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The Polynesian. [volume] (Honolulu (Oahu), Hawaii) 1840-1841, November 21, 1840, Image 1

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j. j. JARVES, Editor.
Vol. 1. IVo. 21.
great islands very frequently, and landed j ritory at that place, and erected a fort
in many places, where they left inonumcnls
m token of their visits. 1 he Spanish
from tlio Wawhiimton (ilohc
ri!i:v or facts im:-tin(J tiii;
' M)iniivi:sT roAsr or avikuica.
The northwest coast of America is the
. ... .
(VjircsMiHi umi
i . ... iwirtirTI
III' lill I M 'I ''i 1 IV in. w, , iv III. m- . .
ll(,rt Ol mu lumtMi 'UIU,1U minimi. ... - . - -
w,j,.i extends from the great cliviilinu tfentlemaii, oh a.ned Iron. , Madrid
a nijt) tn uiu I'MiijKii wepi ny inuuiene,
the pilot of Bodega's vessel, which he
translated into English, and published in
suallv employed to designate i Government endeavored likewise to siip
iono'fl!ieAinericanc(Mitinentl,rL,ss aI1, (f this expedition;
('yiHl I me juiuim iiiomiiuuis, nuMHiini
10 the Pacific, together with the adjacent
Jaiids in that ocean. 1 he territory i
Ktii.g upon the 'Pacific southward mdon jn 1 8I, among his Miscellames.
o, the fortieth parallel, to Cape San In 1 H, ai()ther expetl.t.on al.Mig these
r:,s. the extremity of the land in that coasts was made by the Spaniards m two
direction, situated nearly under the tropic
of Cancer, is known by the general name
of C'.ilifornitt, which the Spaniards appli
ed to the whole western section of North
iiieiica. The northwest coast and the
vessels, commanded by Captain Arteaga
and Bodega, who visited several places
situated near the (iOth degree; but those
parts of the coast had, in the preceding
year, been minutely explored by the
' 1 ii i ... i ... n ... i " i.
U.t of California together, may be eon-i ,nns"' u,,(" 1 ,OK
,i,!rretl as forming the West Coast of j Cook arrived on the American coast,
Urih-.hiirrica near the .U degree ol latitude, in J i.
- . .. . ... .
lM'oic the vear 177-1.' the west coast He examined the s'lores ol the continent
of ortli-Ameriea had been discovered I between that degree and the 41th, with
and lactorv on it, under the irius:i
flag. The British government, upon the
strength of these misrepresentations, de
manded the restitution of Nootka, and
of other places in the vicinity, which
Meares pretended also to have purchased,
as well as the recognition of the rights
of British subjects to navigate the Pacific,
and to make settlements on any part of
the west coast of America, north of the
most northern settlements of the Span
iards. After some negotiations and pre
parations on both sides for war, the
Spanish government yielded; and stipula
tions, conformable with the demands of
the British, as well as some others, res
pecting the navigation of the Pacific and
South Seas, the right of trade and setlle-
of the Columbia, and that Gray had never
been within twenty miles of its mouth.
Cray also discovered a good harbor on
the same coast, a little north of the mouth
of the Columbia, which he called Bul
fmch's harbor; but which, even upon
American maps, is frequently named
Whidbey's harbor, after Vancouver's lieu
tenant, who subsequently surveyed it.
Between 1701) and 1791, tie British
and the Spaniards completely explored
the coasts of the continent from the forty
eighth to the fifty-eighth parallels, and
the numerous islands adjacent, which form
the great northwest Archipelago. The
discoveries of the English arc well known
by means of the journals of Vancouver's
voyage ; while little can be gathered re-
pecting those made by the Spaniards,
k the Spaniards as far' north certainly
ja; the I -'M degree of latitude, and most
I'pibiihly ' ten degrees farther. No part
.'.1 A .. 'll !.. ll . 1' .... . I I I
uiiiie coiisi wiiiiin mose inmis nuu ocen
seen by the people of any civilized nation,
until alter its discovery by the Spaniards;
for Drake undoubtedly went no farther
wntli in 1571), than Cabrillo and Ferrelo
lind gone in 1513. Spanish colonies had
jalsM been planted in that coast as far
north as the 38th degree ; and Spain was
then fully and indisputably in the posses
son of the whole territory extending on
tin; Pacific, south of Cape Mendocino un
der the 10th parallel.
