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PACIFIC COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER SUPPLEMENT, DEC. 17. W r 1 i r1 1 .1 1 j ' it 1 i j.' i ... " r- 4- I n i I 1 1 Hi 1 1 n il f w RKI'OKT or "is i:x-Ei.i.nxrY vr. n. akiim i:osi. lltt Hawaii Majxtt rf.vi.wi-u rr To Ilia ExcxLLnrr II. A. P. Caitm. PfittUnt if lh Hoard if InvrugraU-in. Si : On tr... UtS of Jinmrj Iit. I wa in- tructi hj y m i,, innmiii r. i t cmwi li .n wuli Il Mj.-tj (ratel tri;ui.J it.e ri I. the uv jct of lutiotrati n, anJ j u iirr t - i tuy attn tiwn t.j l he f. tkwir) pint fr cfrlul .",vr ti .q : i irl.- TLat ff securing a cl. ' nu'miatit- Kmgl jra, a iii at the rime t.ta-? furui-h fl.e I-r wLiel U reiju.rJ. SfexO'l Tlut .f orreftirj the dnfwit in tfi f r.p..rt i jo of td aiu .in, tr. ll-unn lf thirl. ILC tf -:ur.n,j a sufficient an J tr liiiM surtlj of U'rer. Kiurf J. 1 bt oNt,inins 'li"tiC' r. n. f nn:iti.n on thi uSii.-ct of luiuiirti itt I 1 Ti-j,.,rt a4 fl-w : I busts liwitl jArnn. (,'liici.i. the? Milaj I'enin !.. th Nriu ul.?iif.:."" the Km lt.Iu-4, ouv? of tf? Lurof'-nn cnui.tri- r-jec-UIl I.r tu il aol in eacl o.untry hc invtitcl ii-e uhji:t of eml.rttion t tli kn I (Ui. Vi m H Lnrin oa tint juenti..r l laVr arl or tl? juett o of p uUti'.n. '1 official fi tt'tt, wLkl I hell ax rn.tuf)r of Hi AIijej' tuit. wo cxccllctit f.iciliUi- in rijiJIy juruir2 my in? cxtition. It eit.tMi . uif t uMitin intrfiewt wjih jcr-xn' in hilt authority. ar) t i jlt.iiii aict; t recurl-t without iltl.iy. Thi w.v tliff cui eci.!Iy io InJia. '1'Im G )f rnrBr-nl in t'nicott i Ixiving h-o iiJonac of llw Mijmty'a jrofHjoe i viait. arJ lii- deire to obuin inforoj ition on the subject of trroiratton without JcUy, mije auc'i arran-etuenta that on hia arrif il th oCoial ajr were Heel before tat for full examination. anl the persona win wore b-ttt ahte t c;ie tu reti .Me information were in atteniuore. S orJiallj ail fully wm thia inforuiati n pien tht my short itaj in lnlia wiai nu(5rintty t en.M me to obtain the fart which mainly determine the ijucfttiun of inuui jtrar i,,n. I will runnier the iul.j-ct of rU.tt Indian or cihjIio labor Crut. b-cau-e i ha4 fx-n more ro tumently hefore the Hawaiian j linter. I doitire h-re to utate that I concur fully in the iwwi an-1 :ntiont- t r-nted by tu in your reply. d-ttl March 'J, lill, to a Memorial on K.Mt Indian Kiuiratior ' excepting only the tateiueoi madrf by yon that the Indian liafcrn tuent ta nprmnol to emigration. Kecent int-r-iiwi with that f eminent convince m-' that they will not oppowe it, if conducted under strict trettie and convention. I b.-Iieve that there ha L:?n, latterly. chans of opinion in this respect. Ire all other U teliicnts Uiad ? in your rrply I rc with y i. nd will avoid u repetition ol the matters considered by you. Lefore learhin India I louod that the subject of coolia Iabjr wa fami'iar to Koglmh statewinen io the riant. In Singapore the tubjt prtfonted a very intrrtin phae, owin j to a difference of upninn Iwiwtrn the Colonial liovernor and tle eereiary of State for India. Singapore is the leading n of the Strait Settlement.' Sir Frederick Weld ia the (Jjvcrnor. Adjoininic thi olonv are several I'rotecteiJ Statee,'' i t .Matea which allow, by convention, an Knglitb omcial to remde near ita (ovrrnment, and act aa an ad viter." It iu.iy l readily inferred that the advice " of llie Ilenident regarded aJ a Com mand. Thene Protected States " are aurcly in ne of laborer. With a view to obtaioing Indian eooltt-a the Uovernor of Sincapore induced the 4!oTrnor ol Madras to send Mr. M'tiresor, the Protector of Kmigrtnta in the Madras 'resi dency, to th- States w!tl dire Claris to fully in vestigate the subject of emigration. He did so, ail made an elaborate report, urinj tlte pro- Eriety, safety, and neccMity of immigration, 'pon tlii the (Jovernor of Singapore, Sir F. Weld, wrote to Iord Kimberley, Secretary of State for the Colonic, er.djrm the views of Mr. M"Grejrr, and nrgin the great benefit which would arie to these State if immigration waa attoweil. He said : My opinion is that there i no reason why the interest and welfare ul the Indian emigrant should not be n writ secured in the native Protected State under Iheir present administration as within our own settle meats." Ird Kimberly, under date of Novem ber 3), I3"0, say : There is no doubt that the ratterial prusperitf of the native State woul I be advanced by such an increase in the supply of labor aa could be ai7rdd by a vteii)alc immi gration of Indian coolie; but looking to the acrtou dilScuIlle in the way of securing pror treatment of the coolie io the State which are Bo nritioh territory, I do not feel jot.fied in recommending to the Secretary of State for India that the experiment should be tried. You will, therefore, perceive that the views taken by the Colonial Department, and thoe taken by the Indian Department d not coincide. While piiAin; by the Strait Settlements I met otTkial and planters who were familiar with Indian coolie labor in the Settlement, the e Coolie bem generally free emigrants," though there are many w rkin under contract," and protected by I'ritish laws. The coolie do not understand the do tie of the protector." They believe be i put in of!!ce to back them up in any complaint 'the planter are draped off to dis tant Court on frivolous j retences, and t tj ure tliat they arc at the mercy of a dewpot. Hut they Accept thJ situation, as they can obtain latxir from no other place. Thee planters gcnetally tild the opinion that Cbioce labor i much superior to Indian ; some say that one China tuan I equal to three coolie." Vit they are rather afraid of the Chin. -sc. because t!ey refuse to make Ion; cntract. and. moreover, are in Iractablt?. 