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Western Kansas world. (WaKeeney, Kan.) 1885-current, December 12, 1885, Image 2

Image and text provided by Kansas State Historical Society; Topeka, KS

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn82015485/1885-12-12/ed-1/seq-2/

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President's Message.
Ib ttc Cor-gras ojlht United Stales:
Your assembling is clouded by a sease
of public bereavement caused by the
recent and eudden death of Thomas A.
Hendricks, vice president of the United
States. His distinguished public ser
vices, his complete integrity and devo
tion to every duty, and his personal vir
tues, will find an honorable record in his
country's history. Ample and repeated
E roofs of the confidence in which he wab
eld by his countrymen, were manifest
ed by his election to ofl5ces of the most
important trust and highest dignity, and
at length, full of years and honors he has
been laid at rest amid universal sorrow
and benediction.
The constitution which requires those
chosen to legislate for the people, to an
nually meet in the discharge of their
solemn trust, alEO requires the president
to give to congress information of the
state of the union, and to recommend to
their consideration such measures as be
'shall deem necessary and expedient.
At the threshold of a compliance
with these constitutional directions, it is
well for us to bear in mind that cur use
fulness to the people's interests will be
promoted by a constant appreciation of
the scope and character of our respective
duties, as they relate to federal legisla
tion. While the executive may recommend
such measures as be fahall deem expedi
ent, the responsibility for legislative ac
tion rests witn you.
Contemplation of the crave and res
ponsible functions assigned to the execu
tive branches of the government under
the constitution will disclose the parti
tions of power between our respectiva
departments and their nececeary inde
pendence, and also, the need for the
exercise of all the power intrusted to
each in that a spirit of comity and co
operation, which is essential to the
proper fulfillment of the patriotic obli
gations which rest upon us as faithful
servants of the people. The zealous
watchfulness of our constituency as
great and hmall supplements, their suff
rages, and before the tribunal they es
tablish every public servant should be
judged.
OUR RELATIONS WITH FOREIGN P3WEBS.
It is gratifying to announce that the
relations 01 me unueu ouuea wuu an
foreicn powers continue to be friendly.
Our position, after nearly a century of
successful constitutional government, the
maintenance of good faith in all our en
gagements, the avoidance of connections
with otner nations, and conaistent atti
tude toward the strong and the weak
alike, furnish proof of a political dispo
sition which renders professions of good
will unnecefsary. There are no questions
of difficulty pending with any foreign
government.
The Argentine government has revived
the long dormant question of the Falk
land Islands, by claiming irom the
United States indemnity for their loss,
attributed to the action of the com
mander of the sloop. Lexington, in
breaking up a piratical colony on those
Islands in 1S31, and their subsequent oc
cupation by Great Britain. In view of
ample justification for the act of the
Lexington and the direlect condition of
the islands before and after their alleged
occupation by Argentine colonists, this
government considers the claim aB
wholly groundless.
THE AUSTRIAN DIPLOMATIC IMBROGLIO.
The question has arisen with the gov
ernments of Austria and Hungary touch
ing the representation of the United
States at Vienna. Having under my
constitutional prerogative appointed an
estimable citizen of unimpeached probi
ty and competency as minister at that
court, the government of AuBtria invited
this government to the cognisance of a
certain exception based upon allegations
against the personal acceptibility of Mr.
Kiely, the appointed envoy, asking that
in view thereof, the appointment should
be withdrawn.
The reaeonB advanced were such aB
could not be acquiesced in without a
-violation of my oath of office and the
precepts of the constitution, since they
necessarily involve a limitation in favor
of a foreign government upon the right
of selection by the executive, and re
quired such an application of a religious
teEt as a qualification for office, under the
United States as would have resulted
in the practical disfranchisement of a
large class of our cicizenB and the aband
onment of a vital principle in our gov
ernment. The Austro Hungarian government
finally decided not to receive Mr. Keily
as the envoy of the United States, and
that gentleman has since resigned his
commission, leaving the post vacant.
I have made no new nomination, and
tbe interests of this government at Vi
enna are now in the care of the secre
tary of the legation, acting as charge
d'affairs ad interim.
THE GUATEMALA WAR.
Early in March last a war broke out
in the Central Americas, caused by the
attempt of Guatemala to consolidate the
several states into a Bingle government.
In these contests between our neigh
boring states, the United States fore
bore to interefere actively, but lent the
aid of the friendly offices in depreciation
of war, to promote peace and concord
among the belligerents, and by such
counsel contributed importantly to the
preservation of tranquility on that local
ity. THE UNITED STATES OF COLUMBIA.
Emergencies growing out of the civil
war in the United States of Columbia
demanded of the government at the be
ginning of this administration the em
ployment of an armed force to fulfill tits
guarantees under the 45ta article of the
treaty of 1846 in order to keep the transit
across the isthmus of ranama.
Desirous of exercising only the powers
expressly reserved to the United States
by the treaty, and mindfull of the rights
of Columbia, the forces sent to the Isth
mus were instructed to confine their
action, so positively preventing thetransit
and its accessories from being interrupted
or embarassed.