Within the same period, also, (that is,
prior to I774,) the Russians sailing from
Krusdiatka had discovered the Aleutian
kinds, which stretch in a chain across
j tin; northwest part of the Pacific, from
America towards Asia, and many points
on the American continent and its ad-
care, and he entered the bay called by
him Nootka Sound, where he refitted his
ships. lb; then saw many points on the
west coast of the westernmost, islands,
which line the shore of the continent be
tween the Hth and the 53th parallels;
and explored minutely the remainder of
the west coast, of the continent beyond
those islands, as far as the Arctic sea.
The British',' in this expedition, were
ignorant of the discoveries made by the
Spaniards in 1771 and 1775; and, in
fact, had not Barrington's translation of
Maurell's journey appeared in print be
fore the termination of the British expe
dition, it would have, been impossible to
deprive Cook of the , merit of having dis
covered the whole west coast of America
north of the -lOth degree ;'as no sufficient
evidence could have been adduced i:i
proof of prior discoveries, from the man
uscripts' of the Spaniards, which might
fairly have been assumed to be forgeries.
iiuenton their coasts, and the indemnifica- from the only source of information, the
tion to be made to British subjects, were j introduction to the journals of the voy
cnibodied in a convention, (commonly age of the Sutil and Mcxieana. To the
called the Nootka treaty) signed in Oc- American fur traders, however, the world
tobcr, 171)0. Other negotiations followed; is indebted for many other discoveries in
respecting the extent of territory to be that quarter, as can be proved by docu-
iiefiit islands north of the 55th Parallel :
and had also made settlements on the made up Irom Looks journals.
Aleutian islands for the prosecution of
the fur trade.
In 1774, a Spanish ship sent from
Mexico, under Capt. Perez, sailed' along
e coast northward to the 51th degree,
diseovering the land in many places,
pirlicnlarly at ihe 'entrance of a bay
hetucen the '1f)lh and 50th degrees' of
latitude, called by the Spaniards Port San i examined by the fur traders of (Jreat
Britain, r ranee, Russia, Austria, and tlu
United Slates, and they were carefully
restored to Pritish subjects; and finally,
in 171)5, the Spaniards formally delivered
up Nootka to the British Commission.
Both parties immediately afterwards quit
ted the place, and no attempt has since
been made by any civilized nation to oc
cupy it. The Spaniards endeavored also,
in the summer of 171)vJ, to establish a post
on the south side of the straits of Fuca,
but in a few months afterward they ab
andoncd it. Since that time, no cllbrt
whatever was made to extend her do
minion on the Pacific north of the Bay of
San Francisco, in latitude of.'JSl-! de
grees, the .most nort hern point occupied
by her subjects, before the conclusion of
the convention of 171)0.
nients still existing. The islands, straits,
capes, Alc. thus discovered, received from
the British navigators the names of various
members of the royal family, the ministry,
and the tory nobility and gentry of Engl
and. These names may still be found
on our maps, though few of them will
probably ever be employed by those who
inhabit that part of the world. The Rus
sians, who occupy the northern part of
the great northwest Archipelago, and the
adjacent coasts of the continent, studious
ly expunge from their maps every name
imposed by a foreign civilized nation.
In 171)0, Spain declared war against
Great Britain; and from that year to
1 ?M, the trade of the north Pacific coast's
was conducted exclusively by the Russians
and the citizens of the United States.
Within that space of time the Russians
had formed numerous settlements and
trading posts on the "coasts of America
h'M'enzo. which rtimoars to be lh :mn
now known as Nootka Sound. The
Spanish (lovernnient suppressed all ac
counts of this expedition until 1H0-2, when
't short notice of it. was published official
ly in the introduction to the journal of a
voyage made in 171), by the schooners
&nil and Mexicana.
In 1775, two other Spanish vessels
were sent from Mexico under Captains
H'w;ta and Bodega. Heceta did not
proceed beyond the 50th degree. On
his return, he discovered an inlet or open
'""r' in the coast, in the latitude of 45
decrees 10 minutes, which is noted on
panisii maps, published within ten years
afterwards as the Inlet of Jlcceta. Other
' Punish maps, published within the same
period, represented this inlet as the mouth
f a river called the Rio' de San Rotjue;
11 is in fact, the mouth of the river now
wll'-d the Columbia. The other Spanish
I, under, Bodega, went, as far north
us the 57th degree; in the course of which
V0.Vae, the Spaniards certainly saw the
'oasts of the continent and its adjacent
In 171)1, Capt. Robert Cray, the com
mander of an American merchant ship,
discovered the mouth of a river in the
latitude of AC) degrees and Hi minutes.