4)n my arrival in Calcutta, Mr. Micauley, one f the Secretaries of the l- nil (iovcrnment, at one put hi servi.'e at the diial of Ilia Majesty, and brought me in coromunioation with Jr. tirant. the authonx-1 Protector of Kiui grant" under the Indian laws. It i the buti dcmi of the Protector to tee that the Law regard in.' euiJf iti''" r enforct-d. I)r. (irant's expe rie"ne evcrcd every joint on the subject of cootie amigtation. Hi report on this subject are of ertat value, clear, and exhaustive. 1-jth Mr. Pioauley and Pr. (irant encouraged, instead of dicouraj5d. emirati.n V thee island. I'ut I 4ta inlarmed that no step could be taken by us 4 i ward securin emigrant until we bad enteral jo to a convention " with the I to trial (iovern aent in Kngland. the Indian tivernmenl did (tot enter into direct relation with lurcign llo eernmcot. Oo reaching Kngtand. I wa promptly ACtrorded ar interview with Sir louis Millet. L'nder Secretary of State fr India. He inform- me that there was no ohjeetion to the emigrti.n of coolie to the Hawaiian lland-, but that it it would be necessary to enter into a c.neii ttoa on the suj-ct," a other countries had d .ne ; that io order to do so, law should be pned by the Hawaiian Government similar to thuoe pa-ed he oihcr countries ; that trre tw w uii ie submitted to the Indian ( vernmcrl ; and. if reirarde-i a rati factory, a convention would be entered into. oe of the permanent secretaries of tlrf India Otfice r-iU d my attention to the fact thai the subject bad already been di-n-u-rd witli foa when jou reprcsentcl our ti.vernnunt at the Coutt ol St. Jaine. and that a similar state eaaoi bal beo made to you ; but that no intima tioo bad jet been mado that such law bad t en rai-e l- On my ii'X "hat in view of the kind treatment accorde-l by u to emigrant Utnirers. such an e UN .rat cnventno might be dispense'! wth ur ce' 1 va promptly in rorlned tnat the neces.iiy for uch a c nventi..n wa imperative ; that the Imperial iovernuient did not consider thi requirement harsh r un kind : tbat on!." there wa such a convention and rrotectioo ' the most salutary laws might remain without force, and Ilriti-b subject be uada the ohjee u " inhuman treatment ; that if f-jreign eountrie wiheij t employ large cumber of Uriti-ta subj ct. it wa only reason able that a I'ritish representative should be rreent to that the law were enforced. It will b evident to J u that any modification, io our favor, of tb rciuircmenU of the present contention exiting between Great I.r.ta.n and ' other eountri.-. would be imaied lately followed by a demand for modification by other countries ; thai the kin.L treatment now a -coided to emi crant might not be continued ; that tlx Indian doolie are weak and ignorant, and are cn-Uered tb " wrJ " ol the Lntisb nation, and that the aettled tvliey of a Krrat anl powerful nation will o b chansed at the request of the Hawaiian aJoTernmcnt. Moreover, the trict law demanded tt the Imperial Ootermeot, indoding the " pro Xactor " protiaion. extend to th Britib colon acl any excertion made jo favor of the Hawaiian fiovernmcnt wouli be quite inconsistent. The Hawaiian (ovcrncjtat m-ilc c diiticcti js in fiv. r r fmr nation, in the matter ol native fca- m-'n, I ,x it cr.iJer it law- on that fjbj.-ct ji-t ar 1 Sj the Iir-cnal v;rnu:'.r.t cor.si 1- r the countries, as a term it exicti fr jra f -reign Conl;iivn of obtaining woak anl iiorant lnti- h ub:;Ct, ai i-:t ar.l ri-ar.aM"?. Tub '.r Iwm as Lbulr?. There iv a great d.fTercuce of ojiriioa on the value of Inl.an cooiie labor; but I Ih:1.cc the prevailing i pini ,n i-t, that the 'bin-c are ri r t In liir.s at the satu.: t;toe thi c lie lib .r i u-J with p r-Et in Kiary countries, anl it ungbt le ued with jr:Ct here. All of the Chinese are fcot urirtj all the It.liat. ; but the emigrant laborer fr .m Ch:na ar rithtrt-n-ferior Ij the emigrant labor r froui Indi. Th.-i i owing to a d.?ererce in thesocial ar.d rtl.gi i:- thought ol the twj Cjuntrie. Th-naliv of the Cor Jimndel c at. who d Work on the tUr.- tatiwii of the Malay f Peninsula, receive double the Uengalei c-whe in the atne vu'i given to the rla:e. Hot tie; native Iroui CoroUjanJel will n 't remain 1 ng in the Malay Country. H" return home at toe enJ ol six months. It i so in Hor mah. where thou-ai. Jt of o.lie emigrate fr tn Inlia. work a few m .r.ih. and return l uc 1 ho flat Indian are nt an emigrating p t o j ie. 'Iheyarenot dip.a-J t move from one art of India to another, or from India to l .rc:gn countries. Great tfj,rt have been nin ic t j toove them from crowded jart t the sear.tily sc-ttl'.-d p.rti .r.s. but with little effect. I he tea j 1 inters in the district of Amdi have great difficulty io getting laborer, anl already find that the high c ol of getting them is making, in many instance, the cultivation cf the tea plant quite unr rofihibl-. The Indian i reftrs uflering and fatuin? at hotne to a removal even t j another tart of India. (See Indian Famine lie port.) I)urin the re. -tut gr-.-.t and dintressing fuunnc no considerable number oflercd to leave, or vtere willing to leave, their borne. A few living near the eeaporU cOl-rcd to emigrate. Aero the liay of Bengal is IJurmah, one of the very richest of the Indian dependencies. The demand there for labor U very great, and the wages high. It is fro scantily pnipulatel that ten millions of oplo cou'd readily Cnl t-upport within it boundaries. I'ut the Indian coolie, though fully p rotcctcJ, refu-9 to settle there, ! --referring rather to cros the Iiy of Bengal, abor a lew month-, and return to India vnd live at home till all bis money i cpent. The planter in the Malay Peninsula are rely precd for lafor in working the sugar, coffee, and gambier lantalion. So are the planters of Sumatra, and oinparalively high wage are offered, but the demand i scantily supplied. My own observa tion on this subject arecjnfirmed by Mr. Collard in hii rep-irt, published in the Hawaiian linzette, June 27, 131. The