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STOCK FARMING THE BASIS OF OUR INDUSTRIES. Givler db Crooluo, 3Pxorxro. SEVENTEENTH YEAE. WA-ltEENEY. KANSAS, SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 28, 1895. NUMBER 33. IT WorfdL A. i -A '.' f - f u SALMON PROPAGATION. It Is Eamo3tly Recommondcd by Compotent Authorities. Unless Something Is Done to Perpetuate the Salmon Family It Will Uecoiae Estlnct Like tho IJuffalo of the Plains. Special Washington Letter. Hon. Marshall McDonald, the late commissioner of fish and fisheries, was anxious to have national parks or reservations established for the propagation of salmon, and to pre vent the extermination of that pop ular family of fish. In the recently issued bulletin of the work of the commission in 1S92, particular at tention is paid to this subject. It is stated that not only is every contriv ance employed that human ingenuity can devise to destroy the salmon of our west-coast rivers, but more surely de structive, more fatal than ail, is the WHERE SALMON ABOUND. -slow but inexorable march of those de stroying agencies of human progress, before which the salmon must surely disappear, as did the buffalo of the plains and the Indian of California. 'The helpless salmon's life is gripped between these two forces, the murder ous greed of the fishermen and the -white man's advancing civilization, and what hope is there for the salmon in the end? Protective laws and artificial breeding are able to hold the first in -check, but nothing can stop the last." This statement is supplemented by "the inquiry: "What was it that de stroyed the salmon of the Hudson, the Connecticut, the Merrimac, and the various smaller rivers of New England, "where they used to be exceedingly abundant?" It was not overfishing that did it. If the excessive fishing had "been all there was to contend with, a few simple laws would have been suf ficient to preserve some remnants at least of the race. It was not the fishing, it was the growth of the country, as it is com monly called, the increase of the popu lation, necessarily bringing with it the development of the various industries by which communities live and become prosperous. It was the mills, the dams, the steamboats, the manufactures in jurious to the water, and similar causes which, first making the streams more and more uninhabitable for the salmon, finally exterminated them altogether. .In short, it was the growth of the coun try and not the fishing which really set a bound to the habitations of the salm on on the Atlantic coast. Dr. Livingstone Stone, an eminent scientist interested in the preservation of the salmon fisheries, says: "Who would have , thought thirty years ago that the creation of a national park in "this country would be the means of rescuing the buffalo from extinction? Who thought then that anything1 was needed to rescue , the buffalo? The buffalo roamed in myriads over the plains and mountain slopes of the -central portions of the United States -and were so innumerable that, with the exception of a few far-sighted persons, no one thought that this noble race of animals was ever in danger. The sup ply seemed inexhaustible and the species at least safe fron: extinction. "How soon we found out our mistake cand how suddenly the change came. The note of alarm had hardly been -Bounded long enough to be distinctly -comprehended over the country before the buffaloes were gone all gone prac tically, except few straggling surviv ors which, if they had not found refuge "in Yellowstone park, would have been -fone too, long before this. The Yel lowstone National park saved them. It aved the .wild race from extinction, -and, if nothing else should ever bo ac complished by the creation of the park, this alone would justify its existence." All the rivers within the jurisdiction of the United States have been investi gated by the fish commission, and none -of them are free from objections which .make salmon propagation impossible. Where to locate a salmon park has been a problem Which has vexed the -commission for a number of vears. A place has been at last discovered for a salmon hatchery; a river which can be made an asylum of refuge, and the fish commission believes that it should be act aside as an eternal heritage for the Salmon. Dr. Stone regards it as fortu nate or our country that there is in our Alaan possessions just such a' place as is wanted probably more than one and so exceptionally fortunate is America in