Newspaper Page Text
State Historical Societv
SOL. SILLEK, EDITOE AND PUBLISHER.
THE CONSTITUTION AND THE "UNION.
TERMS-S2.00 PER ANNUM, Ef ADTAXCE.
VOLUME XX.-NUMBER 3.1
TROY, KANSAS, THURSDAY, JULY 6, 1876.
, WHOLE NUMBER, 991.
-TA 'l M
THE rNDEPEKDERCE BELL.
jclt 4, 1876.
TWhra It was errtaih that the Declaration -wonld 1m
adopted and confirmed by the signatures of tbe Delegates
la Congress, It in determined to announce the event by
S me oia shimidiuq wu, wmcu noro ine inscnp
JVoctafm Uberty tAmiaaatl Us-(and: ttatttke in-
XabitaKto tkertofl" and tbe old bellman portal Ms little
boy at tbe doer oftbe hall, to await, lit isatroctioaeof the
door-keeper when to ring. At the word, the liule patriot
don rashed out. and Hinging up hla hands, snouted:
There was tamult in the city.
Is the quaint old Quaker town;
And the elreeta were rife with people,
, Pacing restless up and down;
"Toopla Catherine at eorriers:' -' -
And tha aweat stood on their temples.
With the earnestness of spoech.
As the bleak Atlantic current
Laah the wild Newfoundland shore.
So they .beat against the State-bouse,
So tbey surged against the doori
And the mingling of their Tolcea
Made a harmony profound.
Till the quiet atreet of eheatnnta
Waa all torbolent with sound.
Will they do ltlH "Dare they do Itl"
"Who la speaking t " " What 'a tbenewat"
"Whatof Adamst" "Wbatof Rhennanl"
"Ob! God grant they won't refuse!"
"Makesome way there!" "Letmenesrer!
"lam stilling!" "Stlne, then!
When a nation a life's at hazard.
We're no time to think of men ' "
So tbey beat against the porta),
Man and woman, maid and child.
And the July eon in heaven,
'On the scene looked down and smlledj
The aame ana that saw the Spartan
Shed, his patriot blood in Tain,
2Tow beheld the aoul of Freedom,
All unconqnered, rise again.
So tbey surged against the State-house,
While, all solemnly inside.
Sate the "Continental Congress."
Troth and reason for their guide.
O'er a simple scroll debating
Which, though eimple it might be,
Tet should ahake the cliff, of England
With the thunders of the free.
At the portal of the State-house,
like some beacon in a storm.
Bound which waxes are wildly beating.
Stood slender, boyish form.
With hla eyee fixed on the steeple.
And his ears agape with pted,
To catch the first annoanoement
Of the 'signing' of the deed.
Aloft, In that high steeple,
Sat the bellman, old and rrsyj
Tie was weary of the tyrant.
And hla iron-sceptered sway;
So he sat, with one hand ready
On the clapper of the bell.
When his eye should catch the signal,
The happy newa to tell.
See! See! The dense crowd quivers.
Through all its lengthy line,
Aa the boy beside the portal
Looks forth to cire the sign !
With his small hands upward lifted,
Breezes dallying with his hair,
Ilark! with deep, clear intonation.
Breaks his young Toice on the air.
Jlnshed the ieoples swelling murmur.
List the boy's strong. Joyous cr !
"A'rtfff he shouts; Ku. KIN'O, Grandpa!
ltxngl Okl KIuor LOerfir I
And straightway, at the signal.
The old bellman lifts his hand,
AmLsenda the good news, making
Iron music thro the land.
How tbey shouted I Whit rejoicing !
How the old bell shook the air.
Till the clang of freedom ruffled
The calm, gliding Delaware!
How the bdntires and the torches
Illumined the night's repose.
And from the flames, like phurnli.
Fair Liberty arose!
That old bell now Is silent.
And hushed its iron tongue.
But the spirit it awakened.
Still llres forever Tonne.
And while we greet the sunlight.
On the Fourth of each July,
We'll ne'er forget the bellman.
Who, 'twixt the earth and sky.
Bung out Oi'B lMHrrsDiscr,
Which, please God, thatl nicer die.'
FOUBTH OF JULY, 1776.
BY OKORUE LUTARD.
There is a silence iu this hall every voice Is
hushed every face is stamped with a deep and
Why turns every glance to that door! Why is
it so terribly still !
The committee of three, who have been out
all night, planning a parchment, are about to
That parchment, the signatures of these men,
written with the pen ljiiig on yonder table,
will either make the world free or stretch these
necks upon the gibbet yonder in Putter's Held,
or nail these bands to the door posts of these
That was the time fur solemn faces and deep
At last, hark! The door opens the Commit
tee appear. Who are these three men who come
walking on to John Hancock's chair f
The tall man with the sharp features, the bald
brow, and saud-hned hair, holding the parch
ment in his baud, is the Virginia farmer, TllOM
as jKTFKltsoJf. That stout built man, with reso
lute look and sparkling eye! That is a Boston
mau, oue John Adams. And the calm-faced
man, with hair dropping in thick curls to his
shoulders that man dressed iu a plain coat, and
such odions home-made blue stocking that is
the Philadelphia printer, oue Bknmauis Fua.xk
UX. The three advance to the table. The parch
ment is laid there. Shall it be signed or not f
Then issues a high debate then all the faint
hearted cringe in corners while Thomas Jkf
fkbsoX speaks ont his few bold words, and Joii.v
Adams ponrs ont bis whole soul.
Then the soft voice of Charles Carroll is
heard undulating iu syllables nf deep miisir
But still there is doubt aud that pale-faced
man, shrinking iu one coruer, squeaks out some
thing about axes, sc-dds, and a gibbet!
"Gibbet!" echoes a fierce, bold voice, that
startles men from their seats and look yonder!
A tall. Blender man rises, dressed, although it is
Summer time, in a faded red cloak. Look how
his white hand undulates, as it is stretched
slowly ont how that dark eye burns, while his
words ring through the hall.
"Gibbet! They may stretch our necks on all
the gibbets in the land-tliey may tnrn every
rock into a scaffold-every tree into a gallows
ery home into a grave, and yet the words of
that pa-fchment can never dial
"Thev may poor onr bIo"l on 10",ln', ?
felds and yet from every drop that dye the
aielordropson the saw-diist of the block a
w martyr to freedom wil spring into birth!
T-be British King may blot th. stars of God
from Hissky, but he cannot blot ont H words
written on the parchment there. The worts or
God may perish His word! ever.