statistics puhliohsd by the Indian iovcrnment for the year 1379 offer strong roof on tLi-J point. There are nine foreign a-mcic fjr obtaining emigrants in India. TIicm; are located in Calcutta, and represent DeiuarHra, Trinidad. Jamaica, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Mau ritius. Natal, Fiji, Surinam, anl (iuaiaIou. Kach agent, bv the requirements of the Indian laws, must be a salaried officer (Sec. 5). The agents employ recruiters " to scour the country, and theee are licensed by the Indian Government. During the year 1S79-SO the 23G " recruiter obtained 15,U00 persons who registered oa emi grants in the different districts. Of thete 3), 000 only 18.CKX) came into tho depots at Calcutta. Ten per centnm abandoned their contract. These 3G recruiters " were paid $l.o0 for every emigrant finally entered in the depot. The pay ment of thi comparatively large sum shows the difficulties of obtaining emigrants.. Although the agencies are located in Calcutta, the capital of the province of Bengal, which bold thirty mil lion of people, there were only three hundred and six (200) emigrants from that province. Central India, comprising the great district of Indore, Majporo Jubblepore, liayjiore, Kcwah, and Gwalior, furnished ooly one hundred and twenty altogether. Now here, in an empire of two hundred and fifty millions of people, in per haps the poorest country in the world, famine prevailing somewhere nearly every year, the rate of wage not reaching five cent a day in some places, the peojlc must be solicited and begged to emigrate, and only 20.000 are obtained in one year from these million. Moreover, the Iieenes of one-evcnlb part or the "recruiter" wire cancelled in this one year for fa!c representation to the proposed emigrant, showing that the re cruiters resort to most questionable means to secure people. The coolie i unwilling to go. Miserable and starving a tb.e rreet chi-wcs ore, they are not greatly tempted by a ri-o in wage Ir.ui 4 toil cents per day. Kx pet iciiee show that social, religious, and financial reason, by no mean creditable to the coolie, are quite a- in fluential a the prospect ol increa.cJ wages. No Indian, a a rule, who has any prospect " at home seem willing to leave. Many who are sickly try emigration, but are refused. The returns to the Imperial Government from the Island of Jamaica show that -the medical attenJ ance on the coolie in that most healthy country, average $12 oO per head per annum. During the year 137S-9, Demarara, Granada, and St. Lucia did not secure ihe small number of emi grant they required. (See official report to the Indian Government.) At the same time Dema rara i quite popular with tbe returning emi grant. It mutt be remembered that these loreign Mate arc working for emigrant in India, with well-constructed depots, and tho buMiic- is inmagcd by men highly paid, ar.d who are ert-crienet-d in all the best and nioet successful method of inducing the people to leave home. A about 20.000 people do emigrate every year, the question arises, from what cla.-s do the Come ? If the people generally are not disposed to emi grate, is it not quite safe to conclude that tho-e who d emigrate are not the most desirable ? Dr. Grant informed me that, as a rule, they are from the lowest, the most servile caste in India. With rcpcct to the expenses connected """with Indian emigration, the rates of wages allowed, the term of service required, I will hereafter present such detailed repsrt as you may require. 1 will state, however, that in the competition for obtaining coolies, Surinam, for instance, requires only five days' work in the week, seven hour each day. and gives a return parage at the end of fie year. 1 be oSoial returns from the Island of Jamaica show that the cost of necuring the emigrant, of defraying hi passage to and fro. amount to 2X0. Kar Imu3 as a Basis or Poitlation. In considering this branch of the subject it w mi l be necc-ary to enter into a mo-t c ireful consideration of the moral, physical and intellect ual Condition of the class of Fast Indian from which the emigrant come. 1 ansumc that you and tho interested in this Question ate familiar witn the literature on the subject. I shall, there I re, present only a few fact, which in my opin ion should settle thi question. The lImdoj ate divided into tatlrs. The lines between thee eate are strictly drawn. Kvery Hirjoo efiil i i born in one or the other ot them ana remain so for life. The higher castes boll the intelli gence and wealth ol the country. A you dc - -..,! throu h the lower castes wealth and intelli gence deereae until the lowet i readied, which 1 contain the ignorant and those with the leat mora! an 1 intellectual rower. Ages of s-x-ial. , religious and political despotism have kept tin : I est caste in such a miserable c m inion tint J thev have become the least valuable stjelc in the Indian population N w the majority of tho emigrating In I:an Cotne from this Cia. Low as the Indian rank be de the European, the emigrating In dim Come rrom the lowest clas. No doubt sjiiic of the up per caste Iliad xsdj emigrate, but I am informed they are generally under a cloud. 1 d not believe that much can be said in favor of the moral condition of these Hindoo. Their religion consist in the worship of numerous hid eous, anl in many case grossly indecent looking idil. Monkeys are worshiped, and temples arc constructs! f r, and are filled with th. c ""-ii-uan divinitir. The j-eople in great crowds worship them. I entered a Hindoo temple in Benares, the sacrc-. city. Its dark recesses a well a the open spaces were filled with the most bide u and grinning idols, made of wood and bronte. B-.fore an altar tb pavement was clotted with the blood of butchered cot. In the court-yard were sev eral sacred well." A crowd of men and wom en were drawing out and using the fiithy water, l'nder the porticoes stood tbe " sacred" bull and cows, standing and receiving the worship of the vast crowd of people who thronged the place, while women gathered saered" urine ;n cup. Fat. sleek Brahmin priest stood about receiving offering or money. 