The execution of this delicate and re
sponsible task necessarily involved po
lice control where the local authority
was temporarily powerless, but always in
aid of the sovereignty of Columbia. The
prompt and successful fulfillment. of its
duty by this government was highly
appreciated by the government of Co
lumbia, and has been followed by the
expression of its satisfaction. High
praise is due to the officers and men
engaged in the service. The restoration
of peace on the Isthmus by the the re
establishment of the constituted gover
lnent, tbe ends being thus accomp
lished, the forces of the United States
were withdrawn.
Pending these occurrences, a question
of much importance was presented by
decrees of the Columbian government,
proclaiming the closure of certain ports
then in the hands of the insurgents, and
declaring vessels held by the revolution
ists to be piratical and liable to capture
by any power. To neither of these prop-
ositionb could the United States assent
An effective closure of ports not in the
possession of the government but held
"by hostile partisans couldnot be recog
nised: Neither could the veeselB of the insur
gents against the legitimate soverignity
he deemed hostis humdni generis within
the precepts of international law, what
ever mignt D9 tne auuuuuuuu pomtn.
of their acts under the municipal laws
of the.state against whose authority they
were in revolt.
The denial by this government of the
Columbian proposition did not, however,
imply the admission of a beliggerent
state on the part of the insurgente. The
Columbian government has expressed
its willingness to negotiate a convention
for the adjustment by arbitration of the
claims of foreign citizens arising out of
the destruction of the city of Aspinwall
by the insurrectionary forces.
THENICARAUGUABHtP CANAL.
The interest of the United States in a
practicable transit for 6hips across the
strip of land separating the Atlantic from
the Pacific, has been repeatedly mani-
lested during tne last naif eewtury. My
immediate predecessor caused to be ne
gotiated with Nicaraugua a treaty for the
construction by and at the sole cost of
the United States, of a canal through
Nicaraugua territory, and laid the same
before the senate, and pending the
action ofthat body thereon, withdrew
the treaty for re-examination. Attentive
consideration of its provision leads me
to withhold it from resubmission to the
senate.
Maintaining 88 1 do the tenets of a line
of presidents from Washington's day
which preclude entangling alliances with
foreign states, I do not favor a policy of
acquisition of distant territory, or the in
corporation of remote interests with our
own. The laws of progress are vital,
and we muBt be conservators of that ir
resistible tide of commercial expansion,
which is the concomitant of our active
civilization, and day by day is being
urged onward by ttoae increasing facili
ties of produc'ion, transportation and
communication to which steam and elec
tiricity have given birth.
But our duty at present instructs us to
address ourselves mainly to the develop
ment of the vast resources of the great
area committed to our charge, and to the
cultivation of the arts of peace within
our border, alert on preventing the
American hemisphere from being in
volved in the political problems and
complications of distant governments.
Therefore, I am unable to recommend
any proposition involving paramount
privileges of ownership or right outside i
of our territory, when compelled
with absolute and unlimited engage
ments to defend the territorial integrity
of the state where such interests de
mand.
While the general project of connect
ing the two oceans by means of a canal
is to be encouraged. I am of the opinion
that any scheme to that end, to be con
sidered with favor should be free from
the feature alluded to. TheTehuantepec
route is declared by engineers of the
highest repute and by competent scien
tistists to afford an entirely practical
transit for vessels and cargoes by means
of a ship-railway from the Atlantic to the
Pacific. The obvious advantages of such
a route, it feasable over others more re
mote from the lines of traffic be
tween Europe and the Pacific and par
ticularly between the valley of the Mis
sissippi and the western coast of North
and South America, are deserving of con
sideration. Whatever highways may be construct
ed across the barrier dividing the two
greatest maritime highways of the world
must be for the world's benefit a trust
for mankind to be removed from the
chance of domination by any single
power, nor become a point of invitation
for ho8tilities or a prize for warlike am
bition. An engagement combining the con
struction, ownership and operation of
such a work by this govarnment, with
an offensive and defensive alliance tor its
protection with the foreign Btate, is
scarcely desirable. The responsibilities
and rights we would thus share iB, in my
judgment, inconsistent with such a dedi
cation to universal and neutral use ; and
would, moreover, entail measures for its
realization beyond the scope of our
national politics or present means.
The lapse of years has abundantly
confirmed the wisdom and forethought
of those . earlier administrations which
long before the conditions of maratime
intercourse, changed and enlarged by the
progress of the age, proclaimed the vital
need of inter-oceanic transit across the
American isthmus, and consecrated it in
advance to the common use of mankind.
By that positive declaration, and
through the formal obligation of treaties
toward such realization, the efforts of my
administration will be 'applied, ever
bearing in mind the principles on which
it must rest, and which were declared in
no uncertain words by Mr. CaBe, who,
while secretary of state in 1858, an
nounced that "what the United Statps
want in Central America, next to the
happiness of its people, iB the security
and neutrality of the inter-oceanic routes
which lead through it.
TRANS CONTINENTAL RAILROAD.
The construction of three trans-continental
lines of railway, all in success
ful operation wholly within our territory
and uniting the Atlantic and the Pacific
oceans, has been accompanied by results
of a most interesting and impressive
nature, and has created a new condition
not in the routes of commerce only, b'it
in political geography, which power
fully affects our relation toward, and ne
cessarily increase our interests in any
trans-isthmus route which may be
opened and employed for the ends of
peace and trafnV, or in other contingen
cies for uses inimical to both.
