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THE PACIFIC. C()OIRGIAL ADVERTISER, AUGUST 20, 188.
i) VARIGNY'S "FOURTEEN YEARS 1I THE CAwm-rrnr tct nvnc?" continued. "It was urgent that we should pro- vide for the re-organization of the Privy Council. The commission of members expired with the Sovereign "who had signed them not that the law rendered this obligatory, it is silent on the subject; but custom, stronger than law, demanded that at the death of a Sovereign all the holders of important offices should send their resignation to the new King, and receive from him a new commission in the event of his being retained in office. This course had been taken by the members of the Privy Council on the morrow the death of Kamehameha IV. The King consulted us as to the choice of new councillors, and the retention of old ones. Some eliminations were made, and the new selections made were- from men of practical experience, whose ideas were in uni&on with our own. 'The members of the Privy Council receive no pay ; the office is never theless, sought after. The King con vokes the Council at the request of any of his Ministers whenever it is found necessary. Purely a consulta tive body, the Privy Council takes into consideration those questions as to which the King and the Cabinet desires its advice. According to tbe nature of the business, it is referred to a special committee of members, which presents its conclusions in a report, after which its functions cease. There are no permanent com mittees, and consequently no settled parties, no precedents to embarrass tbo iudcrment. or dictate a conclusion, The Cabinet, dealing with any ordin- ary question, or the Minister with 0 i matters which belong solely to his own department, is under no obliga- tion to follow the advice of the Privy Council, which, being an irrespon- sible body, cannot impose its will upon a Minister who is responsible to the Assembly ; but, up to the present ertson took up again his former func time, such a question has never tions, and Mr. Hopkins, whom I was -mm-. . . 1 a. ll 4.1 A , 1 S.. A 1, "IT" 1 - TV arisen. -Ministers uo not consult iuta i Council except when a really doubtful question arises ;'in cases as to which they neither feel any hesitation, nor any desire to feel, as it were, the pulse of public opinion, they accept the responsibility of their own decisions. Note. The above does not accu- rately describe the functions of the Privy Council in the present day, when its duties appear to be confined A A 1 to giving decisions upon maiters which have been relegated to them by statute, and the custom ot the King's 'Ministers seeking their ad- vice on difficult questions, if it ever existed, has long ago fallen into dis- use. "Real, serious responsibility, that is the motto of ministerial life in the Hawaiian Islands. No power with out responsibility, no responsibility unaccompanied by power; that is the presiding principle on which the ministerial departments are organ The risrht of control belongs solely to the Assembly, which exer cises it severely and with minuteness. As soon as it meets, its first business, after having listened to the Royal Speech, is to choose its committees. Corresponding to each ministerial department one or more committees, clothed with full powers, are ap pointed. They examine the accounts, the correspondence, the appointments to all sorts of offices. They have access everywhere; no document of any kind can be refused to them. Towards the middle, sometimes only towards the close of the session they present their reports, blaming or ap proving, pointing out the reforms they deem desirable; ministers reply, and the Assembly votes to accept or reject, in part or in whole, the con clusions of the committee. The nominations to the Privy SI 1 ,,mfQ "n'ol 1 fTl fill rPfPl VPl . VyUUUUU ncit " v-" o As I have just said, we had been careful to select particular individ uals, enjoying the esteem of the pub lic, but drawn chiefly from among the moredevoted partisans of national ;,i0nni1(iPnp( The European ele ment was largely represented in the Council; Americans were there also, but in limited numbers, and the an nexationists were carefully elimin ated. As soon as the appointments were orfo the Council was convoked to AAA C V W j consider a grave question, necessary to fill the place It was of Mr. liobertson on the Supreme Hunch 1 v erv desi rous though the Kmr was to retain in the Intenor Department this minister, so active and well trained to the management of affairs, he did not disguise from himself the difficulties he would encounter in Ending successor to him in the Supreme Court, and at the same time satisfying the legitimate demands of the Chief Justice, the public, and the Cabinet. Here follows an account of the constitution of the Court ami of its methods, which we omit. "The Chancellor of the Kingdom was, and still is (written in 1373; Hon. E. H. Allen a distinguished legist and an able statesman, he commanded general esteem. Already I somewhat advanced in life, and of delicate health, he needed active and comparatively young men as col- leagues. Mr. Robertson was his right hand; he placed a well-merited confidence in him, and it was