1 do not believe that these religious rites are in advance of the ancient Hi waiTan idolatry. If the Indians are to betaken as a basis of population in these Island, they must be taken in tbeir low intellectual ni moral j cond:ti jn ar. l with all their revolting ceremonies, ! An attemt t to build up a nation in these dj with eu-.v. t..a:tr.al wuIJ nt oh't be cfTensivc l ! ti e civ.l z. i worli. bat would b even luJicrou. i ll.ey r. w n.tbir.g of our f- jiineal system, and w juII reTiir-i vears of careful instruction txfjre tley cjuli iini"er?tacd it. As those people arc f rotectel by Lritisti laws in the eiercise ol rei:-,u rite, however revoltirg they are, their thev w j-all Lave t j be j r .tectcd here. I r..ay be sa 1 ti. it theic p , !e .ull be'-ab-BJrtcd"'r asi::.i!i:el" h--rc, and t!:eir heath- t r..:i ractice w ju. l s .-n u.sar pear. ioj n i Lr.jW wl.er the j-mtr of assimilation lies, t er tiry n t in the Hawaiian fjr it is generally ad- loif.eJ that nceJs ail anj suptjri inmeii Nr i th.-re t jwer in the foreign race, the Furo- tean. to recjo-truct the H.nJo until it La greatly increase 1 it numbers. In the American .tites the great vig r of the Acglo-Saxjn stock, and tbe hrge pjjulati.n, has assimilated, jar tially, the fiuiiier.us emigrant from alien states. but it ha not been without dinner. Here there j j : little Coii-ervativo piwer, anl any larg influx ,1 loreine rs of i.ric race, woul I in time t-otaoiis.i ir.:"ii'.-nee. which would nees-r-sanly a c .titroilirig in ;iry ana even revolutionize our roiiueai in.-ii-.r.s. F-tecially would this be the case if the tut I.eW toj u ' it mn r.'ifivi-l t!i ri .'.t of'iiflra(e. and h il a ma rity of Votes. - . . - - 1 he character of the women who stiould etui crate is of the utmost imt-ortance. Now it would har l!y be exjected that the women of the cla?s w!, Jj emigrate from India would be very desir able as the mother of our future nation. Ke-sp.-etable women of the llmJoo class dj not ap-I- iriii t'ublie, escettifi' onlv those ltlonging to the menial clas I heir religion forbids them to cr ss the -ca, and public exposure on shipboard w juM be deemed a gruss act of indelicacy. The f r.-.-cnt emigration laws of India require forty women to necompany one hundred men. It does not reouire that marriage should c-xit. The "re cruiters' meet with very great difficulty in ob taining the required number of women. In sev eral instances the law was relaxed in order to permit a large number of men to leave. The late Protect r of Kuiigrants in India, says in bis official rep .rt (1S7'J): "The clas. of women wil ling to emigrate arc young widows, married or single votii-n who have gone astray, and are there-lore mo-t anxious to avoid their homes and conceal their antecedents."' Those familiar with Hindoo custom know that widows are outcasts, w luen who leal miserable lives and are hardly t-.Ierated in Hindoo society. 1 arked the resent Protect r of Immigrants how many women out of the f'.rty who emigrated were decent or respecta ble w. men. He said "hardly ten." While a few women do necompany their husbands, tho larger number are recruited ns single women, brought d rvn to tho depot and turned loose with the men, and herd together like cattle. It would hardly he po-fible to predict a very brilliant fu ture lor a otul:itioti coming from such women. It up-ars, also, by the otlicial reports in India that next to the Hindoos, the Mobammcdens rank next in number as emigrants. While their re ligious ceremonies are not as revolting ns those of the Hindoo, they are objcctional to us, inasmuch as polygamy is a strong feature in their social life. Besides this they are nggresive in their tendencies, and might, us they arc well united, make a dangerous element in the State. I re peatedly a.-ked this question of Kuropean who have long resided in India, "If a better class of Hindoos and Mohammedciis should be willing to emigrate to a foreign country, and they were frankly told that idol worship and polygamy would nst be tolerated in the countries to which they proposed to go, what would bo the effect? ' I was told in reply that " hardly one person would emigrate." No doubt they might be se duced or trap jed into emigrating ; but any de sirable scheme of populating the Islands must start with giving the proposed emigrant a correct statement of the political and social condition of the country which invite them. It is well known that the most extravagant inducements are now held out to invite emigration, one of the most common being that the coolie can marry a white woman with a large fortune. In addition to the above statements, I desire to copy an extract from a document presented to the Governor-in-Chicf of Jamaica, and by him submitted to the I mis-rial Government in Kng land, being a part of the memorial of the North Cornwall Association of Baptist Churches in the Island or Jamaica, representing sixteen Congrega tions, numbering about 12,000 persons. It says: " Your memorialists have repeatedly eipreswid and published their concurrence with the opinion of the 11 m. C. C. Bravo, that before n country can receive general material benefit Irom the in troduction of population, the bulk of the individ uals emigrating t that country must have on or the other of the foil owinj qualifications: rrtig-i-u ami ivii iil tiluration, tmlustry, rnrgy, t itter ..?, manufacturing skill, tJucatcJ intelligence or money capital, and your memorialists positively affirm that the coolies who have been introduced year after year into these Islands do not fulfill nny one of these "important conditions. ' These