Transportation is a factor in the cost
of commodities scarcely second to that
of their" production, and weigh heavily
upon the consumer. Our experience al
ready has proven the great importance
of having the competion between land
carriage and water carriage fully devel
oped, as a protection to -the public
against the tendencies of monopoly,
which is inherent in ' the consolidation
of wealth and power in the hands of
vast corporations. These suggestions
may serve to emphasize what I have al
ready said on the score of the neutrali
zation of any inter-oceanic transit; and
this can only b9 accomplished by making
UBes on the route open to all nations' and
subject to the ambitions and warlike
necessities of men.
The drawings and report of a recent
survev of the Nicafaueua canal route
made by 'Chief Engineer Menscal will be
communicated lor your miormauon.
The claims of the citizens of theUnited
States for losses by reason of the late
military disturbances in unui, rem and
Bolivia are the subject of negotiation for
a claim in connection with Lrhiu provid
ing for their submission to arbitration. .
OUR FOREIGN RELATIONS.
The harmony of our relations with
China is fully sustained in the applica
tion of the acts lately passed to execute
the treaty of 18S0 restrictive of the
immigration of Chinese laborers into the
United States. Individual cases of hard
ship have occurred beyond the power of
the executive, to remedy and calling
or judicial determination.
xne condition oi me vuiueoc ucsuuu
in tbe western states and territories, is
far from being satisfactory. The recent
outbreak in Wyoming territory where a
number of unoffending Chinamen, indis
putably within the protection of the
treaties and the law, were murdered by
a mob; and the still more recent threat
ened outbreak of the same character in
Washington territory, are fresh in the
minds of all. There is an apprehension
lest the bitterness of feeling against the
Mongolian race on the Pacific slope may
find vent in similar lawless demonstra
tion. All the power of this government
i.
should be exerted to maintain the ut
most good faith toward China in the
treatment of these men, and the in
flexible sternness of the law in bring
ing the wrong doers to justice, should be
insisted on. Every effort has been made
by this government to prevent these
violent outbreaks, and to aid the rep
resentatives of China in their investi
gation of these outrages, and it is but
just to say they are traceable to the law
lessness of men not citizens df the
United States, engaged in competition
with Chinese laborers.
RACE PREJUDICE.
Race prejudice is the chief factor in
originating these disturbances, and it ex
ists in a largd part of our domain.
Jeopardizing our domestic peace, and the
good relationship we strive to maintain
with China.
The admitted right of a government to
prevent the influx of elements hostile to
its international peace and security may
not be questioned, even where there is no
treaty stipulation on the subject That
the exclusion of Chinese labor is de
manded in other countries where like
conditions prevail is strongly evidenced
in the dominion of Canada where Chi
nase immigration is not regulated by
Ian s more exclusive than our own.
If existing laws are inadequate to ac
complish the end in view, I shall be
prepared to give consideration to any
further remedial measures within the
treaty limits which the wisdom of con
gress may devise.
THE CONGO COUNTRY.
The independent state of the
Congo has been organized aB a
government under the sovereignty of
his majesty, the king of the Belgians,
who assumes its chief majestracy in his
personal character, only without making
the new state a dependency on Bel
gium. ,
It is fortunate that a benighted region,
owing all it has of quickening civilization
to the benificence and philanthropic
spirit of th s monarchy, shoul'd have the
advantage and security of its benevolent
supervision.
The action by the government last
year in being the first to recognize the
ikg of the International association of
the Congo, has been fbllowed by formal
recognition of the new nationality which
succeeds to its sovereign powers. A con
ference of delegations of the principal
commercial nations was held at Berlin
last winter to discuss methods whereby
the Congo basin might be kept open to the
world's trade. Delegates attended on
behalf of the United States on the
understanding that their part should be
merely deliberative without imparling
to the result, any binding character, so
far as the United StateB was concerned.
THE INTENATIONAL CONGRESS.
This reserve was due to the indisposi
tion of their government to share in any
disposal by an international congress of
jurisdictional questions in remote foreign
territories. The results of the conference
were embodied in a formal act of the
nature of an international convention,
which laid down certain obligations pur
porting to be binding on the signitories,
subject to ratification within one year.
Notwithstanding the reservation, under
which the delegates of the United States
attended, their signatures were attached
to the general act in tbe same manner
as those of the plenipotentiaries
of other governments, thus
making the United StateB appear with
out reserve or qualification as signatories
to a joint international engagement,
imposing on the signors the conserva
tion of the territorial integrity of distant
regions where we have no established
interests.
This government does not, however,
regard its reservation of liberty of action
in the promises as at all impaired, and
holding that an engagement to share in
the obligations of enforcing neutrality in
the remote valley of the Congo, would be
an alliance, the responsibility of which
we were not in a position to assume, I
abstain from asking the sanction of
the senate to the general act.
The correspondence will be laid be
fore you and the instructive and interest
ing report of the agent sent by this gov
ernment to the Congo county, and his
recommendations for the establishment
of commercial agencies on the African
coast are also submitted for your con
sideration. The commission appointed by my
predecessor, to visit the central and
South American countries and report on
the methodB of enlarging the commer
ciaKrelations of the United States,
has submitted reports which will be
laid before you.
No opportunity has been omitted
to testify the friendliness of this
government toward Corea, whose
entrance into the family of treaty pow
ers, the United States was the first to
recognize.
COREAN AFFAIRS.