not without a lively sentiment of regret that he saw himself deprived of his aid. Among the candidates for the vacant place, none particularly suited him, and at his request the Cabinet had postponed from day today a nom ination which the growing multipli cation of business rendered more and more urgent. The Chancellor in- A I 1 A J J I sistea upon a strongly constituted Court, placed above all party consid erations; without distinctly saying so he made it very clear that he deemed it indispensable that Mr, Robertson should return to his seat on the Bench, and that he thought we could much more easily replace him as Minister of the Interior than find a colleague for himself equal to the position. We therefore decided to bring the matter before the Privy Council, Mr. Robertson declaring his willingness to return to his seat as Judge if such were the will of the King and the advice of the Council. "The arguements of the Chan- cellor prevailed; in fact, they were pretty nearly irrefutable. Mr. Rob- uuuui iu jfjjiace in uie rjuaiira xe- partment, received from the King the portfolio of the Interior. This choice was not a very happy one, and Mr. Hopkins was not able to main- tain himself long m office.'' Here' we pause in our translation to remark that M. Varigny seems to have been prejudiced against Mr. Hopkins from the start. As will be seen hereafter, he depreciates . his abilities, and accuses bim of want of loyalty to his colleagues during the stormy time of the Convention, which shortly followed. Without of- fering any comment on the career of Mr. Hopkins as Minister under two Kings, it is only fair to say that Mr. Wyllie, whose opinion is far more' worthy of attention than that of his protege, held a verv different esti mate of his colleague, put a very dif ferent interpretation on what M. Varigny looked upon as his defection at the time of the Convention, and spoke of him then and afterwards with interest and affection. The formation of the Cabinet and the character of its policy being ex plained, we pass over for the present some twenty pages of the book, which, besides merely personal mat ters, contain information and reflec tions about the condition of the Kingdom, all more or less interest ing, but not altogether relevant to the political contest, whose history, as told by Varigny, we desire to pre sent. To this we therefore pass on. "During the entire month of April Cabinet councils succeeded one an other almost daily. The King posi tively refused to take the usual oath to the Constitution, and the work of revision, with which we had been occupying ourselves, had quickly led us to the decision that it was urgent to raise a public discussion, and to have recourse to the plan of calling a convention composed of representa tives of the people, the Xobles and the King to modify by common ac cord the Constitution of 1852. 44Mauy methods of revision had been brought forward, but iu spite of the inconveniences which would at tend it, that of calling a special con vention seemed to us to be the most loyal and the only one which could give to the three orders the guaran tees that were necessary. It might have been argued that the Constitu tion having been in the first instance granted by one of his ancestors, could be modified by the actual sov ereign; but there was a contract. The King had granted, the people; and the Nobles had accepted, and from this mutual accord there llowed an obligation for the one and for the others to respect a common agree ment. I thought, and my colleagues thought with me, that it would be well to take a step in advance, and not merely call the other two orders together to ratify arrangements made without their assistance, but to vote upon and discuss with full knowledge of the reasons for them the changes which had become indispensable. The King held to this opinion the more be cause the modifications which he pro posed to initiate amounted to a total recasting of the original document, and though he desired to inaugurate his reign with a bold reform, he in tended to remain liberal in the methods he employed iml to asso ciate his chiefs and his people in a discussion from which he expected happy results. "We, nevertheless, did not deceive ourselves as to the anger which we were about to evoke from the Mis sionary party, but we had made up our minds to accept the conflict; on the 7th of May appeared the following proclamation, which had been pre pared in Cabinet: " We, Kamehameha V,bythe grace of God, King of the Hawaiian Islands, to our well-behaved and loyal .sub jects, greeting: 41 Whereas, The experience of all constitutional governments proves that a constitution ought from time to time to be submitted to certain revisions, in order to adopt it toiew conditions in the history of thepeople; "And whereas certain sections of the Constitution of our Kingdom have not had the happy results for our nation that were expected from them, and others are needed for the well being of everybody and for the main tenance of our dynasty. "Therefore, moved by our affection for our subjects, we hereby inform them that we desire to concert with our Nobles and with the representa tives of the people on the subjtct of the revision , of the Constitution, as well as in regard to the measures which should be taken for the public weal and for the conduct of the Gov ernment. "Therefore, we convoke the repre sentatives of the people to meet us and our .Nobles in convention in the Legislative Hall, at Honolulu, on Thursday, July 7th, at noon.'' "Our Minister of the Interior is charged with the execution of the present decree." Not having the original proclama tion at hand, we give a re-translation from the French. "This was followed by a proclama tion by the Minister, convoking the electors for the purpose of electing delegates, the number of which for each district was to be the same as for the Legislature. "The feeling aroused was profound; the American party believed or felt itself menaced. It put itself forward at once as the defender,at all hazards, of the constitution of 1&32, which was, indeed, its natural part, and did not neglect any means of awakening the indignation of the electors and of urging them to nominate the declared opponents of any change in the charter granted by Kamehameha III. As these changes were not yet made known, this part of their campaign left much to be desired, they were fighting in the dark. On another point, they carried en the strife with no less ardor and more ability. Taking their stand firmly, as in a fortress, on the text of Section SO of the Constitu tion, they affirmed that any altera tion made in a manner different from that therein indicated was void at law, and unconstitutional in fact, and that the delegates of the people should only respectfully call the King's attention to the fact that the Constitution, had provided before hand for the present case, and that bound by their oaths, they could not follow him on the road by which evil councillors were leading him. The Opposition journals also an nounced a public meeting for the eve- ning of the 19th May. This came off in one of the churches in Honolulu. There a series of resolutions was dis cussed and passed. The first of these ran as follows: 'We disapprove ab solutely of the method of revising the Constitution proposed by the royal proclamation. We believe that the same end can be attained, if it is necessary, by conforming to the terms of the Constitution itself, and that any other mode of procedure is unjustifiable.' The last resolution de clared as follows: 4 We are loyal sub jects of our King Kamehameha V. We believe in his affection for us, and in his desire to guarantee to us the rights which the Kings, his pre decessors, have granted to us. We will continue to sustain and support him, but his Ministers have betrayed the confidence which lie has reposed in them, and we respectfully request him to banish from his councils men who declare themselves to be the enemies of our civil and religious rights." " These last words were intended to foster a serious inquietude which had been awakened in the minds of the natives. It had been sought, with a certain amount of success, to per suade them that tbe King, who was a partizan of the Anglican religion, desired to make it the State religion of the Kingdom. It is needless to say that he had no such desire. Had it been otherwise, I should have imme diately retired from the Cabinet. None the less was this calumny ably chosen to alarm and rally to a com mon vote both Catholics and Pro testantsthat is to say, nearly the whole of the electors. "The electoral campaign thus com menced in Honolulu was quickly carried into the country districts. Everywhere the same cry was sounded everywhere the Ministry was denounced as suspected of reli gious partiality for the Anglican Church, as hostile to the liberties granted by Kamehameha III. The object which the opposition set before it was to overthrow the Cabinet, to seize again the power which it chief- had for a time believed themselves assured of by the King's sympathies. They thought that they might yet work upon his personal feelings ; but the ardor of the battle carried them away, and if at the beginning of the campaign they were sage enough, and clever enough, to direct their blows only at us, leaving the King out of the discussion, such a line of tactics necessitated too much moderation and clear-headedness; compromising allies drove then to more extreme party measures. "In the terms of the proclamation? the Convention was to comprise the members of the House of Nobles, numbering fifteen, and delegates from the people to the number of repre sentatives, which was twenty-seven. The King reserved to himself the right to preside at debates. In all the districts the most advanced of the opposition came forward as candi dates, patronized and supported by the Protestant missionaries, some of whom did not disdain' to descend themselves into the political arena, and solicit the suffrages of the people. In doing so they merely acted on their rights ; but they went beyond them in affirming from the height of their pulpits a statement essentially false, and in making a pretext of the excess of zeal displayed by the An glican Bishop to accuse the Govern ment of a desire to establish a State religion. The King thought it his duty to oppose a formal denial to these constantly-repeated allegations. Since