men were not srwculating on what coolie may be. They arc men who are face to face with the coolie laborer. It woul" hardly be wise to cast aside tin positive testimony, especially aa it comes from men who from a religious standpoint have no selli-h ends to serve. As you have not defined the term "population" in your instructions, I have allowed myself some latitude in discussing the question. Tho stand ard by which the moral, intellectual and physical character of the proposed populati n is to be de termined has not been fixed. The geographical position of the Islands will jlaco it population between two immense, energetic and relentless civilizations, the American nnd the Chinese. It would be a political blunder to initiate the growth ofa new j-cople here, which cannot hold their own in every way against these forces pushing hard from the Hist and the West No nation ramo out of barbarism with less friction than the Hawaiian, n fJ'ple ever received such tender care from the fierce, powerful and often brutal races which now mainly rule the world. But in spite of giving it the best political wisdom of the world, and in i-pite of the most intelligent Chris tian attention and watchfulness, the race leels its. lf in a hard ctruggle for existence To put beside this race another that cann t hold its own, would be to sin against light and would involve those who did it in a gross blunoW. Only those so ul l become the basis of population here, who are, or may become capable of fronting and standing effectually before the stronger races whi.-h arc now here. With this standard before us, and after reviewing the facts hearing on the Fist Indian emigration, I do not hesitate to re port that the Fast Indians are not suitable or de sirable as emigrants. The Japanese. Japanese are not an emigrating race l'I.e al though Japan is nearer to takiornia than China, anl the Japatie-e not only h-ive none of the preju-dici-s again-t foreigners, which the Chinese tiavc. but nisi have a great fdmiration and respect for them, there is still r.o disposition to venture ini California, or sifter State in large numbers. Nor is u f.,4.i want -if kniwledge ol the oppor tunities offered in foreign countries. The high late of wag- pai l in California and in Australia are w.-ll known to them. The people make no iff.rt to emigrate. Japan i not over- opulated; only ttic-tcnth of the soil is under cultivation, tin the i-lanl of Yexzo are vast tracts of land lyin idle. There is a Colonial Department in the Japanes- G ivernm-nt, and considerable in ducnien! are offered to pp-le living in the more crw i-.-l p arts t ni jvc ii'-on these waste lands; T,nr far. there ha been little success in get- tm emigrants. The Japanese are not a thrifty I cjj !e. In spite of the line climate and rich soil thev ar por. No dubt that political condi ti .n have has much to dj with their poverty; but it still remain that they are not a tbrivir.g people, in spite of the great resources of tho country. Dr. J. C. Hep. burn, now and for many y--ar are-i lont missionary in Yokohama, an-1 the author ol the F:g!ish-Japancse dictionary, told me that he preferred and eni loyc 1 Chinese labor. He said that there were industrious J ipaneso, but a a rule they were not; that the people were c intent with rue an 1 fish, and did not show the encrzy o" Chin. e My own observati n showed me that the Chinese were entering the country and were showing themselves superior O the na tive in the business of merchandising. No doubt a gardener the Japanese rank high. 1 do not say the lab..r-r would not meet the wishes of our ilaoter. but 1 believe they are njt equal t3 la i. .r.-r from other r ces. Morality is low through out Jaj an, and perhaps much lower tlian in China or the Fist Indies. White observers describe it as very low. I do not believe that their opinions are altogether trustworthy. The last census returns in Japan show that the males out cumler the females by about five thousand. It is impsossiblc to fortell what a well-organized scheme for immigration to tbese Islands might accomplish. While the opinions of forcigucrs resident in Japan is against it, and the high offi cials of the Em j ire, though xA opposed to it. be lieveitcaDnotsaccccd.it is still possible, that with crcat care, energy, tact, a considerable num ber of emigrants mieht he obtained. But it must be remembered that there is really little more rrcssure on the Japanese to leave Japan, than there is uron Hawaiian to leave these Islands and emigrate to Peru. If a Japanese wishes to obtain land he cvo get it. Hi mjtive for going abroad would not be that which come from great need, but rather the desire to get money rapidly and return home to sp-enl it. Accoraing to th oScial report ol Consul-General an Bureo the average rate of wages paid to the agricultural laborer is $4.50 per month. Cuine'e Immigration. Under the present circumstances I will not consider this branch of the subject, but will. hereafter, make a separate report upon it. Malav Immigration. Singapore, at the sjuthern extremity of the Malay Peninsula, affords the best advantages for studying this branch of the subject. Io 1319 this place was a village, but it has since become a colony of about 140,000 inhabitants. It has afforded the Malay race every chance to show its character, both as regards laoor, ana htnees lor civilized society. The people of that race meet at thi place, coming from the Peninsula country on the north, and the great Islands on the south and west. I n to tbe i.rescnt time this race has made no mark in the colony. Fvery opportunity has been given it to make a permanent settle ment there; but it has neither the thrift or energy to establish itself as a social, financial, or political force. In the colony the Klings " from India take its place as farmers, while the Malays do some business as petty