this respect that it is not likely that, this side of the frozen and I ' uninhabitable shores of the Arctic, it can be duplicated in the possessions of all the nations of the earth combined, which significant circumstance goes to show how near the world has reached the extreme limit of its salmon supply, The locality referrea to is an island in the North Pacific about 750 miles nearly due west of Sitka. Its name is Afognak, and it is the northernmost of me two largest isianas oi tne group called the Kadiak islands. It lies just north of latitude 5S and between 152 and 153 west longitude. It is a small island, probably not more than fifty miles across at its widest part, but there are several streams flowing from various points of the island to the sur rounding ocean that at the proper sea son contain salmon innumerable. It is no exaggeration to say that salmon swarm up these streams in countless myriaas. "in iesy tne salmon were so thick in the streams that it was abso lutely necessary, in fording them, to kick the salmon out of the way to avoid stumbling over them." This story illustrates as well as any thing the wonderful abundance of salmon in the Afognak streams; and it can be easily believed when it is re membered that about a month earlier 153,000 salmon were caught in one day at the mouth of the Karluk, which is a river only sixty feet wide where it empties into the ocean. The salmon are there in as great numbers as could be wished. All the varieties also which inhabit the Pacific ocean come to Afognak. The list is a royal cata logue: The red salmon, the "blue back" of the Columbia; the king salmon, the "quinnat" or "spring salmon" of the Columbia; the silver salmon, the "silversides" of the Colum bia; the humpback salmon, the dog salmon, the steelhead, the "square tailed" trout of the tributaries of the Columbia, and the "dolly varden.'1 What a paradise for salmon this island is, and what a magnificent place of safety it would be if it were set aside for a national park, where the salmon could always hereafter be unmolested! Tho island is inhabitable all the year round; with a comparatively even tern perature, although so far north, the winter's cold is not excessive, probably not equaling that of parts of New England. It is colder than New Eng land in summer, but there is much less variation of tempera' ture between summer and winter, The island will never be wanted for anything else, and it is inhabited only by a few Aleuts. Artificial hatching can be instituted there at any time and on a large scale. Thus, all of the streams of the continent can bo re- peopled with these beautiful and de sirable inhabitants at small expense to the government. In presenting his argument for the establishment of a national salmon park, the fish commissioner makes lib eral quotations from the opinions of ex perts who have studied the question, and his efforts will undoubtedly have an effect upon the minds of our na tional legislators. Certainly every man who loves the sport, and everyone who realizes the importance of maintaining our supply of fish food of the best qual ity, will concede the forcefulness of the plea which has been officially made. The wonderful abundance of salmon in the waters of Alaska has been known SOME FIXE SPECIMENS. for years to those who have had oppor tunity for investigation, but that re gion of our country is so remote and inac cessible to the general public that until the fish commissioner gave publication of the facts it was impossible for every- one to know all of the truth and all of the possibilities which may result from prudent and economic development of those resources. Statistics show that 350,000 oases, representing over 4,000, 000 salmon, were taken from one in significant rivulet which runs into the Karluk river of Alaska during one sea son. The entire product of the sea son of 18S9 remounted to approximately 4,000,000. Surely that is an industry worthy rather of development than of neglect. The product of the canneries there for 1SS0 exceeded $7,500,000. The catch is accomplished by gill nets, traps and seines, but the greatest catch is made by haul seines which sweep the estuaries of the small rivers. Seine follows seine in rapid succession in the proper season, and the catch is almost complete in every case. These important fisheries will be impover ished within a few years, unless the suggestions of the fish commissioner meet with prompt approval and con gressional action. Sjiitii