"e words will go forth to the imU-hn
onr bones are dust. To the slave in bondage it
will speak of-HoPE-to the mechanic In his
worksbPot-FRF.EiOM-to the coward Kings
Xu, words will speak, bnt not in tones of flat
terTt They will speak like the flaming sylla
WonBelhaixar's wall: The dag. of yo-r pride
?$ numhenai Tie dog, of jude.t
e'sTthat parchment will speak to the Kings
: iemaure aad and terrible as the triumph of
iu'hel Yon have trampled on the
IZhlZ, tSSSS gmM into
crowns for your dnt4 to jjg ?
How", -pnrpled hangmen tf ti worw ir you
come the'aay of axes, and gibbets, and ";
for yon the wrath of man; for. you the light
ning of CtodJ
"Look! how the light of yonr palaces on fire
flashes np into the midnight sky !
"Now, purpled hangman of the world, tnrn
and beg for mercy!
"Where will you find it f
"Not from God, for you have blasphemed His
"Xot from the people, for yon stand baptized
in their blood!
"Here you tarn, and Io ! a gibbet !
"There, and a scaffold stares yon in the fare!
"All around you death but nowhere pity!
"Now, executioners of the human race, kneel
down ; yea, kneel down' upon the saw-dust of
the scaflold; lay yonr perfumed heads upon the
block; bless the azeas.it fallls the axe you
sharpened for the poor man's neok !
"Such is the message of that declaration to
man, to the Kings of the. world!" And shall we
falter now t. And shall we start hack, appalled,
when our feet press the" Tery"lhreshhold of
Freedom T Do yon see qnainng faces around
yon, when our wives hare been butchered, when
the hearthstones of our land are red with the
blood of onr little children?
"What! are there shrinking hearts or falter
ing voices here, when the very dead of onr battle-fields
arise, and call upon ns to tign that
Parchment or be accursed forever f
"Sign! if the next moment the gibbet's rope is
around your neck!
"Sign ! if the next moment this hall rings with
the echo of the falling axe!
"Sign ! by all yonr hopes in life or death as
husbands fathers as men sigu your uames to
the parchment, or be acenned forever!
"Sign! not only for yourselves, but for all
ages for that parchment will be the text-book
of Freedom the Bible of the rights of Man for
ever! "Sign! for that Declaration will go forth to
American hearts forever, aud speak to those
hearts like the voice of God! And its work will
not be done, nntil throughout this wide conti
nent not a single inch of ground owns the sway
of a British King!
"Nay, do not start, and whisper with surprise!
It is a truth your hearts witness it God pro
claims it this continent is the property of a
free people, and their property aloue. God, I
say, proclaims it. Look at this strange history
of a band of exiles and outcasts suddenly trans
formed into a people ! look at this wonderful
exodus of the oppressed of the Old World into
the New! Where they came wrak iu arms, bnt
mighty in God-like faith nay. look at the his
tory of your Hunker Hill your Lexington
where a band of plain farmers mocked and
trampled down the panoply of British arms:
and then tell me, ifjoncan, that God has not
given America to the frte!
"It is not given fur our poor human intellect
to climb the skies, to pierce the counsels of the
Almighty One. But methiuks I stand among
the awful clouds which veil the brightness of
Jehovah's throne. Methiuks I see tbe Record
ing Angel pa!e as an angel is pale, weeping as
an angel can weep come trembling up to that
throne, aud speak his dread message :
"Father! The Old World is baptized in blood!
Father! it is drenched with the blood of mil
lions, butchered in war, in persecution, in slow
and grinding oppression! Father! look, with
one glance otThine eternal eye, look over Ku
rope, Asia, Africa, and behold evermore, terri
ble sight, man trodden dowu beneath the op
pressor's feet uatious lost in blood murder
and superstition walking hand in hand over
the graves of their victims, aud not a single
voice to whiser hope to Man !
"He stands there, the angel, his hand tremb
ling with tha black rmmlofltsmsn irnilt. But
hark! The voice of Jehovah speaks out from
the awful cloud:
"Let there lielight again. Let there be a New
World. Tell my people the poor, down trod
den millions, to go out from the Old World.
Tell them to go out from wrong, oppression, and
blood tell them to go out from tbe Old World
to build up my altar in the New.
"As God lives, my friends, I believe that be
his voice. Yes, were my soul trembling on the
wing of eternity, were this band freezing in
death, were this voice choking with the last
struggle, I would still, with the last wave of
that baud, with the last gasp of that voice, im
plore you to remember tbe truth God hat girt
America to be free! Yes, as I sank duwn into the
gloomy shadows of the grave, with my last gasp,
I would beg you to sigu that Parchment, iu the
name of the One who made the Savior, who re
deemd yon iu the name of the millions whose
very breath is now hushed, iu intents expecta
tion, as thev look np to yon for the awful words
O, many years have gone since that hour
the speaker, bis brethren, all, have crumbled in
to dnst; hut it would require an angel's pen to
picture the magic of that speaker's look, the
deep, terrible emphasis of bis voice, tbe prophet
like beckoning of his band, the magnetic flame
which, shooting from bis eyes, soon fired every
heart throughout the ball!
He fell exhausted in his seat bnt the work
was done. A wild murmur thrills through the
hall. Sign! Ha! There is no donbt now.
Look! how they rnah forward stout-hearted
John Hancock has scarcely time to sign his
bold name, before tbe pen is grasped by another
another aud another. Look bow their names
blaze on the parchment Adams, and Lee, and
Jefferson, aud Carroll, and now Roger Sher
man, tbe shoemaker.
And here comes good old Stephen Hopkins
yes, trembling with palsy, he totters forward,
quivering from head to foot, with his shaking
band he seizes the pen, he scratches his patriot
Then comes Benjamin Franklin, the printer;
and now tbe tall roan in tbe red cloak advances,
the man who made the fiery speech a moment
ago with tbe same hand which waved in such
fiery scorn, he writes his name Patrick Hkn
rv! And now the parchment is signed; and now
let the word go forth to tbe people in the streets
to the homes of America to the camp of Mr.
Washington and tbe palace of George, tbe idiot
King let the word go ont to all the earth.
And, old man in the steeple, now bare yonr
arm and grasp the iron tongue, -and let the bell
speak out the great truth. "
Fifty-six Traders and Farmers and Mechanics
havn this dav shook the shackles of tbe world!
Hark! bark to tbe toll of that bell !
Is there not music iu thn sound, that remiude
jou of those awful tones' which broke from an
gel lips, when the news of the child Jesus burst
on the Shepherds of Bethlehem t
For that bell speaks out to the world that
GihI has given the American continent to the
free the toiling millions of the human race
as the last altar of the rights of man on the
glotie the home of the oppressed forever.
The Aaarrirasi Flag.
