Newspaper Page Text
THE GARDEN ISLAND,
TUESDAY, DEC. 19, 1022 The Preservation of Historic Landmarks By Rev. Ralph W. BayleM When the Kauai Chamber of Com merce assigned the above subject to me, for presentation at this con vention, I tried to resign, as their delegate, pleading lack of Interest and time, and ability, owing to the fact that I am a ninllhlnl, but It was all In vain. Even though a great deal has been written on this subject, they have adopted an old Hawaiian proverb: "I mohala no ka pua lehua 1 ka keekeehlla e ka ua." (It takes the pattering of the rain to open the lehua flowers.) This paper contains a great daal of plagarlsm and recapitulation for which I offer no apology. For malar ial I am indebted to practically ev eryone who has written upon the Hawaiian islands, and especially the Island of Kauai. The island of Kauul Is of graat historic significance, from the view point of time. Geographically it is the oldest of the group, and disin tegration has proceeded further than on any of the other Islands; Indicat ing that the volcanic fires died out at this end first. Being drenched with tropical rains for countl.ss centuries, erosion has left its marks in rugged peaks, yawning canyons, and some of the most alluring mid enchanting scenery In the world. Kauai justly deserves the name of "Garden Island." WAIALEALE As we turn our attention to a few of Kauai's landmarks, which have been made by the hand of man, I wish you to accompany me to the summitt of Walaleale on a trip which I recently made. Leaving Waimea on horseback, we rise abruptly onto the Moklhana Flat, on the east side of Waimea Canyon. Here we pause for a mo ment and gaze upon those immense perpendicular walla "Where Time has notched his centuries in the eternal rock," then we ascend the mountain side to Kaholuamano, Mr. Francis Gay's mountain home, and thence to the Cave of Keaku. As we ascend on up the slope, we plunge Into the labywrlnth of prim eval forest, above which, we enter into a central forest bog extending for miles along the top. "This bog forms one of the least known, most dangerous and thoroughly inexcessi ble regions In the Hawaiian group. Bryan Natural History of Hawaii. We push on thru rain, fog and deceptive mud. The thin mossy -turf which covers the quagmire, trem bles for yards In all directions with every step. You can never tell whether you are stepping in up to your ankle or waist. The earth is veritable earthen spungs. At last we erbcacathh ta tao .a we reach the summit, and there in the blinding mist and sleet-like rain, we shiver as we drink from the rain gauge and pose for a time ex posure, hoping to get a picture of ourselves, in these prohibition days, as we enjoy the "wtttest spot on earth" with a rainfall of about COO inches per year. Here before you lies the fabulous lake from which Walaleale takes its name "Rippling Waters." It is the origin of many a wild tale also of the Wainiha and Wallua rivers. O.'ly a few feet from the lake is a very sacred HEIAU, rectangular in shape, and about 5 by 7 and 2 feet high. In the middle ' of the structure there stands, on end, a long, narrow stone, which is sup posed to be the embodiment of the guardian genius of the place. It is the custom ' for all visitors to make a propitiary offering to appease the gods of the mist, least they envel ope and loose you in the midst of their wilds. Helics of former generations are now to be found on this altar, as a ivsult of the pilgrimages which have been made to this sacred spot Hiving appeased the gods of the KuahiwI (heights) we can now de scend to lower elevations. WAIMEA The first Inhabitants of Waimea were doubtless the Menehunes, who left there one of the most note worthy monuments on the island. Pi (I'e) desiring better irrigation for the low lands entered into u con tract with tho Menehunes for the erection of a watercourse. The night for the work agreed upon arrived, and so did the Menehunes. The wat ercourse was constructed, a ltiau of shrimp was served and they re turned to the mountains back of Puiikapele with great joy, ond the hum of their voices gave rise to the Baying, "The hum of the voices of the Menehunes at Puukapele, Ka uai, startled the birds at the pond of Koolaupoku, Oahu." This landmark, has suffered great ly in the face of clvilzation and modern Industry. The Waimea plan tation has changed the water course and constructed a road which has greatly mutilated . this splendid structure of antiquity. Waimea is of historic Importance for the simple reason that it was here that Captain Cook first stepped upon Hawaiian territory. The fam ous heiau which he visited the pic ture of