I regard with favor the application
made by the Corean government, to be
allowed to employ American officers as
military instructors, to which the assent
of congress becomes necessary; and I am
happy to say that the request has the
concurrent sanction of China and Japan.
The arrest and imprisonment of Jules
R. Santos, a citizen of the United States,
by the authorities of Ecuador, gave rise
to a contention with that government, in
which his right to be released or to have
speedy and impartial trial on an
nounced charges, and with all guarantees
of defense, was stipulated by treaty.
A ter an elaborate correspondence and
repeated and earnest representations on
our part, Mr. Santos was, after an al
leged trial and conviction, eventually
included in a decree of amnesty and
pardoned by the Ecuadorian execu
tive and released, leaving the question
of his American citizenship denied, by
the Ecuadorian government, but insist
ed upon by our own.
FRENCH AND AMERICAN CLAIMANTS.
The amount adjudged by the late
French and American claimants on
account of injury suffered by them dur
ing the war of secession, having been
appropriated by the last congress, has
been duly paid to the French govern
ment. SPOILATION CLAIMS.
The act of February 25, 1885, provided
for a preliminary search of the records
of the French prize courts for evidence
bearing on the claims of American citi
zens against France for spoliation com
mitted prior to 1881. The duty has been
performed and the report will be laid
before you.
AMERICAN PORK IN EUROPE.
I regret to to say that the restrictions
upon the importation of our pork into
France, notwithstanding the abundant
demonstration of the absence of sanitary
danger in its use, are still in
force bat I entertain strong
hopes that, with a better understanding
of the matter, this vexatious prohibition
will be removed.
It would be pleasing'to be able to say as
much with respect to.Germany, Austria
and other countries "where such food
products are absolutely excluded, with
out present prospect of reasonable
change.
Tne interpretation of our existing
treaties of naturalization by Germany
during the past year has attracted atten
tion iy reason of an apparent tendency
on the part of the imperial government
to extend the scope of the residential re
strictions to which returning naturalized
citizens of German origin are asserted to
be liable under the laws of that empire.
The temperate and just attitude taken by
this government with regard to this class
of questions will doubtless lead to a sat
isfactory understanding.
THE CAROLINES DISPUTE.
The dispute of Germany and Spain
relative to the domination of the Caro
line islands, has attracted the attention
of the government by reason, of the ex
tensive interests of American citizens
that have grown up in those parts during
the past thirty years, and because the
question of ownership involves jurisdic
tion of matters affecting the status of our
citizens under the civil and criminal
law. While standing wholly aloof from
the proprietary issued raised between
the powers, to both of which the United
States is friendly, this government ex
pects that nothing in the present con
tention shall unfavorably effect our
citizens carrying on commerce, and has
informed the governments of Spain and
Germany.
GREAT BRITAIA.
The marked good will between the
United States and Great Britain has
been maintained. During the past year
the termination of the fishing clauses of
the treaty of Washington, in pursuance
of the joint resolution of March 3d, 1884,
must have resulted in the abrupt cessa
tion, on July 1st, of this year of the oper
ations of citizenB of the United States,
engaged in fishing in British American
waters, but for a diplomatic under
standing reached with her ma esty's gov
ernment in June last, whereby assurance
was obtained that the interruption of the
operations should not take place during
the current fishing season.
THE FISHERIES.
In the interest of good neighborhoods,
and of the commercial intercourse of ad
jacent communities, the question of the
North American fisheries is one of much
importance. I recommend that the con
gress proviso ior tne appointment or a
commission in which the governments of
the United States and Great Britain
shall be respectively represented
charged with the consideration and set
tlement, upon a just and equitable basis,
of the entire question of the fishing
rights of the governments and their re
spective citizens on the coasts of the
United States and British North Amer
ica. THE FISHING INTERESTS.
The fishing interests being intimately
related to other general questions de
pendent upon contiguity and inter
course, the consideration thereof in all
their equtios might also properly come
within the purview of 6uch commission,
and the latitude of expression of both
both sides should be permitted. The
correspondence in relation to the fishing
rights will be submitted,
THE STEAMER ALERT.
The Arctic exploring steamer Alert
which was so generously given by her
majesty's government to aid in the relief
of the Greely expedition, was, after the
successful attainment of that humane
purpose, returned to Great Britain, in
pursuance of the authority conferred by
the act of March 3, 1885.
EXTRADITION LAWS.
The inadequacy of the existing en-
gagements for extradition between the
United States and Great Britain, has
been long apparent. The tenth article
of the treaty of 183g, one of the earliest
compacts m this regard entered into by
the United States, stipulated for the sur
render in respect of a limited number of
offenses. Other crimes, no less mimical
to social welfare, should be embraced,
and the procedure of extradition brought
in harmony with present international
practices. Relations with her majesty's
government for an enlarged treaty of
extradition have been pending since 1870,
and I entertain strong hopes that a sat
isfactory result may be soon attained.
ALASKA AND BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The frontier line between Alaska and
British Columbia is defined by the treaty
of cession with Russia, the deuarkation
being assigned in a prior treaty between
Great Britain and Russia. Modern ex
ploration discloses that this ancient
boundary is impracticable as a geograph
ical fact. In the unsettled condition of
that region the question has lacked im
portance. The discovery of mineral
wealth in the territory, the line is sup
posed to traverse, admonishes us that
the time has come when an accurate
knowledge of the boundary is needful to
avert jurisdictional complications.