Much discussion has existed iu regard to the
origin oftbe American flag. It has been suggest
ed ibat it was originally copied from a portion
of Washington's coat of arms, aud our readers
n ill iwrhaps remember the 'allusion to this idea
iu oue of Martin Farqnbar Tupper's speeches,
when that gentleman was iu this country. This
part of the subject will probably, however, re
main always iu conjecture, for no documentary
evidence has yet been adduced respecting it, or
is likely to be. But it is known that the flag,
as it exists now, was the growth of two different
stages. At first only tbe stripes were used, bnt
afterwards tbe blue field, in one corner, studded
with stars, was introduced. The striped or Union
flag, as it waa called then, was first hoisted in
Washington's camp, at Cambridge, on tbe 1st of
January, 1j 6. It was somo months later that
the stars were added. In Jane, 1777, this flag,
thns perfected, was adopted by a vote of Con
gress, as the national banner. Prior to the 1st
of January, 1776, a plain crimson flag had been
nsed in the army, for one of that description hav
ing been carried at Bunker Hill, It continued to
be hoisted till the Union flag was adopted. In
other of tbe colonies, other flags were used, ac
cording to the taste of the volunteers, or tha
coat of arms of the State. The first naval flag
ever hoisted was one with tbe device of a rattle
snake coiled at the foot of a pine tree, with ths
motto, "Don't tread on me." This was employed
by Paul Jones in the waters of the Delaware.
When the Union flag came into use, however, it
supplanted all the others, both on sea and land.
Vy eooatry, 'tis of thee,
Sweet land of liberty.
Of thee I slog:
Land where my fathers died.
Land of the Pilgrims' pride,
rott every monntsln side.
Let freedom ring.
My native eeuatrj, thee.
Land of the nobis, free.
Thy Bams I Lm;
I IsTe Uy rocks and rills.
Thy woods and tempted hills;
Mr heart with rapt are thrills,
like that above.
Let 'stasis swell the breesa,
A ad riar frees alt aha trees
Sweet freedom's snag;
Let teartal temgnes asrake
Lat aO that braatae partake
Let rocks their silence break.
The sound prolong.
Onr fathers' Ood, to Thee,
Anther ef liberty.
To Thee I sing;
Long may our land be bright
With freedom's holy light ;
Protect ns by Thy might,
Great God, our King.
George Washington was born in Virginia on
the 23d February, 173-2.
In 1752 he was appointed Adjutant General,
with the rank of major.
In 1754 he was appointed Colonel of a regi
ment. In 1755 he was appointed Aide-de-Camp to
In 1756 he waa appointed Commander-in-Chief
of the Virginia troops.
In 1759 lie was elected a member of the Legis
lature of Virginia, and continued in that office
until 1774 ; during which time he was a magis
trate of tbe County, and a Judge of tbe Court,
In 1774 he was elected a delegate to the first
June 15, 1775, he was appointed Commander-in-Chief
of the Army of tbe United States.
December 25, 1783, be resigned tbe command
of the army.
In 17b7 be was President of the Convention
that formed the new constitution.
April 22, 1763, ha was inaugurated President
ot the United Slates, in the city of New York,
aud coutinued in that office until 1797.
April 22, 1793, he issued the famous proclama
tion of neutrality.
September 17, 179C, he issued tbe celebrated
Farewell Address to the Americau people.
In 1798 he was again called to the command
of tbe army of the United States.
December 14, 1799, be departed this life, in the
68th year of his age.
The Defender of hie Conn trr i the Founder of Liberty,
TBE FBIXNl) OF MAN.
HUTOBT AKD TRAUmOX ABZ XXrLOIZD El VAH FOB A rAK
ALLEL TO BIS CHABiCTEE. EC TBI AXXALS Or
UK STANDS ALONE.
And tbe noblest names sf Antlqnity lose their lustrue in
his presence. Born the benefactor of Msnklnd,
he nnlted all the qualitiee necessary
to an illustrious career.
.VafHrstsadsaimoTsat.- Me made kimteV virtuous.
Callsd by his Country to the defence of her Liberties, he
triumphantly Tindieated Us rights of humanity i
and on tha pillars of
laid the foandatlon of a great
Twice inTssted with Supreme Msg-
Istrscy, by tbe vsloe of a Free People, he
eurpassed In the Cabinet the glories of the Field,
and voluntarily resigning the eceptre and aword, retired
t the shades of pri rate life. A spectacle so asw,
and ao subltme, waa contemplated with the
most profound admiration, and tbe
Addlne new lustre to humsnitv.
resounded to the remotest regions of the
Magnaalmona In Youth, Glorious throoch Life:
Great in Death i his highest ambition.
The Hspplness of Msnklnd ;
HIS SOBLEBT TKTOKT.
THE CONQUEST OF HIMSELF.
Bequeathing to postartty the inheritance of his tins, and
building his Monument la th e hearts
of his countrymen,
The Ornament of the Eighteenth Century ;
Regretted by a Menrsinf World.
iMgaere of the BeclaraUiea C latdejseaaVBce,
Qfitha fiftv-ttx signers of of tbe Declaration of
'Independence, it is stated that nine wars bora in
(Massachusetts; eight in Virginia; fiva iu Mary
land; four in.Conupcticnt ; four in New Jersey ;
tour in rennsyivania; lour in ooatn uaroiipa;
three in i'v York; three in Delaware; two in
Rhode Island: one in Maine: three in Ireland :
i two in England ; two in Scotland, and oue iu
i Twenty-one were attorneys; ten mechanics;
,four physicians; three farmers; one clergy mau;
,000 printer; sixteen were men of fortune.
Eight were graduates of Harvard College; four
of Yale; three of N ew Jersey ; two of Pbiladel-
Enla; two of William ami Alary; tnree ot uam
ridge, -England; two of Ediuburg, aud one of
I At the time of their deaths, five were over 90
i years of "age; seven between 6X1 aud 90; eleven
(between 70 asd 80; twelve between 60 and 70 ;
eleven between 50 and GO ; seven between 40 and
50; one died at the age of 27, and tbe age of two
At the time of signing the declaration, the
average age of tbe members eras 44 years.
Tbey lived to the average age of more than
sixty-five years and teu months. The youngest
member was Edward Hut lege, of South Caroli
na, who was in bis 27th year. He lived to tbs
age of 61. The next youngest member was
Thomas Lynch, of the same State, who was also
in his 27th year. He was cast away at sea iu
the fall of 1776.
i Benjamin FrankHn was tbe oldest member.
(He was in bis 71st year when he signed the dec
laration. He lived until 1790, and survived 16
of his younger brethren. Stephen Hopkins, of
Rhode Island, the next oldest member, was born
in 1707 and died in 17tS.
