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WI l.,lW)IIMlHWltlHWI PWPW PUBLISHED WEEKLY, AT HONOLULU, OAIIU, SANDWICH ISLANDS. j. j. JARVES, Editor. SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 21,1840. Vol. 1. IVo. 21. P0 great islands very frequently, and landed j ritory at that place, and erected a fort in many places, where they left inonumcnls m token of their visits. 1 he Spanish from tlio Wawhiimton (ilohc ri!i:v or facts im:-tin(J tiii; ' M)iniivi:sT roAsr or avikuica. The northwest coast of America is the . ... . (VjircsMiHi umi i . ... iwirtirTI III' lill I M 'I ''i 1 IV in. w, , iv III. m- . . ll(,rt Ol mu lumtMi 'UIU,1U minimi. ... - . - - w,j,.i extends from the great cliviilinu tfentlemaii, oh a.ned Iron. , Madrid a nijt) tn uiu I'MiijKii wepi ny inuuiene, the pilot of Bodega's vessel, which he translated into English, and published in suallv employed to designate i Government endeavored likewise to siip iono'fl!ieAinericanc(Mitinentl,rL,ss aI1, (f this expedition; ('yiHl I me juiuim iiiomiiuuis, nuMHiini 10 the Pacific, together with the adjacent Jaiids in that ocean. 1 he territory i i Ktii.g upon the 'Pacific southward mdon jn 1 8I, among his Miscellames. o, the fortieth parallel, to Cape San In 1 H, ai()ther expetl.t.on al.Mig these r:,s. the extremity of the land in that coasts was made by the Spaniards m two direction, situated nearly under the tropic of Cancer, is known by the general name of C'.ilifornitt, which the Spaniards appli ed to the whole western section of North iiieiica. The northwest coast and the vessels, commanded by Captain Arteaga and Bodega, who visited several places situated near the (iOth degree; but those parts of the coast had, in the preceding year, been minutely explored by the ' 1 ii i ... i ... n ... i " i. U.t of California together, may be eon-i ,nns"' u,,(" 1 ,OK ,i,!rretl as forming the West Coast of j Cook arrived on the American coast, Urih-.hiirrica near the .U degree ol latitude, in J i. - . .. . ... . lM'oic the vear 177-1.' the west coast He examined the s'lores ol the continent of ortli-Ameriea had been discovered I between that degree and the 41th, with and lactorv on it, under the irius:i flag. The British government, upon the strength of these misrepresentations, de manded the restitution of Nootka, and of other places in the vicinity, which Meares pretended also to have purchased, as well as the recognition of the rights of British subjects to navigate the Pacific, and to make settlements on any part of the west coast of America, north of the most northern settlements of the Span iards. After some negotiations and pre parations on both sides for war, the Spanish government yielded; and stipula tions, conformable with the demands of the British, as well as some others, res pecting the navigation of the Pacific and South Seas, the right of trade and setlle- of the Columbia, and that Gray had never been within twenty miles of its mouth. Cray also discovered a good harbor on the same coast, a little north of the mouth of the Columbia, which he called Bul fmch's harbor; but which, even upon American maps, is frequently named Whidbey's harbor, after Vancouver's lieu tenant, who subsequently surveyed it. Between 1701) and 1791, tie British and the Spaniards completely explored the coasts of the continent from the forty eighth to the fifty-eighth parallels, and the numerous islands adjacent, which form the great northwest Archipelago. The discoveries of the English arc well known by means of the journals of Vancouver's voyage ; while little can be gathered re- pecting those made by the Spaniards, k the Spaniards as far' north certainly ja; the I -'M degree of latitude, and most I'pibiihly ' ten degrees farther. No part .'.1 A .. 'll !.. ll . 1' .... . I I I uiiiie coiisi wiiiiin mose inmis nuu ocen seen by the people of any civilized nation, until alter its discovery by the Spaniards; for Drake undoubtedly went no farther wntli in 1571), than Cabrillo and Ferrelo lind gone in 1513. Spanish colonies had jalsM been planted in that coast as far north as the 38th degree ; and Spain was then fully and indisputably in the posses son of the whole territory extending on tin; Pacific, south of Cape Mendocino un der the 10th parallel. Within the same period, also, (that is, prior to I774,) the Russians sailing from Krusdiatka had discovered the Aleutian kinds, which stretch in a chain across j tin; northwest part of the Pacific, from America towards Asia, and many