I recommend, therefore, that pro
vision be made for a preliminary recon
noisance, by the officers of the United
States, to the end of acquiring more pre
cise information on the subject. I have
invited her Majesty's government to
consider with us the adoption of a more
convenient line . to be established by
meridian observations, or by known geo
graphical features without the necessity
of an expensive survey of the whole.
THE HAYTIAN REPUBLIC.
The late insurrectionary movements in
Hayti having been quelled, the govern
ment of that republic has made prompt
provision for adjudicating the loss suf-
iered by the foreigners because of hostil
ities there; and the claims of certain citi
zens of the United States will be in this
manner determined.
The long pending claim of the two citi
zens of the United States, Pelleteo J.
Pellites and Lasare Howe, have been
disposed of by arbitration, and an award
in favor of each claimant has been made
the terms of which are final. It rem ains
for congress to provide for the payment
of the stipulated moiety of the expenses.
A question arose with Hayti during the
past year by reason of the exceptional
treatment of an American citizen, Mr.
Van Bokel, a resident of Port Au Prince,
who on suit of credence, residing in the
United States was sentenced to imprison
ment and under the operation of a Hay
tian statute denied the relief secured
to a native Haytian. This government
asserted his treaty right to equal treat
ment with the natives of Hay ti, in all suts
at law. Our protestations were denied
by the Haytian government which re
fused to set Mr. Van Bokel at liberty.
CHOLERA CONFERENCE.
An international conference to con
sider the plan of arresting the spread of
cnoiera ana otner epiaemic diseases, was
held at Rome in May last and adjourned
to meet on further notice. An expert
delegate in behalf of the United States
attended its sessions, and will submit a
report.
RELATIONS WITH MEXICO.
Our relations with Mexico con
tinue to be most cordial, as befits those
of neighbors, between whom the
strongest ties of friendship and com
mercial interests exist, natural to the
growing consequence and prospects of
our institutions.
THE MEXICAN BOUNDARY.
The location of the boundary line be
tween the United States and Mexico
eastward of the Rio Grande, under the
convention of July 29, 1882, has been
unavoidably delayed, but I apprehend
no difficulty in securing a prolongation
of the period for its accomplishment.
Thr lately concluded commercial treaty
with Mexico still awaits stipulated legis
lation to carry its provisions into effect,
for which more time- has been secured
by a supplementary article signed in
February last and since ratified on both
sides.
' RAILROAD DEVELOPMENT.
As this convention, so important to
the commfirrfal welfare of the two ad
joining countries has been constitution-
ally confirmed by the treaty making
power, I express the hope that the
5rTFwiE!S VeIe
influx of capital -and enterprise to
Mexico from the united States continues
to aid in the development of the
resources, and in. augmenting the ma
terial well being of our sister repul Ha
Lines of railroads penetrating to heart
and capital of the country bring the two
people into mutually beneficial inter
course, and enlarged facilities of transit,
and add to profitable commerce, creating
new markets and furnishing avenues to
otherwise isolated communities.
A SHIP RAILWAY ACROSS THE ISTHMUS.
I have already adverted to the sugges
tion of the construction of a ship railway
across the narrow formation of the terri
tory of Mexico at Tehuantepec. With
the gradual recovery of Peru from the
effects of ner late disastrous conflict with
Chili, and with the restoration of civil
authority in that distracted country, it is
hoped that the pending war claims of our
citizenB will be adjusted.
In conformity with the notification
given by the government of Peru, the
existing treaties ef commerce and extra
dition between the United States and
that country will terminate March 31st,
1886.
EUROPEAN AFFAIR3.
Our good relationship with Russia
continues. An officer of the navy de
tailed for the purpose, is now on his
way to Siberia, bearing the testimonials
voted by congress to those who gener-l
ousiy succored the survivors of the unfor
tunate Jeannetteexpedition.
It is gratfying to advert to the
cordialty of our intercourse with
Spain. The long pending claim
of the owners of the ship Ma
sonic, for los3 suffered through the
admitted direlection of the Spanish
authorities of tne rhillipine islands.
has been adjusted by arbitration, and an
indemnity awarded.
The principle of arbitration in such
cases to which the United States have
long and consistently adhered, thus
gives a fresh gratifying confirmation.
Other questions with Spain have been
disposed of, or are under diplomatic con
sideration with a view to a juBt and
honorable settlement.
The operation of the commercial
agreement with Spain January 2nd,
Februaiy 13, 1884, has been found inade
quate to the commercial needs of the
United States and the Spanish Antilles,
and the terms of the agreement are sub
jected to the conflicting interrogations
in those islands.
Negotiations have been instituted at
Madrid for a full treaty not open to
these objections and in the line of the
general policy touching the neighborly
intercourse to which I else
where advert, and aiming more
over at the removal of existing bur
dens and annoying restrictions; and al
though a satifactory termination is
pronrsed, I am compelled to make to
day's announcement.
COPYRIGHT LAWS.
An International copyright conference
was held at Berne in September, on the
invitation of the Swiss government. The
envoy ot the unuad states attended as
a delegate, but refrained from commit-
ting the government to the result even
by signing the recommendatory protocol
adopted.
