting the well beaten route, readily followed it and the resourceful pioneer soon real ized that, instead of moving his cabin to the main road, lie had brought the road to his cabin £oor. ____ ^ ^ _ 1788, as registered in the Clerk’s Office at Fredericksburg, Va., willed her son one slave named George, to him and his heirs for ever. BELIEVE ME Philadelphia, 1832: Negroes were paying annually $2,500 in taxes and $100,000 rent. Five years later they owned real es tate and property worth about $1,000,000. Some of the houses having sofas, carpets, dining room tables and pianos. BEHIND THE SCENES The world is governed by very different personages from what is imagined by those who are not behind the scenes.—Disraeli. For any information concerning this column write in care of this paper, or 3612 Elliot avenue, Minneapolis, Minn. Silkworms Crowd Famous Weapons Off Front Page When in 1892 agents for the Co lumbian Exposition, Chicago World’s Fair of the following year, sought interesting items to place on display, they came upon one important discovery without stepping outside the state. Ac cording to the Illinois Writers’ Project, W. P. A., pistols supposed to have been used by Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr in their famous duel were reported found, one in Pike county and one in J ersey. Of equal interest to newspapers of the day, however, seems to have been the story that a Jer sey county resident who owned one of the pistols “was engaged in the production of silk, hand ling it from the moth’s egg to the finished cloth.” The entire state was so much excited then by the possibilities of silk production, that not even references to the firearms of Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr made much of a journalistic noise. ILLINOIS FARMERS MAKE EARLY USE OF TRACTORS With the use of farm tractors increasing every year, historians note with interest that tractor farming was adopted early in Il linois. Records show that in 1890 Christian county farmers broke 450 acres of ground with five To Our Regular Subscribers DEAR FRIENDS: WE would consider it a favor if you wo uld cut out the subscription coupon at the bottom of the page and enclose it in your letter when writing to a friend. We are sure it would be appreciated. As you know the CHICAGO BEE is a clean newspaper which prints all the news, hot h local and national, without resorting to smut or yellow journalism to sell a few pa pel's. TO NEWSSTAND PURCHASERS OR OTHERS WE would also be pleased if you would become regular monthly subscribers. A regular monthly subscriber has three advantages: (1) We deliver the paper to any point in the United States for 20 cents a month. (2) You are not expected to pay until you have received the paper for a full month, (3) You will receive your paper, delivered regularly at your home, no matter what kind of weather. Trips to your neig hborhood newsstand often necessitate walk ing a block or more to purchase the paper. Occassionally you will find the newsstand sold out. \ • ji 'THEREFORE, why not take advantage o f the saving in TIME and MONEY. Just fill out and mail the coupon below PRO MPTLY. No advance payment required. » ■ Subscription Coupon CHICAGO BEE, Chicago, 111.:— I hereby subscribe for THE CHICAGO BEE and will pay 20 CENTS a month after delivery. SUBSCRIBER .... (Please print name) STREET NO, ..... TOWN... STATE.... NOTICE TO NEW SUBSCRIBERS Kindly fill out and mail. We will have the CHICAGO BEE delivered to you promptly on the receipt of this coupon. Please understand, you are not required to pay for the pa per in advance. REFUGEE FROM VOTE TERROR PLEADS FOR AID NEW YORK, N. Y„ July 18—An appeal to the country for help by Elisha Davis who was driven from his business, his wife and seven children by a mob in Brownsville, Tenn., is being answered by a countrywide campaign for funds by the N. A. A. C. P. Mr. Davis, who is now living in another town in Tennessee (where he is also being threaten ed with violence), is 39 years old and was the owner and operator of a filling station in Brownsville prior to the outbreak of violence there in mid-June. The campaign of terror against colored citizens of Brownsville, and particularly against the officers and members of the Brownsville branch of the N. A. A. C. P., resulted from the attempt of several citizens to reg ister and vote in the 1940 presi dential elections. Intimidated by Officials When the Reverend Buster Walker, 55, president of the Brownsville N. A. A. C. P., and several others presented them selves before the proper officials for registration they were told “You had better stop this or there will be a necktie party.” Mr. Walker and Mr. Davis and Mr. Davis’ brother were run out of town and Elbert Williams, an other member of the N. A. A. C. P., was found dead in the river with two wounds in his chest. He had been lynched. The N. A. A. C. P. is calling on all citizens to contribute to a fund, for the relief of the Brownsville j exiles and for the purpose of at- j tacking the whole situation to the end that colored citizens may re- I turn to their homes, vote in thei 1940 elections, and pursue their j normal lives. The whole Brownsville, TennJ situation has been placed in the | hands of the United States Depar-j ment of Justice by the N. A. A. C. P. plows driven by a steam engine. They averaged from eight to ten acres a day with this outfit,” says the Illinois Writers’ Project, W. P. A. The same kind of plow was used the following year in Champaign county, where a bind er twine factory cultivated a large acreage for the growing of hemp. On this extensive project a steam plow tractor supplement ed the work of 90 horses. 1 1 1 ..—.