traders, and make good servants in tho care f horses ; as a rule they give way to the Chinese in all occupa tions requiring thrifty habits and steady industry. Throughout the Malay Peninsula, in Java, and Sumatra, laborers are needed, but tho Malays do not supply the demand. Tbe -Maharajah of Johore, one of the Malay States adjoining Singa pore, has lately undertaken to cultivate coffee and gambier. He informed me that his own people were too idle and thriftless to bo depended upon, and be was therefore looking to China and the Fast Indies for laborers. It was in part in behalf of this sovereign that the Governor of Singapore made application to the Colonial Office for Indian coolies, and was refused. It is well known that the Dutch authorities will not permit emigration from their own vast possessions. There is a vast amount of land lying Idle in the countries in habited by the Malays. If the people of this race will not build themselves up in communities while under the protection of the British Sag, or will not supply the labor demand in their own States, it would be idle for us .to hop that they might become valuable laborers or citizens of these islands. If the planters of the Malay States are looking to India and Cluna for laborers, it is idle for us looking to the same Malay Stales for our laborers. Portuguese Immigration. 1 will not consider the character of the Portu guese emigrant, for the Hawaiian planters have already bad full opportunities to judge of the fit ness of this race, both as regards labor and popu lation. While in Lisbon 1 obtained mucb infor mation regarding the emigrants from the Island of St. Michaels. Mr. Seemann, Vice-Consul for the United States, came especially from that island to meet His Majesty, and as he acted for some time as the agent of Mr. lloffnung of Lon don in procuring emigrants, his knowledge was accurate and interesting. The number of people on the island is about 160,000. For several, I think five years, the orange has failed owing to a blight upon the trees. Besides this the increas ing orange crop of the Mediterranean has brought about low prices, consequently the people are in distress, und arc now willing to leave tbeiriiomes. As a rule they p. refer t go to Brazil. They like its climate, and their friends are there. But they cannot pay the passage money, and the Brazilian planters are not in need of laborers at present. The payment of passage by the Ha waiian Government is the inducement to enter on a long voyage to these islands. While the in habitant hear favorable reports from their friends here, I do not think they would be greatly dis puted to follow them if they could labor nearer home. Limitations upon tho number of children retards thi emigration. Married men only can leave freely. Ihe unmarried only after a term of service. Tbe long contract system ol labor is not popular. It looks to them like a species of slavery. But they accept it. Probably a supe rior clurs to that now emigrating would leave if there wns more freedom allowed in making labor contracts on arrival here. The Portuguese Gov- vernment is encouraging emigration to its settle ments on the African coast. At the present moment a large immigration may be obtained from the Island of St. Michaels and elsewhere ; but it may be terminated instantly by order of the Portuguese Government. The emigration laws ol Portugal are very strict, and any vigorous enforcement of them would embarrass the immi gration. It is most desirable that arrangements be made as quickly as possible with a viewio placing this business on a more satisfactory foun dation. H these Portuguese are desirable, it is of tho utmost importance that as many as possible be obtained at once, and before unforeseen events shall stop them from immigrating. The fact that no treaty exists between this country and Por tugal that the emigration laws of that country, if enforced, might abrubtly terminate emigration that this Kingdom is at present entirely de pendent upon this immigration for laborers who bring women with them ; that the Government has no representative there of bigb diplomatic standing who is able to meet emergencies which may arise, either from the Portuguese or from tho emigrants themselves; that tho whole busi ness is in the hands of contractors who may abandon it at any moment if interfered with ; and that . every possible precaution should be adopted to forestall any difficulties, urge me to impress upon the Government the necessity of sending eomo competent person, without delay, to that country for the purpose of establishing permanent diplomatic relations, and at the same time of putting the immigration business on a more satisfactory basis. Other important reasons I have communicated directly to the Minister of Foreign Affairs. General Flkopean Immigration. While in FDgland and on the Continent 1 in vestigated this subject, and came to the conclu sion that immigrants could be obtained from several of the countries of Northern Furope. Generally the Germans, the Scandinavians, and the English laborers prefer to emigrate to those countries which arc already settled by their own countrymen. But there is in every nation a con siderable class who desire change of some kind, and will always bo attracted to the tropical countries. This class can be reached by our agents. Whether these immigrants could be re tained in the country, after immigration, is a very serious question. The bigh wages paid on the Pacific Coast will tempt the Northern Euro peans away, while the Portuguese would not be disposed to leave. There are in Europe large numbers of artizans, tradesmen, and manufacturers who have not been very successful in business, or are restless in dis position ; or believe that in some distant country they will be sure to prosper. Many of tbese made application to His Majesty, and also to