The interesting and important subject
of international copyright has been be
fore you for several year?. Action is
certainly desirable to effect the object in
view, and while there may be questions
as to the relative advantage of treating
it by legislation, or by specific treaty,
the matured views of the Berne confer
ence cannot fail to aid your considera
tion of the subject.
THE TURKISH TREATY.
The termination of the commercial
treaty of 1S62 betweenthe United States
and Turkey, has been sought by that
government. While there is a question
as to the sufficiency of the notice given,
yet as the commercial rights of our citi
zens in Turkey come under the favored
national guarantees of the prior treaty
of 1830, and as equal treatment is ad
mitted by the porte, no inconvenience
can result from the assent of this gov
ernment to the revision of the Ottoman
tariffs, in which the treaty powers have
been invited to join.
Questions concerning our citizens in
Turkey may be affected by the partes
non acquiescence in the right of expatria
tion, and by the impositi m of religious
tests, as a condition of residence, in
which this government concurs. The
United States must hold in their inter
course with every power, that the status
of their citizens is to be respected and
have equal civil privileges accorded
to them, without regard to creed, and
affected by no considerations save those
growing out of domicilary return to the
land of original allegiance, or of unfilled
personal obligation which may survive
under municipal laws, after such volun
tary return.
VENEZUELA MATTERS.
The negotiations with Venezuela in
relation to the sharing of the awards of
the mixed commission, constituted under
the treaty of 1866, was resumed, in view
of the recent acquiescence of the Vene
zuelan envoy in the principal point ad
vanced by' this government that the
effects of the old treaty should only be
set aside by the operation of a new con
vention. A result in substantial accord
with the advisory suggestions contained
in the joint rosolution of March 3, 1883,
has been agreed upon, and will shortly
be submitted to the senate for ratifica
tion.
Under section 3,659 of the revised
statutes, all funds held in trust by the
United States and the annual interest
accruing thereon, when not otherwise
required by treaty, are to be invested in
stocks of the United States bearing an
interest of not less than five per cent per
annum. There being now no procurable
stocks paying so high a rate of interest,
the letter of the statute is at present not
only inapplicable, but its spirit is sub
served by continuing to make invest
ments of this nature in current stocks
bearing the highest interest now paid.
The statutes, however, make no provi
sionfor the disposal of such accretion it
being contrary to the general rule of this
government to allow interest on claims.
I recommend the repeal of the provision
question and the disposition under a uni
form rule of the present accumulations
from investment of the trust fund.
CITIZENSHIP AND NATURALIZATION.
The inadequacy of existing legislation
touching citizenship and naturalization
demands your consideration. While recog
nizing the right of expatriation, no
statuary provisions exist providing means
for enforcing citizenship by an American
citizen native born or naturalized, or for
terminating an improper acquisition of
citizenship. Even a fraudulent decree of
naturalization cannot now be cancelled
The privilege and franchise of Ameri
can citizenship should be granted with
care, and extended to those only who in
tend in good faith to assume its duties
and reeponfibitiea when attaining its
privileges and benefits. It should be
withheld from those who merely go
through the forms of naturalization with
the intention of escaping the duties of
ineir original aueguuiu;, iuiu irnuuui
taking upon themselves those of their
new state or who may acquire the rights
of American citizenship for no other
than a special purpose toward their ori
ginal government. These evils nave
had many flagrant illustrations.
naturalization laws.
t regard with favor, the Buwestion nut
rth by one of my predece.eors that
provision should be made for a central
bureau ot record of tn decrees of natur
alization granted by the various courts
throughout the United States now in
vested with that power. The rights
which spring from those domiciled in
the United States, especially when
coupled with a declaration of intention
to become citizens, are worthy of defin
ition by statute. ,
The stranger coming hither With the
intent to remain, establishing his resi
dence in our midst, contributing to the
general welfare, and by his voluntary
act declaring his purpose to assume the
responsibilities of citizenship, thereby
gains a status which legislation may
properly define.
RIGHTS OF ALIEN8.
The laws of certain states and terri
tories admit a domiciled alien to the
local franchise, conferring on him the
rights of citizenship to a degree which
places him in the anomalous position of
being a citizen of a state, and yet not of
the United States, within the purview
of federal and international law. It iB
important within the scope of national
legislation to define the right of alien
domicile as distinguished from federal
naturalization.
OUR COMMERCIAL RELATIONS.
The commercial relations of the United
States with their immediate neighbors
in, and with important areas of traffic
near our shores, suggest an especially
liberal intercourse between them and
the United States. Following the treaty
of 1883 with Mexico, which rested on
the basis of a reciprocal exemption from
custom duties, other similar treaties
were initiated by mv predecessor. Re
cognizing the need of a less obstructed
traffic with Cuba and Porto Rica, and
met by the desire of Spain to succor
languishing interests in the Antilles,
steps were taken to attain those ends by
a treaty of commerce.
A similar treaty was afterwards signed
by the Dominion republic. Subsequent
ly overtures were made by her Bntanic
majesty's government for a like mutual
extension of commercial intercourse,
which the British, West Indian and
South American dependencies, but
without result.
THE SPANISH TREATY.
On taking my office I withdrew for re
examination the treaties signed with
Spain and San Domingo, then pending
before the senate. The result has teen
to satisfy me of the inexpediency of en
tering into engagements of this charac
ter not covering the entire traffic.
THE FAVORED NATION CLAU3E.