which accompanied the rec ord of his voyage, has never been positively located, tor tho reason that neither name nor location w,3re given. A certain heiau is pointed out as being the one, but it is doubtful. This was at one time the capital of Kauai and th.3 residence of Kauai's last king (Kaumua'il) and from this point he ceded the Island to King Kamehnmeha in 1!10. RUSSIAN FORT The Russian fort, which still stands, and is in good repair, was erected here in 1815, by Russian traders, ostensibly for the King of Kauai,' but it flew the Russian flag and was undoubtedly intended as the first step towards the annexation of the island by Russia. MISSIONS AT WAIMiiA At the urgent request of the king of Kauai, Kaumuatil, the first nis sionaries came to the Island in July 1820. These were Whitney and Rug gles. Rev. George B. Rowell arrived in 1846 and replaced the temporary church structure with the present building, which is In good repair and in constant use. This old 'stone mission church was built of sand stone, quarried on the beach und hardened with exposure. The build ing stands today as ai eloquent testimory to the faithful building of the pionoor days. KOLOA Tho district of Kola, one of the five large divisions of the island, occupies the southern corner and extends from the seashore to the top of the mountains in the mid dle. It is dependent upon artesian wells and long ditches for irrigat ing purposes. It was a place of large' population and great importance dur ing the early days, a fact which is attested by the frugality and skill with which every availablj bit of taro land was brought 'into cultiva tion. SUGAR Koloa was the site of the first sugar mill in the islands, erected In 1835, with large cement rollers and operated with water power. Ladd & Co', leased from the government about 80 acres of land, for $300 per year. The mill Is spoken of in local records as "a powerful iron mill, erected at an expense of $10,000." It is interesting to note that in those early days they were able to realize about 1500 pounds of sugar, per acre, as against the 15000 to I!0030 pounds of today. MISSIONS The same year that sugar had' its beginnings, a Christian mission was established by Rev. P. J. Guhck. His small house and that of the church were erected of grass, and were somewhat inflamable as a con sequence. One day one of the female members of the church was smok ing, which was against the rules of the church, and in order to es cape detection, she hurridly stuffed her pipe Into the' thatched side of the edifice, with the result that the building was soon ablaze and was quickly reduced to ashes. Adobe and" fireproof church buildings were used then after. SILK Ladd & Co., in 1836, started the experiment of silk culture, but in spite of the promising beginning the great drought of 1845 brought It to an end. MAUNA KAHILI On the west side of the Llhuc Koloa gap, there Is a precipitous peak a little over 3000 feet in height, which is known to have the residence, centuries ago, of a band of cannibals frum the south seas, who with their families lived on the mountain at enmity with the other residents of the island . The arrival of this band of ad venturers is shrouded in the mist of the past, but doubtless they were an expedition from one of the groups of the cannibal islands in the south seas, who started on a long ocean trip, had been swept off their course by heavy winds, and finally, impelled by the winds and the Japan current, had been brought to tho shore of Kauai, near Koloa. Finding the natives not dis posed to be friendly, the ywere compi lied to retreat to the slopes of Kahili peak, where they began to practice the cannibal habits they had learned in their southern home On a fiat floor 12 by 20 cut out of the solid rock of the top of this mountain, are to be found In a fairly good state of preserva tion five posts of Kauwila, from a foot and a half to thirteen feet high. The first known description of this spot was written by James J. Jarvesln In 1844, who has the following to relate: "These kauwila posts have stood here from time Immemorial, and are the remains of a fortification which a chief erected, who lived on bad terms with his less elevted neigh bors. As the approach to its site is a succession of narrow ridges, a handful of warriors were able to set a host of enemies nc defiance, and make the place Impregnable. During the night his members sal lied down and levied blackmail in the shape of fowl, pigs, taro and potatoes for their leaders." HANALEI ThD Vi'.'