Charles Carroll attained the greatest age, dying
in his 96th year. William Ellery, of Rhode Is
iand, died in bat 91st year.
'aTvlly efear Farrfatkere.
No Ieiis than thirteen oftbe fifty-six signers of
Americau Independence reached the age eighty
years and upwards, namely:
Charles Carroll, of MarIand, 9G.
William Ellery, of Rhode Island, 98.
John Adams, o fMasaachuaelte, 91.
Samuel Adams, of Massachusetts, 91.
Robert Treat Paine, of Massachusetts, 93.
IJenjamin Franklin, nf Massachusetts, 84.
William Williams, of Counecut, 91.
William Floyd, of Long Island, 87.
Thomas Mckean; of Pennsylvania, 83.
Thomas Jefferson, of Virginia, 86.
ueorge nytue, or Virginia, 89.
Francis Lewis, of South Wales, 90.
Matthew Thornton, of Ireland, 89.
Bang au average of eigbty-six years and two
montha each, and tbe aggregate excess of the
"time-honored thirteen" over fourscore, is jnst
eighty years. No deliberative assembly of equal
magnitude was ever more remarkable for virtue,
temperance, and longevity of its members than
tbe one which declared the American colonies
free and independent.
seriate rtTserigai Mirth.
Of the signers of the Declaration of Independ
ence,, eight were born in foreign countries, viz:
Barton Gwinnett, Robert Morris, England ; Jas,
Smith, Geo. Taylor, Matthew Thornton, Ireland ;
J no. Witberspoon, James Wilson, Scotland;
Francis Lewis, Wales. Of the Major Generals,
11 .were foreigners: Lafayette, France; Baron
Wm. Moultrie, England: Wra. Croghan. John
James, Richard Montgomery, Ireland ; Koscius
ko, Poland ; Charles Lee, Wales ; Arthur St,
Clair, Scotland. Of the Brigadier Geoeraja sm-
piujou uu sua American siue in me xtevotoiion,
three were foreigners; Horatio Gates, England ;
Count Pnlaskl, Poland J Hugh Mercer; Scotland.
Of ha msot Psnl tiui w. TkM SCLm!... A
ad John Barry, in Ireland. Albert Gallatin
waa own io owiszeTiana, anu Aisxaoasr' tiaBl
Utoo la the West Iodic,
Such lath foreljn catalona of American pat
riot. Isltnotaprondonel AUsujJrsu.
THE CeNTIWatWTAI. COHGBESS.
Vaaaiaatien ef Ceerge Waehias;ism.
Congress at a former session appropriated a
large amount of money to aid in tbe publication
of tbe memoirs of John Adams the elder, whose
name is indissolnbly linked with the early his
tory of the republic The work, we believe, is
now in course of printing, and will fill several
substantial volumes. Some of tbe papers have
printed copious extracts of it, which have at
tracted pnblic attention. Below we copy from
mem au account oi mo appointment or General
Washington, to the supremo command of the
'American armies, on tbe 17th of Jane, 1775 :
Tbe army was assembled at Cambridge, Mas
sachusetts, nnder General Ward, and Congress
was sitting at Philadelphia. Every day, new
applications in behalf of the army arrived. Tbe
country was urgent Mrat Congress should legal
ize tbe-Taising of ths:army, aa tbey, were what
mast be considered only a mob, a band of rebels.
The country was placed in circumstances of pe
culiar difBculty and danger. The straggle had
begun, and yet eyerytblng was without order.
Tha great trial now seemed to be this question;
Who shall be commander-in-chief t It was ex
ceedingly important, and was felt to be the
binge on which the contest might tnrn for or
against ns. The Southern and Middle States,
very warm and rapid In their zeal, for the most
J tart, were jealous of New England, because they
elt the real physical force was here; what theu
was to be dune T All New England adored Gen.
Ward; he had beeu in the French war, and
went out laden with laurels. He was a scholar
and a statesman. Every qualification seemed
to clutter in him ; and it was consequently be
lieved that the army wonld not receive any ap
pointment over him. What was then to be
ilonet Difficulties thickened at every step.
The struggle would be long and bloody. With
out union all was lost. The whole country must
come in. Oue pulsation must beat through all
hearts. . The cause was one, and the army must
be one. The members bad talked, debated, con
sidered, and guessed. At length Mr. Adams
came to bis conclusion. The means of resolving
it were somewhat singular: He was walking
one morning before Coogress hall, apparently in
deep thought, when his cousin, Samuel Adams,
came up to him and said
"What is tbe topic with you this morning!"
"Oh, the army, tbe army," he replied.
"I'm determined to go into the Hall this
morning and cuter on a full detail of tbe state
of the colonies, in order to show the absolute
need of taking decisive steps. My whole aim
will be to induce.Congress to appoint a day for
adopting the army as the legal army of these
United Colonies of North America, and to hiut
at an election of Commander-in-chief I"
"Well," said Samuel Adams, "I like that,
cousin John, but on whom have yon fixed as
that commander I"
"I'll tell you George Washington, of Virgin
ia, a member of this House."
"Oh," replied Samuel Adams, quickly, "that
will never do uever."
"It must do, it shall do, and for these reasons:
the Southern aud Middle States are both to en
ter heartily in tbe cause; and their arguments
are potent; thsy say that New England holds
tbe physical power in her bands, and they fear
the results. A New England commander, with
New Englaud perseverance, all united, appal
them. For this cause they hang back. Now
the only course is td allay their fears, and give
them nothing to complain of, and this can be
done in uo other way but by appointing a south
ern chief over this force, and then all will rush
to tbe stanlanl. This polioywil! bland ua in
one mass, and that mass will be resistless," said
At this, Samnel Adams seemed greatly moved.
They talked over the preliminary circumstanc
es, aud John asked his cousin to second the mo
tion. Mr. Adams went in, took the floor, and
put all his strength in the delineations he had
prepared, alt aiming at tbe adoption of the
army. He was ready to own the army, appoint
a commander, vote supplies, and proceed to bus
iness. After bis speech hail been finished, some
doubted, somo feared. His warmth increased
with the occasion, and to all those doubts aud
hesitations he replied:
"Geutlemen, if this Congress will not adopt
this army, before ten moons have sat. New Eng
land will adopt it, and she will undertake the
struggle alone with a strong arm, and clear
conscience, she will front the foe single-handed."
This bad tbe desired effect. They saw New
England was neither playing or to be played
with. They agreed to annoiut a day. A day
iwas fixed. It came. Mr. Adams went in, took
the floor, argued tbe measure, and after some
debate it passed.
i The next thing was to get a commander for
ithis army, with supplies, &c AH looked to Mr.