Being then unable to enter the river, he
JJrihsh, to the present day, give no credit
to the discoveries of Perez, which were
not communicated to the world until after
the publication of Cook's journals, and
their writers studiously omit all mention
of the expedition of Bodega and Heceta.
Between 1 7H5 and 1 705. the northwest ! river Ore 'ran. of which Carver, si native i")' Messrs. Lewis and Clark, who had
coasts of America were freoucntod and! of Connecticut, nrctended. fa 1st v. no h2Cn despatched for the purpose by the
... . . ' I ' . ' I i ' 1 ' I j. I T T . I Lt. . n.
(l()ubt, to have received accounts in 17()(;,r,nt,n,ucni01 inc u,meu C)lalcs aIle"
from the Indians near the head waters ! 1,10 CCfi10, r Louisiana to that power by
of the Mississippi. The opening in the France. Settlements and trading posts
American coast, through which the Co- Wo also established m 1811, by citizens
luinbia enters the Pacific, is the same ()1 ,!,c United States, at the mouth of the
discovered by Heceta in 1775, and t.ac.(l ! Columbia river, and at points on its
' 1 I . I VW.I 111 1 .
returned thither in Mav, 171)-, and sailed j "or"1 OI l,JC 'm parallel, and one cstab
up it the. distance of fifteen miles from I hs,,n,c,,t not ,ar from t,,c ,,ay of Ha
the sea. Upon' this river (Irav bestow-1 FranclS('' ,lcur ,,,e ;J9t degree. The
ed the name of his ship, the Columbia, wcst branch of the .Columbia river was
which it now bears; although attempts I explored m its whole course from the
are made to identify it with a supposed I JiOCK' mountains 10 the malic in ISOo,
cr, a liativei'v IC , J'-wis and LiarK, wi
surveyed by the national ships of (Ireat
Britain, Spain, Russia and France. The
Russians had established colonies and
trading posts on the northernmost parts
of the coast ; and one attempt had been
made by the Spaniards to ibuud a set
tlement farther south, which occcasioncd
a dispute between their government and
that of (ireat Britain. A Spanish force
sent from Mexico, in 1781), took posses
sion of Nootka Sound, which had been
one of the principal places of resort
for the fur traders of all nations. The
Spanish commandant, Martinez, also seiz
ed two British vessels, which arrived there
while he was in possession, bringing men
and materials for the establishment of a
trading factory. The owners of these
vessels complained to the British govern
ment; and their agent, Mr. Meares,
moreover represented, falsely, as can be
proved, that he had already, in the year
before the occupation of the, Nootka by
the Spaniards, himself pin chased the lei-
on some Spanish maps as before mention
ed, the Rio tie. San Rotjue. For this river
Meares hail searched in vain, although he
examined its very mouth in 1788; and he
declares confidently, in his journal, pub
lished in 171)0, that none such exists.
Vancouver had also, in I71)-i, during the
interval between Cray's (irst and second
visits to the mouth of the stream, minute
ly explored that part of the coast ; and al
though hornet Cray while the latter was on
his way to make his second attempt, and
received an account of the existence of the
river, he still refused to credit it, and
recorded in his journal his conviction that
no river of note entered the Pacific from
America, between the 40th and 48th de
grees of latitude. Vet the same Jteitish
navigator did not hesitate to record also
in his journal the assertion, that his lieut
enant, Broughton, was the liiM discoverer
branches in the interior; and by the
Northwest Company of Montreal in 1806,
and the following years, in the country
north of the sources of the Columbia,
which had been explored in 179:3 by
Mackenzie. There is. however, no reason
to believe that any British establishment
had been formed in any part of the ter
ritory .'drained by the Columbia, before
the foundation of the American settle
ment called Astoria, at the mouth of that
river, in March, 181 1.
The establishments formed by the cit
izens of the United States on the Colum
bia, subsisted until the end of 1813, when
in anticipation of their capture by a Brit
ish naval force, which had been sent for
that purpose from London, the buildings
and stock of goods on hand were sold by
the principal agents to the Northwest
Company. Soon afterwards the British
1 .

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