.cy r.re! anipitheatcr of tho Hanalel river contains some of the grandest and most beautiful scenery in tho world and on account of the productivity of the soil and the great abundance of water, a large population occupied this valley in early times. The raising of sugar cane was at tempted here up to the early 90's, as was also silk culture, but both failed owing to unsuitable conditions. In later years great success has been attained in the cultivation of rice and taro and In the raising of horse's and cattle on the fine grass lands. One of the interesting points of local tradition is the large "Kauai Rock" in the valley of the Waioli river. With the help of a little im agination It becomes the fairly ao curate representation in miniature of the physical formation of the is land, and in olden times the natives invested it with supernatural pow ers, and in times of need went to it for the assistance they craved. Here is also to be found the sec ond of the Russian forts, which like its neighbor in Waimea, was built about 1815, when the Russians were laying covetous eyes upon these is lands. It was constructed of earth and its walls have become consider ably eroded by the heavy rainfall of that locality. A few small cannon of the caliber used one hundred years ago, are to be found among the ruins. The Hanalel river is the largest in the territory and can be navi gated for four miles with suiall craft. On its banks, several miles from its mouth, is the location of the former sugar mill, where until a short time ago, the lone brick chimney of the mill was all that marked the busy mill site. That at last has succumbed to the march of the elements and has fallen over. Near the Waioli river side of the great ampitheater is the old mission, recently repaired and re novated and is now in very much the same state as it was in the early forties and luter, when it was oc cupied by the Alexanders, Rowells, and succeeding missionary families. The old adobe residence and the church, built by Rev. Alexander and his industrious congregation, was vacated and almost in ruins for 30 or 40 years, up to 1920, when it, the outstanding landmark of this part of the island, was put in good repair, and is now a little haven of quiet and peace, and at the same time becomes of great service to the locality, as it is used as a com munity center. HEIAUS As to heiaus, Mr. Thrum l.as giv en an accurate and full list of the fifty or more existing and they hard ly need further mention. Suffice It is to Bay they were a great strong hold for the priestly forces of su perstition and guile, In their leader ship of the island. From the lofty, and little visited shrine at the sacred lake on the top of Walaleale to the great and revered temples of Malae and Poli uhu, on the AVallua river, there Is a chain of heiaus extending all the way around the Island where the priests and their cohorts ruled by their hold upon the credulity and superstition of the common people. The largest and most famous hei au of Kauai ia supposed to have been Kuhiau, located at Nawlliwill, whqre during the past century its large paved walla encircled an area of about four acres. Its companion heiau was located on Paukinl Rock the large rock which is now to be seen out in the bay which was formerly connected with the shore, but which is now separated. Noth ing remains of either of these sanc tuaries now. One of the most beautiful heiaus so I am told, in the terriotry, is to be found on Niihau, constructed of white coral, and is now in excel lent condition. Malae, located on the south bank of the Wailua river is now the largest and best preserved heiau on the island, measuring 273 by 324 feet and has buttressed corners, ex tending out 13 feet; the only one of kind known In the Islands. Its high and substantial walls are in good condition still, but the Inner divisions and usual temple features are destroyed. This heiau ia. typical of a small number within the terri tory that could be preserved with very little coBt, and time, and this should be done for the sake of the rising posterity. The companion heiau, Poliahu, a mile and a half away, was said to be the holy of holies, for the priest hood of Kauai, since several of the goda were supposed to dwell near by., BIRTH STONE Wailua was a region of more than ordinary Interest, historically and traditionally. With Its commodious bay and fine fishing facilities and being one of the largest rivers In the territory with fertile stretches of taro larfd and the nearby mountains for timber. It was a veritable mecca for the primitive inhabitants of the island; a region where all were able to find satisfaction for their needs religious, mental and physical. So, it is not to be wondered at, that there was to be found the fav orite home