points on the American continent and its ad- care, and he entered the bay called by him Nootka Sound, where he refitted his ships. lb; then saw many points on the west coast of the westernmost, islands, which line the shore of the continent be tween the Hth and the 53th parallels; and explored minutely the remainder of the west coast, of the continent beyond those islands, as far as the Arctic sea. The British',' in this expedition, were ignorant of the discoveries made by the Spaniards in 1771 and 1775; and, in fact, had not Barrington's translation of Maurell's journey appeared in print be fore the termination of the British expe dition, it would have, been impossible to deprive Cook of the , merit of having dis covered the whole west coast of America north of the -lOth degree ;'as no sufficient evidence could have been adduced i:i proof of prior discoveries, from the man uscripts' of the Spaniards, which might fairly have been assumed to be forgeries. The iiuenton their coasts, and the indemnifica- from the only source of information, the tion to be made to British subjects, were j introduction to the journals of the voy cnibodied in a convention, (commonly age of the Sutil and Mcxieana. To the called the Nootka treaty) signed in Oc- American fur traders, however, the world tobcr, 171)0. Other negotiations followed; is indebted for many other discoveries in respecting the extent of territory to be that quarter, as can be proved by docu- iiefiit islands north of the 55th Parallel : and had also made settlements on the made up Irom Looks journals. Aleutian islands for the prosecution of the fur trade. In 1774, a Spanish ship sent from Mexico, under Capt. Perez, sailed' along e coast northward to the 51th degree, diseovering the land in many places, pirlicnlarly at ihe 'entrance of a bay hetucen the '1f)lh and 50th degrees' of latitude, called by the Spaniards Port San i examined by the fur traders of (Jreat Britain, r ranee, Russia, Austria, and tlu United Slates, and they were carefully restored to Pritish subjects; and finally, in 171)5, the Spaniards formally delivered up Nootka to the British Commission. Both parties immediately afterwards quit ted the place, and no attempt has since been made by any civilized nation to oc cupy it. The Spaniards endeavored also, in the summer of 171)vJ, to establish a post on the south side of the straits of Fuca, but in a few months afterward they ab andoncd it. Since that time, no cllbrt whatever was made to extend her do minion on the Pacific north of the Bay of San Francisco, in latitude of.'JSl-! de grees, the .most nort hern point occupied by her subjects, before the conclusion of the convention of 171)0. nients still existing. The islands, straits, capes, Alc. thus discovered, received from the British navigators the names of various members of the royal family, the ministry, and the tory nobility and gentry of Engl and. These names may still be found on our maps, though few of them will probably ever be employed by those who inhabit that part of the world. The Rus sians, who occupy the northern part of the great northwest Archipelago, and the adjacent coasts of the continent, studious ly expunge from their maps every name imposed by a foreign civilized nation. In 171)0, Spain declared war against Great Britain; and from that year to 1 ?M, the trade of the north Pacific coast's was conducted exclusively by the Russians and the citizens of the United States. Within that space of time the Russians had formed numerous settlements and trading posts on the "coasts of America h'M'enzo. which rtimoars to be lh :mn now known as Nootka Sound. The Spanish (lovernnient suppressed all ac counts of this expedition until 1H0-2, when 't short notice of it. was published official ly in the introduction to the journal of a voyage made in 171), by the schooners &nil and Mexicana. In 1775, two other Spanish vessels were sent from Mexico under Captains H'w;ta and Bodega. Heceta did not proceed beyond the 50th degree. On his return, he discovered an inlet or open '""r' in the coast, in the latitude of 45 decrees 10 minutes, which is noted on panisii maps, published within ten years afterwards as the Inlet of Jlcceta. Other ' Punish maps, published within the same period, represented this inlet as the mouth f a river called the Rio' de San Rotjue; 11 is in fact, the mouth of the river now wll'-d the Columbia. The other Spanish I, under, Bodega, went, as far north us the 57th degree; in the course of which