The treaties contemplated the surren
der by the United States of large rev
nues for inadequate considerations. Upon
sugar alone, .duties were surrendered to
an amount far exceeding all advantages
offered in exchange. While this was in
tended to relieve our consumers, it is
evident that so long as exemption but
partially covered our inportation, such
relief would be illusory. To relinquish
a revenue so essential, seemed highly
improvident at a time when new and
large drains upon the treasury were con
templated. Moreover, embarrassing
questions would have arisen under the
favored nation clauses of treaties with
other nations.
As a further objection, it is evident
that tariff regulation by treaty dimin
ishes the independent control over its
own revenues, which is essential for the
safety and welfare of any government
The emergency calling for an increase of
taxation may any timS arise, and no en
gagement with a foreign power should
exist to hamper the action of thegovern
ment. By the fourteenth section of the
shipping act,approved June26th,1884,cer
tain reductions and contingent exemp
tions from tonnage dueB were made as
to vessels entering ports of the United
States from any foreign port in North and
South America.
The West India Islands, the Bahamas,
the' Bermudas, Mexico, the Isthmus, as
far as Aspinwall and Panama, Germany,
Portugal, Sweden and Norway, have as
serted, under the favored nation clause
in their treaties with the United States,
a claim to like treatment in respect to
vessels coming to the United States from
their home ports. This government,
however, holds that the privileges grant
ed by the act are purely geographical
enuring to any vessel of any
foreign powers tnat may choose to en
gage in traffic between this country and
any parts between the defined regions
and no warrants exist, under the most
favored netion clause, for the extension
of the privilege to vessels sailing to
this country from parts outside the limi
tation of the act. Undoubtedly the re
lations of commerce with our near
neighbors, whose territories form so
long a frontier line, difficult to be
guarded, and who find in our country,
and-equally offer to us, natural markets,
demand special and considerate treat
ment It rests with congress to consider
what legislative action may inciease the
facilities of intercourse which contigency
makes natural and desirable.
CONSULAR SALARIES.
I earnestly urge that congress recast
the appropriations for the maintainance
of the diplomatic and consular service on
a footing commensurate with the import
ance of our national interests. At every
post where a representative is necessary,
the salary should be so graded as to per
mit him to live with comfort With the
assignment of adequate s.laries, the
socal.ed notarial extra fees, which our
officers abroad are now permitted to
treat as pereonal perquisites should be
done away with.
Every act requiring the Jcertificate
and Beal of the officers should be taxable
at schedule rates, and the fee therefor
returned to the treasury by restoring
these revenues to the public use. The
conBulas service would be self-supporting,
even with a liberal increase of the
present low salaries, and in further pre
vention of abuses a system of consular
inspection should be instituted. The
appointment of a limited number of sec
retaries, of legation at large to be assign
ed to duty wherever necessary, and in
particular for temporary service at mis
sions which, for any cause, may be with
out a head, should also be authorized.
I favor also the authorization for the
deiail.of officers of the regular service as
military or naval attacbes at legations.
Some foreign governments do not recog
nise the union of consular with diplo
matic functions. Italy and Venezuela
will only receive the appointee in one of
his two capacities, but this does not pre
vent the requirement, the submission to
the responsibilities of an omcer whose
duties he cannot discharge. The super
added title of consul general should be
abandoned at all missions.
I deem it expedient that a well de
vised measure for the .re-organization of
the extra territorial courtB in oriental
countries, should replace the present
system, which labors under the disad
vantage of combining judicial and exe
cutive functions in tbe same office. In
several oriental countries, generous
offers have been made of premises for
housing the legations of the United
States. A grant of land for that purpose
was made some years since by Japan,
and has been referred to in the anneal
messages of my predecessois. The
Siamese government has made a gift to
the United States of commodious quar
ters in Bangkok.
The late minister to Corea was per
mitted to purchase a building for legation
I we. In China the premises rented for
the legation are savored to locality.
At Tangier the house occupied by ow
representative has been for many yean
the property of this government, haying
ueeu gives ior mat purpose in lozis by
tbe sultan of Morocco. I approve the
sugsrestion heretofore made that in view
of the conditions of life and administra
tion in the eastern countries, the legaflon.
buildings in China, Japan, Cores, Siam'
and perhaps Persia, should be owned
and furnished by the government with a
view to permanency.
To this end I recommend that auth
ority be given to accept the gifts advert
ed to in Japan and Siam, and to pur
chase in the other countries with pro
vision for furniture and repairs. A con
siderable saving in rentals would result
WORLD'S EXPOSITION.
The world's industrialjexposition, held
at New Orleans last winter, with the
assistance of the federal government,
attracted a large number of foreign ex
hibits, and proved of great value, spread
ing among the concourse of visitors from
Mexico and Central and South America,
a wider knowledge of the. various man
ufacturers and productions of this coun
try and their availability in exchange
for the productions of these regions.
FOREIGN ART.
Past congresses have had under con
sideration the advisability of abolishing
the discrimination made by the tarhf
laws in favor of the works of American
artists. The odium of the policy which
subjects to a high rate of duty the paint'
ings of foreign artists, obstructs the pro
duction of American artists residing
abroad, who receive gratuitously advan
tages and instruction, is visited upon our
citizens engaged in art culture in Europe,
and has caused them with practical una
nimity to favor the abolition of such
ungracious distinctions and in their in
terest, and for other obvious reasons I
strongly recommend itj
FINANCIAL.