of the aliis, or chiefs, as well as of their retainers and around this neighborhood cluster many interesting legends and tra ditions. One of the most interesting and peculiar of these traditions, ia that of the high chief's birthstone, the "Holo-holo-ku." It stands at the mauka end of the little plain just at the foot of the makal section of the long ridge which extends down the valley of the Wailua river. This very unpretentious and proslac look ing stone was, nevertheless, very significant to the ancient Hawaiian, since it was right there that every Kauai chief must be born if he would aspire to high rank. Whenever the noble mother real ized that her time was drawing near, she immediately set out, post haste, for the place, and traveled night and day until she reached it. If she was overtaken on the way and gave bitth her chi'd. It could never bo of high ranV, or really blue blood. If, on the other hand she held out until she gat '.here and the child was properly bcvti at this famous place, then It was sure to be a .MrIi rank chief of undoubted standing and nobility. She could not stsal a tuarch on fato by starting in advance of her time, for if she did she was overtaken prematurely mid her nefarious ends signal. v defeat ed. When sho followed regulations, the prospective mother ramo, of course, with a suitable retinue of attend ants, and a complete outfit of clothing for herself and tha child. A temporary roof wa built over the rock to protect her from the In clemencies of tho weather, and ev ery possible provision was nude for her comfort. When her time was come, she repaired to the rock, seating herself upon the north Bide, and If It was a really great chief, the heavens were filled with thunder and light ning, and a heavy down-pour of rain. Immediately after birth both the mother and the child were re moved to the rearby cave, where they were made as comfortable as possible, until the mothii- wab able to travel. PRESERVATION While on Kauai, Mr. Gerrard Fowke, of the Smithsonian Institute said: "The heiaus hero compare most favorably in completeness with those on the Island of Hawaii." The Kauai Historical Society some time ago, adopted a policy of "Preservation," for some few of these most significant landmarks which have come to us out of the past ages. Bronz plates, cast by the Honolu lu Iron works, have been mounted on large corner stones on certain heiaus and the City of Refuge, in the Wailua district. Public parks have been set aside, Including gome of these heiaus and the birthstone. Yet in spite of this precaution, the birthstone recently barely escaped destruction. Just on the bluff above, there is located a Japanese burial ground, and un beknowli'g to anyone in authority, a few Sundays ago, they blasted a roadway up the face of this bluff, missing our beloved Birthstone by only a few feet. In conclusion, allow me to recom mend that the delegates in attend ance at this Civic Convention fos ter, thru Island organizations, a con tinuous campaign in Interest, edu cation and preservation of our his toric landmarks. Also, that proper steps be taken to secure territorial appropriations to this end. Send your magazine orders (rew I or old) to the K. C. Hopper News Ageicy, Llhue, and they will be . promptly attended to. Phone 22.L. Adv. I New Year's Day Celebration Under the Auspices of COURT WAIALEALE of the ANCIENT ORDER OF FORESTERS Horse Racing Bulldogging Steers Children's Games and Races Football A BIG DAY OF SPORTS WAIPOULI RACE TRACK January 1st, 1923 Admission 50 cents; Children 25 cents That Delicious and most satisfying refreshment ICE CREAM (I )I FFKKKXT FLAVORS) .,,,,1 PURE FRESH CREAM -from the- HONOLULU DAIRYMEN'S ASSOCIATION Received Twice a Week R. KANZAKI Agent for Kauai THE BLAISDELL of Honolulu (EUROPEAN PLAN) When you are in Honolulu you will find the Blaisdeil Hotel the place for comfort and modern convenience. It has an excellent central location. Is near the theaters and has the many advantages of the down-town hotel. $1.50 per day up. The Childs Restaurant in the same building combines the varioim attractive features of bigii class modern service, and reasonable prices. It is advisable to make ADVANCE RESERVATIONS J. F. CHILDS, Proprietor of course - - Hawaiian Kona is the Best Wt don't need to tell you that. Jutt wanted you to form the good habit of asking your grocer for Kona Coffee with the red label In one pound pack age or five pound cans. AMFAC SPECIAL Kona Coffee THE CHOICE OF THE PICK pastes WHOLESALE DISTRIBUTORS Drugs, Toilet Articles Eastman Kodaks Honolulu Dairymen's Ice Cream Garden Island Drug Store S. HARRY OKA, Prop. Kapaa, Kauai, T. H.