-.i ■- j 50 Years Without Missing a Day I GEORGE ELLIS BATES, Manager's office at Pennsylvania Station, New York, receives a gold 50-year service button from M. W. Clement, president of the Penn sylvania Railroad, upon his completion of half a centure’s employ ment without missing a single day of work. The ceremony took place in the Board of Directors’ Room at Pennsylvania Station on June 13. Mr. Bates has know Mr. Clement for almost 39 years, hav ing issued railroad passes to him when he was first starting to work for the raiiroad as a rodman in the engineering department. CHICAGO PROF. TO HEAD STUDENT WORK PROGRAM WASHINGTON, D. C., July 18 —Appointments of Charles Hub bard Judd of Chicago to be direc tor of the National Youth Admin istration student work program, and of John H. Lasher of Wis consin, to be director of the work projects division in the Washing ton office, were announced today by NYA Administrator Aubrey Williams. Dr. Judd, chairman of the de partment of education at the Uni versity of Chicago for 27 years and a leader in American educa tion, has been on the NYA staff as a' consultant for nearly two years. In this period he has di rected the development of NYA program of related training for out-of-school unemployed young men and women. Dr. Judd was born in British India, of American parents, in 1873 and came to this country in 1879. He received his A. B. degree from Wesleyan Uni versity in 1894, Ph. D., from the University of Leipsig in 1896, and A. M., from Yale in 1907, and degrees from several other col leges. During the World War he was 'r in charge of preparing pamph lets for school use published by the Federal Government, entitled “Lessons in Community and Na tional Life.” He is a former presi dent of the American Council on Education, the American Psy chology Association and other ed ucational organizations. He has written extensively on psychol ogy as it affects education and democracy. , Mr. Lasher is 50, a native of Waterloo, Wisconsin, has - been State Youth Administrator in Wisconsin for the last five years, and has developed there a high degree of cooperation between the NY A program for unemployed, out-of-school youth and that state’s splendid vocational school system. Lasher was graduated with honors from the University of Wisconsin’s school of education, was a high school principal for 8 years, the principal of a coun ty normal school for 6 years and supervisor of the State Board of Vocational Education for 8 years. He Lad overseas service in the World War as a first lieutenant in $20,000,000 A MONTH SPENT ON LOW RENT HOUSING PROJECT ■ WASHINGTON, D.C., July 18 More than $20,000,000 a month now is flowing to private indus try from local housing authorities whose slum clearance and nation al defense low-rent public hous ing projects are financed by the United States Housing Authori ty. These expenditures, which it is estimated will range up to more than $30,000,000 a month as the Indian Lad Explains, Smoke, Noise, Speed When the steamboat “Caroline” ascended the Illinois River above Peoria in 1831, it passed within hearing but not sight of a num ber of Indians encamped nearby. Excitement and alarm at once overtook the group and men and boys ran to investigate. According to reminiscences of an early settler, noted by the Il linois Writers’ Project, W. P. A., first to report back to the camp was a lad who announced that “the great spirit’ was paddling up the river in a huge canoe. The canoe Was on fire. “The great spirit” was paddling very fast in order to put out the *fire. He was paddling so fast that he was out of breath, and the noise was the great spirit puffing for air. the coast artillery. He is a for mer district commander of the American Legion and is now Na tional Child Welfare Committee man in the Legion. current national program is fur ther accelerated by the demands for national defense housing, are largely for the purchase of build ing materials and for the pay ment of. wages to workmen on project sites. , Money is advanced to local housing authorities with which the USHA has entered into loan contracts as it is needed to fi nance the development of their projects. Up to July 1, estimated local expenditures of local hous ing authorities amounted to $234, 470.000. Well over half of the 160,000 low-rent homes for low-income j j families projected in the current j USHA program now are under I construction or completed, USHA Administrator Nathan Strauss said today. Estimated cash disbursements I by local housing authorities dur ing June, 1940, amounted to $21, 260.000. Compared with June, 1939, this was an increase of more than 135 per cent. The important aid to private industry given by the construc tion of USHA-aided projects, through the purchase of building ! materials and the employment of I thousands of building trades work men, will increase sharply in vol ume, Mr. Strauss asserted, from j month to month up to next Jan- j uary. During that period 185 ad ditional public housing projects financed with USHA loans are scheduled to go into construc tion. There are now 225 USHA-aided low-rent public housing projects, which will provide 84,927 fit homes for low-income families re I moved from slum dwellings, un i def construction or completed in 125 localities. Thirty-one of j these projects now are occupied in whole or in part. In June, 1939. the total num ber of USHA-aided projects un der construction was 55, compris ing a total of 24,000 dwelling units. Likewise, in. June, 1939, pro jects under USHA loan contracts totaled 255, including 99,595 dwelling units As of July 1, 1940, the USHA had entered into loan contracts totaling $634,567,483 with 171 lo cal housing authorities for the construction of 413 projects con taining 145,646 dwelling units. The total of these loan contracts is within about $58,000,000 of the total fund that has been au thorized by Congress and the to tal of the dwelling units provided for is within 14,000 of the esti mated total number it will be possible to finance from the pres ent USHA fund. A bill no\v pending in Congress would authorize additional funds for slum clearance and national defense housing sufficient';to vir tually double the current program. The present USHA slum clear ance and low-rent public -hous ing program provides for the con struction of about 435 projects to rehouse 160,000 families Tn 209 communities in 35 states, the Dis trict of Columbia, Hawaii : and Puerto Rico. Under the provisions of the United States Housing Act, an equivalent number of sub standard dwellings must be elim inated in each community/build ing a low-rent public housing project with USHA assistance. I What Face Powder Shall We Buy ? I Buy Overton s High - Brown! I The Shades Are Beautiful