V0.Vae, the Spaniards certainly saw the 'oasts of the continent and its adjacent In 171)1, Capt. Robert Cray, the com mander of an American merchant ship, discovered the mouth of a river in the latitude of AC) degrees and Hi minutes. Being then unable to enter the river, he JJrihsh, to the present day, give no credit to the discoveries of Perez, which were not communicated to the world until after the publication of Cook's journals, and their writers studiously omit all mention of the expedition of Bodega and Heceta. Between 1 7H5 and 1 705. the northwest ! river Ore 'ran. of which Carver, si native i")' Messrs. Lewis and Clark, who had coasts of America were freoucntod and! of Connecticut, nrctended. fa 1st v. no h2Cn despatched for the purpose by the ... . . ' I ' . ' I i ' 1 ' I j. I T T . I Lt. . n. (l()ubt, to have received accounts in 17()(;,r,nt,n,ucni01 inc u,meu C)lalcs aIle" from the Indians near the head waters ! 1,10 CCfi10, r Louisiana to that power by of the Mississippi. The opening in the France. Settlements and trading posts American coast, through which the Co- Wo also established m 1811, by citizens luinbia enters the Pacific, is the same ()1 ,!,c United States, at the mouth of the discovered by Heceta in 1775, and t.ac.(l ! Columbia river, and at points on its ' 1 I . I VW.I 111 1 . returned thither in Mav, 171)-, and sailed j "or"1 OI l,JC 'm parallel, and one cstab up it the. distance of fifteen miles from I hs,,n,c,,t not ,ar from t,,c ,,ay of Ha the sea. Upon' this river (Irav bestow-1 FranclS('' ,lcur ,,,e ;J9t degree. The ed the name of his ship, the Columbia, wcst branch of the .Columbia river was which it now bears; although attempts I explored m its whole course from the are made to identify it with a supposed I JiOCK' mountains 10 the malic in ISOo, cr, a liativei'v IC , J'-wis and LiarK, wi surveyed by the national ships of (Ireat Britain, Spain, Russia and France. The Russians had established colonies and trading posts on the northernmost parts of the coast ; and one attempt had been made by the Spaniards to ibuud a set tlement farther south, which occcasioncd a dispute between their government and that of (ireat Britain. A Spanish force sent from Mexico, in 1781), took posses sion of Nootka Sound, which had been one of the principal places of resort for the fur traders of all nations. The Spanish commandant, Martinez, also seiz ed two British vessels, which arrived there while he was in possession, bringing men and materials for the establishment of a trading factory. The owners of these vessels complained to the British govern ment; and their agent, Mr. Meares, moreover represented, falsely, as can be proved, that he had already, in the year before the occupation of the, Nootka by the Spaniards, himself pin chased the lei- on some Spanish maps as before mention ed, the Rio tie. San Rotjue. For this river Meares hail searched in vain, although he examined its very mouth in 1788; and he declares confidently, in his journal, pub lished in 171)0, that none such exists. Vancouver had also, in I71)-i, during the interval between Cray's (irst and second visits to the mouth of the stream, minute ly explored that part of the coast ; and al though hornet Cray while the latter was on his way to make his second attempt, and received an account of the existence of the river, he still refused to credit it, and recorded in his journal his conviction that no river of note entered the Pacific from America, between the 40th and 48th de grees of latitude. Vet the same Jteitish navigator did not hesitate to record also in his journal the assertion, that his lieut enant, Broughton, was the liiM discoverer branches in the interior; and by the Northwest Company of Montreal in 1806, and the following years, in the country north of the sources of the Columbia, which had been explored in 179:3 by Mackenzie. There is. however, no reason to believe that any British establishment had been formed in any part of the ter ritory .'drained by the Columbia, before the foundation of the American settle ment called Astoria, at the mouth of that river, in March, 181 1. The establishments formed by the cit izens of the United States on the Colum bia, subsisted until the end of 1813, when in anticipation of their capture by a Brit ish naval force, which had been sent for that purpose from London, the buildings and stock of goods on hand were sold by the principal agents to the Northwest Company. Soon afterwards the British i ! II 1 .