D. Fby. The Sew Woman Standard. Old Man: Women don't amount to muc-h. ' New Woman They amount to as much as men, I guess. Old Man Well, that isn't very much is it? Detroit Freo Press, r Tti HUMP&AC ifttMOH Ol. VALUE OF ANTITOXIN. Soma Theories of Natural Artificial Immunity. and rtphtherla Antitoxin, Introduced Into This Country In December, 1894, Has . Reduced the Mortality Record from Eljjhty to Fourteen Per Cent. Special Chicago Letter. They say that the horseless age is coming. But the horse is with us to stay. While electricity is taking its place as a motor agent, a new field of usefulness is opening for it it supplies us with antitoxin. It is an unexplored field of inves tigation upon which we are enter ing, for antitoxin, the product of the blood of the horse, has been with us scarcely a year. It was introduced into this country last December, and re searches and experiments had begun in European hospitals only eleven months DIPHTHERIA GERM, HIGHLY MAGNIFIED. before that time. Within this short period reliable records of cures in diphtheria and tetanuss (commonly known as lockjaw) had been collected. The antitoxin had been obtained, its value had been practically demon strated, but the principle involved re mains a mystery to all. That some great, far-reaching principle is coming to light, that a new system of fighting disease, based on this principle, will be evolved that is admitted by all who have studied the subject. The eyes of searching investigators and profound thinkers are gleaming with the hope of evolving this new system in time to add the discovery to that unrivaled galaxy ol achievements which illumin ates nineteenth century progress. " What is antitoxin? Antitoxin is anti-poison, an antidote for poison. As we use the word, it means a substance developed in animal blood to neutralize the effect of toxins (poisons) of disease. How is it obtained? From the blood of immunized animals. And here we must explain the nature of immunity. All animal blood has been shown to possess to a greater or lesser degree of bactericide properties. When an ani mal becomes infected with a disease a combat fakes place, according to well substantiated authorities, between the germs of the disease and a mysterious something in the blood. This bacteri cide property varies in power and qual ity in different species. Thus the blood of man olfers complete resistance to germs of pigeon cholera, that of the dog against anthrax, of the chicken against tetanus, and so on. These ani mals are said to be immune against such diseases. The important point is that the im munity against certain diseases may be increased. This may be done in one of two ways (1) by infection, or (2) by intoxication, i. e., inoculation of the dis ease. Every child knows that when it has once had a disease the chances are that it will not catch the same disease a second time. It Jias been rendered im mune against that disease. A mysteri ous process of chemistry has taken place in the child's body, protecting it, perhaps for lifetime, perhaps for a lim ited period, against the germs of the disease. The same process may be developed artificially. Inoculate the disease in mild form, and the danger of succumb ing to a serious attack will be minim ized. This is the principle of vaccina tion. From vaccination to the usa of anti toxin is but one step. Scientists had DRAWING BLOOD FROM IMMCXI2EDH0RSE. learned that an antidote to germ diseasea could be formed by inoculating the disease. Why not obtain this anti toxin from an immunized animal and inject it into the blood of the patient? Investigators, set about manufacturing the mysterious antidote in a systematic manner. " - Diphtheria, the germ of which was discovered in 1SS4, was chosen as the principal subject of experiment. They croceed as follows; XT'' Vn X ' 4s? V 1 " - lO'ti. '" v u ... r s vMr 'tips 1 r With a cotton wad a few of the germs are brushed from the tonsils of a human patient, The wad is then drawn over a mass of blood serum inclosed in a dish and the germs transferred thereon. Hero they have good opportunity to feed and multiply. In twenty-four hours each germ has grown into an isolated colony of germs, called a cul ture. The cultures are examined un der a microscope, and those of diph theria planted again in a sealed test tuoe containing beef broth. They are placed in an incubator at blood tem perature, and at the end of three or four weeks are ready for use. The cul ture boullon is then filtered