.Adams on the occasion, and he was ready. He
took the floor, and went into a minute descrip
tion of tbe character of General Ward, liestow
iug on him the encomiums which then belonged
to no one else. At the end of tbe eulogy, be
said, "hut this is not the man I bave chosen."
i He then went iuto the delineation of tbe char
acter of a Commander-in Chief, snen as was re
quired by the peculiar situation of the colonists
at this juncture. And after he had presented all
the Qualifications in hia strongest lauguage, and
given tbe reasons for thenominatlon be was about
u ujuao, uo saiu
"Gentlemen, I know all these qualifications
are high, but we all kuow they are needful in
this chief. Does any one ssy they are not to be
obtained in this country f In reply, I bave to
say they are; they reside in one of our own
body, aud be is the person whom I now nomi
nate GEOKOR Wasihxotox, of Virginia.
Washington, who sat on Mr. Adams' right
band, was looking him intently in the face, to
watch tbe name he was about to aunonnce, and
not expecting it would be bis, sprang from his
seat tbe minute he heard it, aud rushed iuto an
adjoining room. Mr. Adams had asked his cousin
Samnel to ask for an adjournment as soon as
tbe nomination was made, in order to give the
members time to deliberate, and the result is be
fore the world. -,
I asked Mr. Adams, among other qnrstions the
following: "Did yoa ever doubt the snecess of
tbe conflict t" -. ,.
"No, not fora momeut. I expected to be bung
and quartered, if I was caught bnt no matter
for that my country would be free I knew
George III. could not forge chains long enough
to reach around the United States."
The IsaanertBl Caaliaeatal Caaarrae.
Mr. John Austin Stevens read a paper before
the Historical Society, receutly on "The Del
egates of New York in the Second Continen
tal Congress." After alluding to tbe conven
tions known as the Indian Congress, which met
st Albany in 1754, at tbe reqnest of tbe British
Government, and a Stamp Art Congress, held
at New York in 1763, Mr. Stephens spoke of tbe
second Continental Congress, which met at
Philadelphia in 1774 aud 1775. The only meas
ure of the first Continental Congress was a pe
tition to the King. Fortunately, when desolv
ing, it provided for a successor in the following
year. This was tbe immortal Congress which
declared tbe independence of America. The
New York city delegation waa the same in both
of these bodies, with one exception. Of its ineiu
bsra,thrse were merchants and two lawyers.
Their names were Philip Livingston. John Alsop.
Francis Lewis, had been chosen to take the
place of Isaac Low, who, tbongh warm in tbe
first Congress, declined turtber service. The
aost important of the other delegates from tho
New York Colo to tit second Congress, were
Cot. 'Philip Scbnyler. front Albany; Robert R.
Livingstooe, from Dutchess ; Colonel Lewis
Morris, from Westchester, cad the staunch, in
flexible George Clinton, later the first Governor
of tbe State. Tha risse of tfce oaper was a eulo
gy of Jay, the moat remarkalile, although tbe
youngest member e tbe New York delegation,
aad a defense of New York from tbe charge of
hesitation or Inke-warmness in regard to inde
pendence. The first Continental Congress was
elected by tbe people and unanimously elected.
The Asseaably-of the colony had been asked to
point delegates to tbe second Congress., bnt
tbey declinetCunder tbe royal Governor. Tbere
boo tbe cesnmittee of Inspection appointed by
Congress called a provincial convention to
choose delegates, and tbey re-appointed the
angina! delegation- A'raJ ITerU.
GOOD cheer is no hindrance to a good life.
OOD BLESS ATffKRTCA I
st ns. tomrr oroonr bibd.
God bless the land thai gave ns birth
Sa prayer bnt this know we
God bless the land ofsll the earth.
Tbe happy and the free.
And where 'a tbe land like ours can brave
The splendor of the day.
And find no son ef her's a slave t
God bless America !
God bless the land.
The land beloved forever and for aye !
God bless the land that gave us birth t
God bless Amsriea.
Foe liberty our grandslres trod
The w Ida and stormy sea ;
They bought the treasure with their blood.
Their children ail are free.
And free amid earth's servile hordes.
To point the patriot's wsy.
With plough-shsree turned in wsr to swords.
God Usee America t
Ood bless. the land, tie.
The iTsserta howled the pilgrims came,
Tbsy Sed oppression's chain ;
The deserts blossomed, and the flame
Of freedom rose again ;
And here, where hearts of fire are born.
That flame shall ne'er decay.
While babes iaugh Kings ana crowns to scorn,
God bless America !
God bless the land, Ac.
And from onr land, in hour of neel.
Avert tby darkening frown ;
Bind up alt patriot hearts tbst bleed.
And strike the traitor down.
And shall the serpent foe prevail I
Shall foe or fiend betrar f
Up with the star-flag to the gale !
God bless America t
God bless the land, &c
The banner of our Union loved.
Shall ware fur ages on ;
Whils time shall find no stripe removed,
Xo bright star qusnehed and gone :
And singly States, convnlsed, shall die.
From esrth be swept away;
While millions shall uphold the cry,
God bless America !
God bless the land. He.
THE MiaNIXG OFTIIE DEt'I.AItATIO.Sf.
The Declaration, being adopted, was next to
be signed; and here again we come npon an
equally hopeless contradiction iu testimony.
This same Thomas McKean wroto iu 1814 to ex
President Adams, speaking oftbe Declaration of
Independence, "No in.iu signed it on that day,"
namely, July 4, 1776. Jetlcrsou, on the other
hand, writing somo years later, thought that Mr.
McKean's memory bad deceived him, Jeflerson
himself asserting, from his early notes, that
"Tbe Declaration was reported by tho Commit
tee, agreed to by the House, and signed by every
member present, except Mr. Dickinson." But
Jefferson, who was also au octogenarian, seems
to have forgotten the subsequent siguiug nf tho
Declaration parchment, until it was retailed to
bis memory, its bo states, a few years later. If
there was a previous siguiug of a written docu
ment, tbe manuscript itself bas long since disap
peared ; aud the accepted historic opinion is that
both these venerable witnesses were mistaken ;
that the original Declaration was signed only by
the President and Secretary, John Hancock aud
Charles Thomson ; aud that the general signing
of too parctimcut copy tooK place on Angust 2d.
It is probable, at least, that filty-foiir of tho lifty
six uames were appended on that day; aud that
it was iiftcrnard signed by Thornton, of New
Hampshire, who was not then a member, aud by
McKean, who was then temporarily absent.