me, requesting, in nearly every instance, that money should be furnished them for payment of passage, aad p romises be made securing them " lucrative offices " on arrival here. I discouraged this kind of immigration. I believe it will be difficult if not impossible, to bring into these Islands many of the best emi grants belonging to the best races. The L'nited States, Canada, Australia and South America offer to the most desirable emigrants that which they desire and will have, the bomstead. Tbe emigrant wishes land, and a fee simple tenure. Nothing is so repulsive to him as a tenancy. While these other countries are offering great in ducements to emigrants in -the way of abundant and rich lands, at very moderate prices, these Is lands, or this Kingdom is offering nothing but contract labor.' We shall obtain only those who cannot pay their way to the countries which oner luem just wnai tney want, it becomes a serious matter in considering the future of this Kingdom, that while there is now a population of about CO, CK0 only, and while it is estimated that a population of over 700,000 may be com fortably supported here, there is little or no pub lc land, or land which is subject to immediate entry and occupation by emigrants. I have no doubt that this fact will greatly influence the social and political condition of tbe Kingd, in the future. On the subject of tbe immigration of wou h only, with a view of supplying the deficiency oi' Hawaiian women, I report that it is not possible, at preMnt, to obtain women for that purpose. In Japan there is now a deficiency of women. China des not furnish what is needed. In the East Indies they cannot be got for reasons which I have already given. In the Malay countries, it would be impossible to induce them to leave. They are Mohammedan, by religion, and will not forsake the people of their'own faith. Even in the moet enlightened countries, single women though in wast and misery at borne, seldom emi grate. There are a few instances when such women, in considerable numbers, have left home for new countries, but in these cases it was only to reach tbe t-eople of a kindred race. It would hardly be expected that ignorant women, without knowledge of the existence of these Islands, their pswple, customs and language, would abandon relatives and friends to enter a distant and foreign tate to unite in marriage with men of whom they know nothing. In view of the fact that the foreign races in this rvinguom owe important duties to the Hawaiian race; that every means should be adopted to pre serve, strengthen and increase it ; that the polit ical institutions of the country should be so pre server or mouinea as to secure its integrity and perpetuity, I strongly recommend that, in intro ducing immigrants, great care be taken to exclude an adventurous, restless, idle or criminal class, which would be the first to crowd upon, abuse and injure the Hawaiian people, and in the end eeriousiy jeopariuzo ttieir rights. 'Ihe forgoing is respectfully submitted. Wm. N. Armstrong, Commissioner of Immigration. Dated Honolulu, Nov. 7th, 18S1. 31 civ nmti.srmfut.s. Christmas Is Coming I AND LOVING PARENTS, DEAR Relations and Kind Friends, are be ginning to think of and look out for Holiday Gifts for tho.-se who are Near and Dear to them. And now is the the Time, for you Dealers, who have Choice Articles for Presentation, to make them known through the News paper, especially the One with the L ARG EST CIRCULATION a n d the Pacific Commercial Advertiser being found Everywhere ; in every House, Shop or Saloon ; even read as is well-known, in the Homes of its Opponents, offers the very best Opportunity to make known any Rarity or Speciality For Sale. Call early with your Ads at the ".P. C. A." Office, opposite the Bank. Notice to All British Subjects. Her Britaoolc Majesty's Consulate General, Honolulu, ev. 20, 1881. IS COMFOKMITV WITH IXSTRUC- TIO.NS received from Iter Majety' Government, I hereby request all British subjects who were iu these Islands oq the 4th ol April last, to transmit to the Consulate General the names and ages of themselves and ot ih.:ir families. JAMES il. WODEIIOUSK, no26 lm II. B M.'s Coniminsionrr and Cousulale General. TO THE PUBLIC I VE HAVE RKOEXThV OPKMCD THE V premises at No. 1 8 Nuunno stmt, imeodinir to carry oa business as PLUMBERS, GAS FITTERS AND Copp ersmit las. Our tons; experience as MECHANICS warrants us in sav ing that our new venture will meet a want long felt in this Community. All Orders we may be Favored With, WILL UE Attended to under our own Personal Supervision. And executed in a thorough, onipelent and workmanlike manner, on Ihe most approved Sanitary Principles. BY STRICT APPLICATION" to BUSINESS WE TRIST TC MERIT A SHARE OF PUBLIC PATRONAGE ! And we shall at all times endeavor to give our I'atrons the utmost satisfaction, bolh in perfection ol Work and Moderate Charges. I'KOMPTl.Y EXECUTED. BATHS, WATKtt CLOSETS, WASfl BOWLS, Etc., ALWAYS OS HAND. Special Attention given to the titling up of the SPRING FIELD OAS M.VUUINE. BROWS fc PHILLIPS, Plumbers, Gas Fitters and Coppersmiths. Opposite V. T, Lenehan & Co., No. 13 Nuuanu St. de3 3m New Boot & Shoe Store ! BV THE UXDERSIGXED. fm Sin of llic Oolclcii Root At N'. 