his accession to the Throne, he had cherished a desire to visit the different islands of the Archipelago ; the op portunity seemed to him a good one for putting his project into execution, and to re-assure his subjects as to the intentions which had been attributed to him. The Cabinet approved this idea, and on the 24th of May the King embarked on his yacht for the island of Kauai, accompanied by Mr. Wyllie, whose guest for a few days he had consented to be." A clock at Brussels has been going for eight months, and has not required to be wound up since it was first set agoing. In fact, the sun does the winding of this timepiece. A shaft exposed to the sun causes an up-draught of air which sets a fan in motion. The fan actuates mechan ism, which raises the weight of tbe clock until it reaches the top, and then puts a brake on th fan until the weight has gone down a little, when the fan is again liberated, and proceeds to act as before. Emotional sanity has never yet caused a victim to put his hand m his pocket and pay an outlawed debt. . - ' . EN ROUTE FOR THE GILBERT IsbANI. (CONTINUED.) Our Gilbert Islanders 'are' seldom idle when awake. They braid quan tities of fine line out of their own hair, and make numbers of small hand-nets from fibres of new Manila rope. Some of the women are skilful with their needles, and make, and patch, and mend their clothing with much assiduity, but without any re gard, in a double sense, to the fitness of things tor they will re-Meat a pair of dark woolen pantaloons with a pi ere ot turkey-red calico ; make a new back for a calico shirt out of nil old black silk neck handkerchief ; or fit a fresh sleeve of canvass duck to a half-worn muslin gown. They all have combs locked up in their boxe and use slender wooden skewers a foot long, with which they whip out their hair aftr drenching it with salt water. Then, after a series of poke 5 and scratches with the same instru ment, it is thrust through a hole in the lobe of one ear, and Into the thick hair at the back of the bend, and left there. They are now and then n little ailing, but the Julia's medicine chest is well-stocked, and the captain prompt and decisive with his doses. There is one particular remedy for derangements of the digestive system that is his pride. "It goes to. the right spot every time," he says, "and there is nothing can beat it for cheek ing any looseness in the bowels. Why, I tell you what it is, I once laid that identical bottle of medicine on its side in the medicine-chest, ami a little le:Ue oiit and jammed that drawer so tight that I couldn't open it until I had loosened it with a little-castor-oil." Each pleasant night, and there are many such, the people chatter and sjiik uotii " eighL bells." Their melo dies are simple, consisting of a few two, or at the most three notes. A quartette will get together, and sitting close to each other, accompany their song with a rythmic swaying of the body from side to side, aud a regular beating of their own and each other's hands. This they do with great regu larity and 'tis a pretty thing to see their swaying bodies, arms waiving: and crossing, palm meeting palm on the right and left, or against those of their vis-a-vis, while their laughing eyes, brilliant white teeth, and long glossy hair flash, aqd glisten and shine as the plaintive melody rises and falls. We sail on day after day over the brilliant blue waters of the super tropic Pacific, with nothing about us. but the sparkling waves, and over head the beautiful sky, in which circle slender, snowy tropic birds with long arrowy-tail feathers faintly flushed with pink. At last the cap tain points out to us a peculiar tinge of lighter greenish blue in the sky on the horizon ahead of us, and tells nsJ that is due to the reflection on the clouds of the green waters of a coral island lagoon. Afterwards we find that under the ordinary circumstances of a lightly clouded summer sky, and abundance of sunlight, that peculiar reflection always indicates the near presence of a coral island. The natives see us pointing ami gazing, and in a moment the rigging is swarming with men, women, and children, each anxious to be the first to see the land. As I study their eager, expectant faces, and see even the laziest and most stolid of than roused to a show of interest, I recall the lines 44 Breathes there a man with soul so dead. That never to himself hath said 4 This is my own, my native land. " When a loud cry from aloft of " baka ! cap'n, baka ! I see him first, baka ! baka ! ! baka ! ! ! tells me that it is the reward of tobacco offered to the one who first sights the land, quite as much as it is any joy at beholding their native islands again that has excited them so. In a short time there appears on the horizon a number of fixed points that multiply and . heighten until they grow to be a long line of palms. No land Is yet visible; noth ing but palms, in dense group, in long rows, or standing singly, all rising, as it were, out of the sea. It may be that we were twelve or fourteen miles ofT from the island, when its locality was first indicated in the clouds, and at the distance or 8 or 9 miles the palms were visible. At four miles off ten yellowline of