Jefferson used to relate, "with much tucrri
meut,"says Partou, that final signing ofthe Dec
laration was hastened by a very trivial circum
stance. Near the hall was a large stable, whence
the tlies issued iu legions. Gentlemen Herein
those days peculiarly sensitive to sneb discom
forts by reason of silk stockings; and when this
annoyance, superadded to the summer heat of
Philadelphia, hail become intolerable, tbey hast
ened to bring tho business to aconclnsiou. This
may equally well refer, however to the original
vote; tlies are tlies, whether iu July or August.
American tradition bas clung to the phrases
assigned to different participants iu this scene:
John Hancock's commentary on his own bold
handwriting, "There, John Bull may read my
name without spectacles ;" Franklin's, " We must
hang together, or most assuredly, we shall all
bang separately ;" and tbe heavy Harrison's re
mark to Ihu slender Elbritlge Gerry, that, iu that
event, Gerry would be kicking in the air long
after bis ovsu fato would be settled. These
tbiugs may ur may not bave been said; but it
gives a more human interest to the event, when
we know that tbey were even attributed. What
we long to know is, that the great acta of history
were dnue by men like ourselves, aud not by dig
nified machines. Fro '-The Story of the Signing,"
bf Col. T. IT. Iligglnton; Seribnerfor July.
The following American boast is from an old
paper. Many of the "living" great men herein
mentioned, are now dead :
It is among the worst omens of the day, that
we bave iu the United States uoiiational feeling,
no genuine love of country. Tbe traveler in
other lands finds everywhere the productions of
a people prized by themselves, though tbey may
be condemned by strangers. Here tbe order is
changed. If any work iu literature, art, or sci
ence is by au American, it is set down by onr
critics, who in truth are too apt to find fault, as
altogether worthless, or deserving a favorable
regard only on account of its rcsemblanceto
something foreign. We recite a few facts, admit
ted by all the world abroad, for the benefit of this
sagacious class of people.
Imprlmlt: The greatest man, "take him for all
iu all," of the last hundred J earn, was George
Washington, an American.
The greatest metaphysician was Jonathan Ed
wards, au American.
The greatest natural philosopher was Benja
min Franklin, an Americau.
The greatest of living sculptors is Hirain Pow
ers, an Americau.
The greatest of living poets is William Cullen
Bryant, au American.
The greatest of living historians is William H.
Present t, an Americau.
The greatest livingoiuithologistisjohn James
Audubon, an American.
The greatest of living novelists is James Feni
inore Cooper, an American.
The greatest living painter, ill portraiture, is
Asber B. Durand, au American.
There has been no English writer in the pres
entagewbose works bave been marked with more
humor, more refinement, or more grace, than
those of Washington Irving, an American.
The greatest lexicographer aud philologist,
since the time of Johnson, was Noah Webster, an
The inventors, whose works bave been pro
ductive of the greatest amount of happiness to
mankind, in the last ccutnry, were Godfrey, Fitcb,
Fnltou, and Whitney all American.
If oue of these facts or estimates is doubted,
we can prove them by foreign authorities, and
so prevent all controversy.
Remi.viscf.XCE OF Jf-FFEBSO.v. Mr. Jefiersnn's
great height and slender figure exposal him to
much ridicule from his opponents. His sobriquet
with tbem was "Long Tom," and when his fa
mous project of the substitution of gunboats iu
place of tbe navy was adopted by Congress, and
tbe attempt was made to pnt it into practice,
tbe cannon, disproportiouably large, with which
each oftbe ill constructed craft was bnnleued,
obtained, in contempt, tbe name of "Long Tom."
Nothing could preseut a more singular contrast
than tho figures of Mr. Jeflerson aud General
Knox the oue very short, as thick as he was
long; the other lank and lean, and unnsually
tall. They happened to meet one morning on
the steps of Geueral Washington's lodgings in
Philadelphia. The two gentlemen approached
contrariwise, arriving st tbe same moment, a
contest iu etiquette took place. The General at
the head of tbe army, and full of its chivalrous
politeness, could not think of passing in before
tbe co-equal head of tbe Department of State;
while the civil oQcerof Government was equally
averse to take precedence of the military, aud
tbey stood for some moments, each drawing back
and waving tbe other forward. In tbe midst of
this somewhat entertaining scene came np, di
rectly in front, the notorious Jndge Peters, the
greatest wit of his day. Perceiving bow matters
stood, and casting a sly glance irom one to the
other, be pushed boldly between tbem, exclaim
ing as he passed, "Pardon me, gentlemen, if in
my baste, I dash through thick and thin."
Till! DECLARATION OF I.STDEPE.II. I
Whew, Hew. Where Wise It Written t" '
From the Xew Terk Observer.
Messrs. Editobs : There is mnch of interest '
in the above question from one of your corres
pondents, in the Oism-er of the 14th, and how
much easier it is to ask than to answer. There is
nothing left ns but to gather what we can from
the records and traditions of the men nf that
day, who were in that Congress, aud especially,
from the immortal committee who were assigned
to draw np tbe wonderful paper. It is well known
that the committee were as they were named,
Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Frank
lin, Koger Sherman, and Robert R. Livingston.
John Adams says, in his autobiography, "The
committee had several meetings, in which were
proposed the articles of which the Declaration
was to conajst, ami minutes were made of tbem.
Tbe committee .then appointed Mr. JeflVrson and
me to uraw mem up in form, aud clothe them in
a proper dress. The snb-committee met and
considered the minutes, making such observa
tions on them as ocenrred." He then goes on to
say that Jefferson desired him to make the draft,
which he declined for several reasons, the last of
which is, "I hail a great opinion of the elegance
of bis pen, aud none at all of my own." Iu a
letter to Timothy Pickering, dated tho Cth of
Angust, 18.fi, as to the origin of tbe Declaration
of Independence, he expressed the same recollec
tions, and says that Jeffsrson said, "Well, if you
are decided, I will do the best I can ;" and be
replied, "Very well, when yon have drawn it up.
we will have a meeting." He goes on: "A meet- '
ing we accordingly bad. and conned the naner
over. I was delighted with its high tone aud
the flights of oratory with which it abounded,
especially that concerning negro slavery, which,
though I knew bis Southern brethejn would
never suffer to pass in Congress, I certainly nev
er wonld oppose. There were other expressions
which I would not have inserted, if I had drawn
it up, particularly that which calle4 the King
tyrant. I thought this too personal, for I never be
lieved George to be a tyrant iu disposition and in
nature ; 1 always believed uim to be deceived by
his courtiers on both sides ofthe Atlantic, aud in
. .. . ....-
msomciai capacity only, cruel. I tliougut tne
expression too passionate, and too much like
scoiumg. lor ho grave and solemn n document,
but as Franklin aud Sherman were to inspect it
afterward, I thought it would not become mo to
strike it out. I consented to report it, and do
not now remember that I made or suggested a
single alteration. We reported it to the commit
tee of five. It was read, and I do not remember
that Franklin or Sherman criticised anything.