144 Fort Street, ppsi.it c the I'uulhesu Stable. Just received a well selected assortment of Ladies', Gents and Children's Coots, Shoes and Slipper.s ! New styles, fine workmanship, at prices that defy competition. He also manufactures Dress Boots, Riding Boots, Water-Proof Boots, Shoes and Gaiters in the Best Styles. Lotl lea' Leather Wear, a Speciality. Repairing done at lowest rates. Good workmanship guaran teed. All orders faithfully executed. Plenae Give Me a Cnll. no!2 tf Opesi EveaisiK. FRANK CERTZ. JAS. G. HAYSELDEN, ARCHITECT & BUILDER, IIONOIUIU, II. I. PLANS, SPECIFICATIONS AND Detail Drawings ! Made on application and at short notice. Estimates Given on all Work Connected with tbe Building Trade. Whether it be in IRON, STONE, BRICK, CONCRETE. BRIDGE OR WOOD WORK. Will visit any part of the other Islands to ESTIMATE aud DRAW FLANS lor proposed Mill Works, Bridges or Residences Modification of Old Buidiityi a Speciality. First Class Work Guaranteed AND CHARGES MODERATE ! AUDKr.: JAS. G. HAVSELIJEX. Care of Architect & Builder, 8 U. Wi. rtB tc Co., Honolulu. U. I. noifl ly IRON TANKS ! EX HIGHFLYER. NEARLY NEW, AND IN GOOD ORDER. FOR SALE BV X..k 1,81 JAME3 I. DOWSETT. juani' of . .ISI" O I2E3 tii nriTFiie ty m 1U IJU.lLiLlUJ J m mm tm k I I i I I I FIVE PEE CEISTT DISCOUNT Cash Purchasers of -25 Pounds and Upwards ! HORN'S ProNEEt STEAM CANDY FACTOlf AND 7-4 HOTEL STR EET. ESTABLISHED 1HC. Having Oreatly Hnlarg-cri Working Facilities, Is iYow Prepared to Turn Out Front- 600 TO 1,0 00 POUMBS OF STRICTLY PURE CANDIES DAILY! AND WILL SELL HIS FEESH JjSTJ PUKE GOODS ! AT THE FOLLOWING WHOLESALE PRICES, TTUliich. arc Below .CREAM CHOCOLATES, lVr round.. Hand-made Creams, " Mould Creams, 14 Conversation Lozenges, rancy ljozenges, " Peppermint Lozenges (triple strong), per pound Almonds. Smooth and Imperials. ier pound " Roasted, I'ink and II row u. per Corrinder, Caraway and Anis Seed. jer Sugar-coated Cuhebs, per (ound tium urops strawberry, Rose and Lemon, per pound.... uuocoiaie caromeis, per pound Lemonade or Acidulated Lemon Drops, Chocolate Pastilles, per pound Marsh Mellows, Plain and Cry9talized, jrysianzeu liquor isouoons, per pound Chewing Candies Rose, Lemon and Honey, per pound Caromel Clear Figures, per pound Cocoanut Candies in variety, per pound Figures In Conserve and Fancy, per pound Macnine urops in great variety and llavors, per pound 2'JJ Stick Candy in great variety and flavor, per pound ir, Broken Candy, per pound i) Rock Candy, White and Pink, per pound 3.5 Pop Corn Balls, per dozen : 4.', Pop Corn, White, Pink and Salted, per quart 10 Peppermint Drops, Transparent, ier pound.. srt i'asiines 01 an navors, per iouni.. And many other articles in tho Confectionery tion 13T GUARANTEED that all Goods Manufactured by mo aro And flavored with the finest Kseentinl Oils and Spices, and tbe Best Materials. Wedding Cakes & Pastries of all Descriptions MADE OX THE SHORTEST NOTICE AND Finest White, Family, Graham and Venna Milk Bread. Fresh Every Day Noon, ad Delivered HT. B.-HTo thing Less Considered a Wholesale Purchase. Ouavsi Jelly, Tamarind Syrup, sml Prcsei-vccl Taiiiaritid, Put up with the DEST REFINED CRUSHED SUGAR, ubciui uu iuug MS'l'll'Vls'(sHw"tN,ttl flREMEIBER THE yV.ITTMi:4 ! IF" - H X3ijlo iojil Ooiil'ootioiioi- Ac J.-rt,l:ry Coolf, Steam Factory, No. 74 Hotel street. Honolulu, H. I. noli 2m E. O. THOMAS. jiff i BRICKLAYER & BUILDER. DiRTlCCL.tR ATTENTION' I'A1I TO M in v ii..m ttnitora VnrnBTM. Htlffr'i Ovens and U m .11 l.:n.la f II mt inf. Anntritui Alan. Vftriprntf-d Concrete Sidewalks. All Work entrusted lo me will he execu ted promptly, and oa reasonable terms. Addresstbrou h the Post Offlce )n 1 81 JU ZLVE ! H. EVI. MOORE, JOB PRINTER , AND DKALEtt IS STATIONER V. CIGARS, TOBACCO. kC. 123 FORT STREET. mibl9.Sl.lfr CHOICE CALIFORNIA STOCK FOR SALE TO ARRIVE, Sixty Head SUPERIOR DURHAM COWS 12 Weil-Bred Fresh Calved Milk Cows, NOW ON HAND AT THEKALIHI RANCH. .... AL80 .... THIRTY HEAD PLAMATIOX MILES. APPLY TO A. HERBERT, marl? Hawaiian Hotel. IE CS IES .11 l lllUILH IV uu II LUIlUliLIll I JU. I l Klllkl'l II I Importation Prices 1 40 CVutu 40 H 40 3T .. 40 40 pound pound..... M 3r, 4.- 40 An . per pound... Per pound iu ... 85 40 70 45 45 GO sr, and Cuko Business too numerous to nata liere. IN THE II IQ II EST STYLE OF THE ART. . to An Part witbia the City Limits. than 125 Pounds io and WarranteJ to keep in any olimals. Very bcs Tuysgeo. O R M , PUBLIC NOTICE IS II Kit EH V GIVEN. TII AT IIAVINU HE turned lo il.e Kingdom, In personally suriul.nd uif l.u-li.i l.er. t'jr revoke all Powers ot Aitornry rilatios; up tu tlii. .Uif. CILBKIIT WALL aH Honolulu, fe. 2, 1U8I. fpM CREAM J3ANDIES. I3. McINERNY, Importer & Heme Manufactarer of Candies OF ALL UCfCIUPTIONS, o. 112 tort Strftt, Jat ! Haiti St., Has u.t made Isrire additiotia to his rsUbHstimrnt, and Is ii w rrated tu furui.u to Ihe trade, lb licnoluls) pub lic, and reorients on the oilier Islands, M. VKKV FIVKST nf IIOMK-MADK k lJIPORTlIU CIMIKX, or all IVserip lions, AT Vfc&Y REDUCED PttlCKH. R-cf Iws Frh Candirs hj every arrival, fie Guraolra tka purity of bis rls. THE CREAM CANOIKl sre a specialty :i. I U. and arc mad by lbs best nana Uciurers in California, and receireJ fresh by every steamer. Soda Water, and all kindi of Iced Drinks THE BEST ICE CREAM IN THE CITY. The BKST URAND9 of CUOICK CIQARS al wajs on band. oc29ti MRS. WILKINSON, FASHIONABLE Milliner and Dress Maker, FORT STREET, HOXOLUM , IS CONSTANTLY IN RECEIPT OF ALL THE Latest Novelties in Millinery 1 Comprising I be Newest Styles In llat, Ribbon, Feathers, FUwtrR, Lacci, JU., . Wlo-e taste and skill are too srell-koowti to require any r-crnimendalion, is slill in charge of Ihe Millinery aud Trimming Departments, which is a sufficient f aaraute that work will be done in an art is lie manner. THE DRESS MAKING Will be under the immediate supervision of Mrs. Wllklnsu. whose reputation for accuracy and neatness la well-knowa to the ladies ot HoDolalu and tbe other Islands. LADIES DRESS CAPS ON HAND, Or made to order. Also, Ladies' and Children's Beady Made Clothing, Zephyr Shawls, Silesians, French Grenadines, Silk flocking., Lacs U and kerchiefs, Japan Tidfes, Ve.j Ac. A Fine Line of llourning Good. CwaalasMty bsasf. M RS. V. hopea by strict attention to the wants est hat patrons, moderate terms, and furnishing only first-class r la des in her line, to merit abare of tbe public patronage. l-7 - f - in aooa fOK PALE tfi .r if VsU .