The report of the secretary of the
treasury fully exhibits the condition of
the public finances, and of the several
branches of government connected with
his department The suggestions of the
secretary, relating to the practical oper
ation of these important departments,
and his recommendations in the direc
tion of simplification and economy, par
ticularly in the wort of collecting cus
toms duties so earnestly urged upon the
attention of oongress.
The ordinary receipts from all sources
for the fiscal year ended June 30th, 1885,
were 322,690,706 38; of this sum $181,
471.939 34 was received from customs, and
$112,498,725 54 from international reve
nue. The total receipts as given above
were $24,829,163 54 less than those for
diminution embraces a falling off of
the year ending June 30th, 18S4. This
$13,595,550 42 in the receipts from cus
toms and $9,687,246.97 in' the receipts
from internal revenue.
The total ordinary expenditures of the
government for the fiscal year were
$260,226,935.50 leaving a surplus in the
treasury at the close of the year of
$43,463,771. The exdenditures are
classified as follows: For civil expenses,
$23,826 942.11; for foreign intercourse,
$5,439,609.11; for Indians, $fr,552,404.63;
for pensons, $56,102,267.49; for the mili
tary, including river and harbor im
provements and arsenals, $42,609,578.47;
for the navy, including vessels, machin
ery and improvements of navy yards,
$16,021,079 69; for interest on the public
debt, $51,386,356 47; for the District of
Columbia, $3,499,650 95; for miscellaneous
expenditures, including public buildings,
light houses and collecting revenue,
$5,428,054.21.
PUBLIC DEBT
Th6 amount paid on the public debt
during the fiscal year ended June 30th,
1885, was $1,559,932,380, and there "has
been paid since up to November 1st,
1885, the sum of $33,698,280, leaving the
amount of debt at the last named date,
$114,475,860.47. There was, however, at
that time in the treasury, applicable to
general purposes of the government, the
sum of $66,818,292.38.
The total receipts for the current fis
cal year ending June 30th, 1886, ascer
tained to October 1st, 1885, and estimat
ed for the remainder of tbe year are
$315,000,000; the expenditures ascer
tained and estimated for the same time
are $245,000,000, leaving a surplus at the
close of the year estimated at $70,000,000.
OUR EXPORTS.
The value of exports from the United
States to foreign countries during the last
fiscal year, was as follows :
Domestic mdse. ...... . $726,682,9 J6 00
Foreign mdse . . . 15,506 80S 00
Gold ... 8.477,892 00
Silver - 3,753,633 00
Total .'. 3781,42180 00
Some of the principal exports, with
their values and the percentage they
respectively bear to the total exporta
tion are given as loiiows :
Articles Value
Coiton & Cotton Man'frB..$213 799,019
Breadstu6..... 160.370 820
Provisions - . 107,332.156
Oils, mineral, vegetable
End animal 54,326 202
Tobacco and it man'fira... 21.767,305
Wood and Its man'frs . 21461,322
Percent
29 42
22.07
14.77
7.48
3.41
2J5
Our irr parts during the year were as
follows:
Merchandise......... .............
Gold
S57980,053.EO
-.6,691,896 00
16,550,667.00
Total...-.-........... - 626,82i,d76.80
The following are given as prominent
articles of imports during the year with
their values and tne percentages tney
bear to the total importations.
Article. Value. Fer'eat
Snzar and molasses...... -876 738,711 13.29
Coffee 46.723,3 1
8X9
Wool and ltsminuiiciures.- 4i,bOi,i-
7.73
649
Silks and manufactures... 40,393,002
Chemicals, dyes, drugs ana
medicines . . . 35,070,826 8.07
Iron and steel and man left's 31,6',689 698
Flax.hemp, Jute and m'l'r's 32,854.879 6.69 .
Coiton and 1 s manufactures- 28,12 001 4.88
Hides and skins, otner than
forskins - 20,586,443. 3.6
Of the entire amount of duties collect
ed 70 per cent, was collected from the
following articles of import:
Sugar and molasses, 29; wool and its
manufactures, 15; eilks and its manufact
ures, 8; iron and steel, and their manu
factures, 7; cotton manufactures 6; flax,
hemp an J jute, and their manufactures, 5
REDUCTION OF REVENUE.
The fact that our revenues are in excess
of the actual needs of an economical ad
ministration of the government, justifies
a reduction iB the amount exacted from
the people for its support. Our govern
ment is but the means established by the
will of a free people, by which certain
principles are applied which they have
adopted for their benefit and protection:
and it is never better admioistered, and
its true spirit is never becter observed,
than when the people's taxation for its
support is scrupulously limited to the
actual necessary of expenditure, and dis
tributed according to a just and equitable
plan.
The proposition with which we nave
to deal is the reduction of the revenue
received by the government, and indi
rectly paid5 the people from custom
duties. Tbe question of free trade is not
involved, nor is there now any occasion
for the general discu3sion of the wisdom
or expediency of a protective system.
Justice and fairness dictate that in mod
ification of our present laws relating to
revende, the industries and interests
which have been encouraged by such
laws.and in which our citiaens have large
investments, should not be ruthleealy
injnred or destroyed.
We should also deal with the subject
in euch a manner as to protect the inter
ests of American labor which fr ;
talof ourworkingmen. Ite stability sad
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