We were all iu haste, Congress was impatient,
and the instrument was reported, as I believe, in
Jefferson's handwriting, as be first drew it. Con
gress cnt off about a quarter of it, as I expected
tbey would, but they obliterated some of the
best of it, aud left all that was objectionable, if
anything in it was. I have long wondered that
the original draft bas not been published. I sup
pose the reason is the vehement phillippic against
negro slavery." Beuson J. Lossing, in his Lives
of those Signers, gives the theorigiual draft, aud
this letter to Kichard Henry Lee, four days after:
"Philadelphia, July 8, 177fi.
"Deaii Silt: For news, I refer you to your
brother, who writes on that head. I enclose jon
a copy of the Declaration of Independence, as
sgrced to by the House, and also as originally
ftamed; yon will judge whether it is letter or
worse for the critics. I shall return to Virginia
after tho lltli of August. I wish my successor
may be certaiu to come before that time; in that
case, I shall hope to see yon, and not Wythe, in
convention, that the business of Government,
which is of everlasting concern, uiay receive ) our
aid. Adieu, and believe me to be,
"Your friend and servant,
"To Richard Henry Lee, Etq."
Webster, in bis discourse on the Lives and
Services of John Adams and Thomas Jeflerson,
talks in this wise : "The merit of this paper is
air. Jeflerson s. Some changes were made in it
at the suggestion of other members of the com
mittee, and others by Congress, while it was un
der discussion. But uoue of them altered the
tone, the frame, tbe arrangement, or tbe general
charatt r of the instrument. As a composition,
the Declaration is Mr. Jefferson's. It is the pro
duction of bis mind, and the high honor of it
belongs to him, clearly and absolutely. To say
that be performed bis great work well, would be
doing him an injustice. To say that ho did ex
cellently well, admirably well, would Ix inade
quate and halting praise. Let us rather say,
that he so discharged the duty assigned him,
that all Americans may well rrjoico that the
work of diawing the title deed of their liberties
devolved upon him."
Everett talks iu the same strain upon a like
occasion : "The trust devolved on Jetlerson, and
with it rests on him the imperishable renown of
having penned the Declaration of Independence.
To have been tbe instrument of expressing in
one brief, decisive act, the concentrated will
and resolution of a whole family of States; of
unfolding in one all-important manifesto, the
causes, the motives, and tbe justification of this
great movement in human aflairs; to have been
Eermitted to give tbe impress and peculiarity of
is own mind to a charter of public right, des
tined or, rather, let mo say, already elevated
to an importance, in the estimation of many,
equal to anything human ever home on pareh
ment.or expressed in the visible signs of thought,
this is the glory of Thomas Jefferson."
Lossing, in his introduction to his "Lives of
the Signers," says a few verbal alterations were
made by Adams aud Dr. Franklin, and that it
was submitted to Congress ou the 28tb day of
June. Ou the 7th of June, Kichard Henry Lee
made the great move for independence, by offer
ing his celebrated resolution, which was incor
porated iu the instrnment: "Resolved, That
these United Colonies are, and of right onght to
be, free and independent States ; that they are
absolved from all allegiance to tbe British Crown;
and that all political connection between tbem
and tbe State of Great Britain is, and ought to
be. totally dissolved."
On Jnnelllb. tbe committee was appointed.
The time "then" lies, then, between tbe 11th
and 29tb, there having been, according to John
Adams, "several meetings of the committee,"
and one or more meetings of the sub-committee,
(Jeflerson and himself.) Tbe instrument must
bave been drawn within the space of two weeks,
and probably within one. We bave seen "Aoic
it was drawn. The ideas are not original, bnt
were long tbe expression of the pnblic mind,
which were then to take a more positive shape,
aud were to become tbe languageof tbe Colonies
nnited as separate States. The grouping, or as
Webster has it, "the composition," was Jeffer
son's. His was the style the rhetoric.
As to the place tcherr," Jefferson said to Web
ster and Mr. and Mrs.Ticknor, when they visited
him in ISM, "in reply to a question of Mr. Web
ster's": "Tbe Declaratiou of Independence waa
written in a house on the north side of Chestnnt
street, between Third and Fourth not a corner
house. Heiskiil's Tavern, in Fourth street, lias
been shown for it, bnt this is not the house."
This, in brief, is what we find aa to that most
eloquent State paper, bearing npon ths questions
asked by your correspondent, lying scattered
through revolutionary history and tradition. It
were well in these centennial da-s to revive all
that is known of the liberty-loving men who
gave birth to a free government, based apon tbe
will ofthe people, and teach their virtues to the
rising youth, who may have mnch to do with onr
history as a nation at the end of another hundred
Fuhlill, on the Bndton, Angxut 16, 1873.
The "Glorious FocKnf." The most glorions,
that of 177C ; tbe most enthusiastic, that of U&i,
in conseqnenee of tbe surrender of Cornwallis,
October 19, 1761 ; tbe proudest, that of 17c9, tbe
first year under Washington as the first Presi
dent, and tbe first under tbe Constitution oftbe
United States of America ; tbe most dismal, tbat
of 1661, tbe first year of our great rebellion ; the
most impressive, tbat of 1865, in consequence of
the suppression ofthe rebellion, Liueolu's assas
sination, tbe capture of Jeff Davis; and tbe poli
cy of Andy Johnson ; and tbe grandest, tbat of
1670, with the Union restored, and civil and po
litical rights established as the supreme taw oi
the landv -V. T. Herald.
Afteb crosses and losses, men grow humbler
I and wiser. Franttut.
bt t. s. dovoho.
'Tsnkee Doodle f Long ago.
They played it to deride us -Hut
now we march to victory.
And that's tbe tnne to guide ns !
Tsnkee Hoodie ha! ha! hat
Yankee Diodle Dandy 1
How we made the red-coats run.
At Yankee Doodle Dandy I
T?i5f VU " ""-"t game,
" '' . '""" wsTl do it !
Ou-Tsnkee boy, go thro It 1
Co . ahead !- the Captains cry.
At Yankee Doodle Dandy I
''.' 1".r 6WM "Ton the sea.
The insolent inradsr
Th"" the Yankee boys wiu be.
Yankee Dnndle-ha! ha! lal "
-!"" w serenade her.
amukcv vuwie lisndy
nr"? ? r'" !" the has.
Of Yankee Doodle Dandy!
Yankse Doodle ! how it brings
The good old days before ns !