and the filtrate contains the diphtheria toxin. If the toxin is found to be of sufficient strength, that is if .1 c.c of it will kill a guinea pig weighing 500 grains in forty -eight hours, .5 c.c. of the toxin is injected into the shoulder of a young and absolutely healthy horse. This will cause a reaction, and diphtheria antitoxin will form in the blood. The next time about .1 c.c. will be injected, and a correspondingly larger amount of antitoxin will form. Doses of toxin are. constantly increased until the horse can bear without serious symptoms the enormous amount of .300 c.c of toxin per injection. Some of the blood of the horse is then drawn of? and put on ice for a few days to allow it to coagulate. The blood serum, i.e., the water with albuminous and saline matter in so lution, possesses the anti-toxin proper ties and is taken off with a pipette. Its strength is tested by inoculation on diseased guinea pigs, and if one grain of the serum will neutralize one grain of the toxin, it is ready for use. The forearm of the human patient suffering with diphtheria is given a hypodermic injection of the antitoxin. If the disease is in the incipient state one injection will generally suffice, otherwise doses must be repeated several times. Wrhen the experiments were first be gun, a number of different animals were used as mediums for the pro duction of antitoxin. . It was soon found however, that it is not the actual immunity of an animal which would be of any value when transferred to a diseased individual, but the amount of acquired immunity. For this reason, the horse was se lected as the most appropriate for the production of tetanus and diphtheria antitoxin. It is remarkably suscepti ble to these diseases, but shows great power of reaction, and can develop enormous quantities of antitoxin. The tetanus, diphtheria and other antitoxins have been in use only a very few years, in our country but a few months, and then hardly ever outside of the hospitals. The evidence then collected is most astonishing. Dr. G. Futterer, in a lecture at the Chicago polyclinic in February last, cites tho following statistics of antitoxin treat ment for diphtheria: Ko of Per Patients. Vied. Cent. Vienna 227 54 22 SO Austria 481 72 14 90 Hungary 35 5 14 30 Berlin 1.1C0 ICS 17 40 Germany 24-J 3G 14 8) Italy S8 13 14 40 France 4ia 64 IS 0) Holland 14 1 7 00 England 1,U0 78 3 00 Total 3.830 CIS 13 40 Kmce February the death rate has sunk to 14 per cent. Indeed a wonder ful showing when we consider that the death rate in cases of actual diphtheria is over SO per cent., when no antitoxin is used. And it is not only as a curative,but also as a preventive, that the great remedy may be used. Reliable cases, sufficient in number to leave no room for doubt have been reported of children who had been rendered temporarily immune by a single injection of antitoxin while in the midst of a household where diphtheria Was rcging. " By experi menting on guinea pigs it was shown that a dose of antitoxin injected be fore infection requires only 1-100. sometimes 1-1000, of the strength needed when the same amount of toxin had found its way into the pig's system twenty-four hours before the antidote was injected. In its effect antitoxin is absolutely harmless. It sometimes produces skin eruptions, weakness and other slight symptoms in human patients, but .the medicine is not considered a poison, and it cannot be in any way dangerous to the sick or the healthy. Not the slightest fear need be entertained in that regard. WThat is true of diphtheria and tetanus we may infer to 'hold good in all gem diseases. We know that the principles of partial and total immunity evince themselves throughout the ani mal kingdom; we are almost positive that this partial immunity may always be increased by infection of a disease, and we may judge by analogy that if some animal can produce properties in the blood, antitoxic to certain diseases, other animals can be found whose blood will yield the same medicine againr.t other diseases. We believe, further, that at least all infectious diseases are germ diseases (for how else could they be infectious?), and we may justly in fer that in a very few years a great, complex system of new remedies will come into use, and as fire drives out fire, the disease itself shall produce within the animal body the antidote against its virulence. We are on the eve of a great awakening in medical science. E. T. GtrsrpLACB. The Retort Courteous. Jack