Two or three begin to sing.
Millions Join the chorus!
Yankee Doodle ha I ha! ha'
Yankee Doodle Dandy !
Rolling round the continent.
To Yankee Doodle Dandy !
Yankee Doodle ! not alone
The Continent will hear it !
But all the world shall catch the tone
And every tyrant fear it !
Yankee Doodle! ha! ha! ha'
Yankee Doodle Dandy!
Freedom's Toice is in the song
Of "Yankee Doodle Dsndy 'T'
I.1DKPEVDE.VCE OF KEIF ENGLAND.
It was customary somo years ago in many of
tbe inland towns of New England, to celebrate
the Fourth of July by a sham fight, intended to
represent some one of the Revolutionary battles.
uuu in muisi victories, one portion ot tne town
pcoplo representing the Bed Coats, and another
tho Federal forces. Below we cive th rieh ml
I of au account which we find in au exchange, of
1 aana nf thus sAlA.a! 1 l:a1 a " .
"ic-, icicunuuus. a nine town nan re-
solved to perform the '-surrender of Cornwallis."
Deacon Moses Jones, a wealth v. nmml tVemor
was chosen to enact Washington; Squire Bijer
Wood, an aristocratic village lawyer, to perform
Cornwallis; but Itt the writer tell his own story:
The programme of the day's performance was
as follows : The two compauies were to meet in
frout of the tavern ou the common, exchange
shots, skirmish a little in which Cornwallis is
to be most essentially whipped, and then inglo
At U o'clock the two companies marched into
tho village and arrayed themselves into fightiug
position, reminding the spectators of the time
Brave Wolf drew up his men
In style so pretty.
On tbe plains of Abraham,
Before ths city."
The two commanders were greatly excited,
and Washington, I regret to eay, was in any
thing but a tit condition to act ont the great
part he was to perform. He had been drinking
freelyall the morning, aud now, wheu the in
teresting ceremony was about to commence, was
so tight, or rather loose, that it was with difficul
ty that he could sit in the saddle. He however
did not know but what he was all right, nor did
bis men. Cornwallis was not intoxicated, but a
little agitated, or rather elated.
Everything being ready, the company ex
changes! shots. Hang! whang! bang! went the
guns, while the two commanders yelled liko so
many stuck pigs.
"That's it, hie my bravo boys! Give it to
them, the owdacious red coats," bellowed Wash
ington. "On, Romans," yelled tho excited Cornwallis,
who had seen a theatrical exhibition onco, and
who remembered the heroic appeals ofthe Thes
pian belligerents; "breathes there a man so
dead that won't fight tike thunder I"
"Go it, Continentals! down with taxation on
tea!" blowed Washington in a very patriotic
voice, and narrowly escaping cutting off his
horse's ears with tbe flourish of his sword. The
fighting now ceased, tbe companies were drawn
up in a straight line, aud Cornwallis dismount
ed and presented bis sword to Washington.
"Well, old boy," said tbe immortal, as he
cuffed his horses ears with his cocked hat,
"nhat'n thunder do you want!"
"Gen. George Washington!" replied Cornwal
lis, "I surrender to you myself.sword and men."
"Von do, do yon !" sneeringly replied the Gen
eral. "ies. General, tbe British Lion prostrates
himself at the foot oftbe American Eagle H
Eagle.' eagle f yelled tho General, rolling off
bis horse aud hitting the Briton a tremendous
blow on tbe head with the flat of his sword, "do
yon call me au eaglet Take tbat! and tbat!
aud fiat."' yelled tbe infuriated Washington;
"perhaps you'll call me auea;'e again, you sneak
ing cuss 1"
Cornwallis was down, but only for a moment,
for be jumped np and shook himself, with an
entirely nnlookedifor recuperation on the part
ofa fallen foe, anuMn direct defiance of his his
torical history, be pitched into Washington like
a thousand of brick, and in spite of tbe men of
both nationt, succeeded iu giving tbe "immor
tal" a tremendous licking. So the day that
commeuced so gloriously most isgloriously end
ed. For many years after the surrender, tbera was
a coldness between tbe Deacon and tbe 'Squire,
but as time rolled on, and their locks became
frosted o'er with white, they learned to call it
a "joke." Both aro living now, aud whenever
they meet they smoke, and talk about "that ar
scrape," like a couple of jolly old men, as they
The American la lea.
"Other misfortunes," said tbe great orator of
Massachusetts, "may be borne, or their effects
overcome. If disastrous war shonld sweep our
commerce from tbe ocean, another generation
may renew it. If it exhaust onr treasury, fu
ture industry may replenish it : if it desolate
and lay waste oar fields, still under a new culti
vation they will grow green again, and ripen to
future harvests. It were but a trifle, even if
the walls of tbe Capitol were to crumble if its
pillars should fall, and its gorgeous decorations
be all covered with the dnst of the valley ; all
these might be rebuilt. But who shall construct
the fabric of demolished government I Who
shall rear again tbe walJ-prooortioned columns
of constitutional liberty t who shall frame to
gether tbe skillful architecture which unites
national sovereignty with State rights. Individ
ual security and public property t Not if these
columns fall, tbey will not rise again. Like the
Colliseum and tbe Pantheon, tbey will be des
tined to a mournful, a melancholy immortality.
Bitterer tears, however, will flow over them
than were ever shed over the monuments of
Greecisn or Roman art; for they will be tbe
remnants of a mora glorious edifice than Greece
or Rome ever saw the edifice of Constitutional
neanal Power ef Fisher Aaees.
Of his powers of expression, take Fisher Ames'
picture of the consolatory supporters of the
French Revolution, who preservedtbeir equa
nimity amidst iu wildest excess The enlight
ened" philosophists surveyed the agitation or
the world as If they did not live In it; as if they
occupied as mere spectators, a safe position In
some star, and beheld revolutions sometimes
brightening the disc of this planet with their
fires, and at others dimming it.with their -ra-nors.
They could contemplate, unmoved, toe
whirlwind, lifting the bills from their base and
mixing their rnins with tbe clouds. They could
see tbe foncdations of society gaping in fissures
aswbeu an eartfujuafce struggles from the cen
tre. A true philosopher is superior to humani
ty: be could walk at ease over this earth if It
were unpeopled; be could tread with all the
pleasure of curiosity, on its cinders the day after
tbe final conflagration." At another time, aa ha
warms with tbe progress of an unlicensed de
mocracy, he write; "We have na Jnvenal;
and if we bad, he wonld scorn to dissert the rice
tbat wantafirninesa for the knife, to elevate that
be might hit hU object, and to dignify low prof
ligacy to be the vehicle of a -loathsome immorality."