Howdy,, Tom! Shaving, eh? Kello cut yourself? ' Tom Oh, no. I'm merely sweating blood. Chicago Times-IIerald. j ...mii 4H Jil Wm WW m f ,8 1 ta f ' t - I K: flfc u.imm 1 a .v' HOW HE CAUGHT THE BANKER'S DAUGHTER. I must sneeze whenever I look at you, Miss Grace." But why, captain ?" "Because everybody must sneeze when looking at the sun." Fllegendof Blaetter. Placing Him. She turned upon him imperiously: "WThat have you to say for your self?" The dude cowered before her, abashed, and then passed through the door without a word. She shook her head sadly. "Once more is the old saying verified: 'It goes without saj'ing!'" She gently locked the door behind him. Truth. . SHE GOT IT STRAIGHT. No. One There, I have written the ad. Shall I read it? No. Two Cert. No. One Wanted Two valettes for bachelor girls; must know how to curl hair and ride a bicycle. Brooklyn Life. Feminine Logic. Madame comes home from the theater and finds Minna, the servant, sitting in the kitchen reading a book by the light of two candles. She is very natur ally annoyed at the girl's extravagance. "Why, Minna, actually reading novels with two candles burning?" "Not at all, ma'am," was the cool re ply; "that's only one candle! I just cut it in two half an hour ago." Once a Week. On the Test. Millie If you were in love with two men, and didn't know which one to choose, what would you do? Tillie Put them to test. Millie A duel? Tillio Nothing so absurd. Walk them both by an ice-cream parlor, and see which one turns palest. Toledo Blade. Twofers. "Ilavc a cigar," said Flowers, as Har greaves came into the office. "Wilson was passing them around. He has a new baby at his house." Ilargreaves took one, tried it for three puffs and dropped it on the floor. "Ah! About his fourth baby, I shc.uld judge," was ail he said. Cincinnati En quirer. II ER RESENTMENT. f'l Pat (after the engagement) Oi'm ohure me darlint wor nivcr kissed be foor. Miss O'Flaherty Ycz haythen Choi nay! do yez think Oi'm thot hideous tho no other mon has iver showed me auny attintion but yez ugly silf? Judge. Nolle Prow, cmea tfcey took him to the Justice Ee was very. Yer7 drunk; But they told nii he was f rso To continue on his spree. When he said his wife's mamma Bad arrived an4 brougr 1 her trunk. N. Y. World. i t ski?" A Horse on Kins: Solomon. One day Solomon and a fool wer"r. walking together. "Solomon," said the fool, "why Is it! that you never talk?" ' "Fool," said Solomon, "that I mayi listen to other people's wisdom." And then after a pause: "But why is it that you always talk?" i "That other people, I suppose, quoth the fool, "may listen to my wis dom." Wrhereat Solomon held his tongna and went home thoughtfully. Truth.; Why the Sermon Was Short. "You must have had an awful long sermon. You are half an hour later than usual," said Col. Yerger to hls wife, who had just returned from, church. "Why, I thought the sermon was very short," replied Mrs. Yerger. "Did you have your new hat on for the first time?" "Yes, dear." "Ah, that explains it. No sermon is long to a woman under those circum stances." Texas Sif tings. Sad Indeed. Visitor What are jtou crying about,, my little man? Little Willie All my brothers hea had a vacation, and I hain't got none. Visitor Why that's too bad. How is that? Willie (between sobs) I don't go to school yet. Life. A DIFFERENCE IN THE MORNING. tFlo I really believe that Mrs. Suni4 years gets younger every day. Maud No; only every evening. Sketch. For Many Years. Mr. Kidder (exasperated) Look at that child! smearing itself and spilling the coffee. I tellypu, I wasn't allowed at tho table until I had learned goocl manners. Mrs. Kidder (sweetly) Dear me, did; you never with anybody but the eat servants? N. Y. W'orld. The Usual Grounds. Mrs. Gasseppi Yes, Mrs. Larkspur la going to get a divorce from her hus band. Mrs. Murdstone Indeed, and upon what ground? Mrs. Gasseppi Dakota. N. Y. Re corder. Ills Cooffictal Visits. "How many times did Dr. Callerm come to see you?" "While I was sick?" "Yes." "Six Times. lie's been here twenty times since to collect the bill." Chica go Record. Her Falling:. Mrs. Crimsonbeak Why is it, I won der, that a woman will always turn to the end of a novel and read the last page before reading any other part of it? Mr. Crimsonbeak Her propensity to get the last word, I suppose, leads her to do it. Yonkers Statesman. Those Gentle Creatures. Miss Oldum (playfuily) I'm oldes than you think I am. Miss Cuustique I doubt it. Chica Record.