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"THE FARMING WORLD.
THE BUTTER BACILLUS. "Creat Discovery Made by Prof. Conn, of Wesleyan University. To the uninitiated and non-scientific mind it must be a strancre and anoma- lous perhaps an unsavory and forbid- ding1 thing that the flavor and frag : ranee of butter can be increased by the deliberate addition to the cream from which it is made of one of the : minute organisms known as bacilli: iMuch is heard nowadays of germs, and the germ theory has wide vogue. It is i generally supposed, however, that the . fewer germs the human body is brought ilnto contact with the better. At the same time, it is true that the malign "bacteria are few in number compared with those that are either harmless or lielpful. Anyone with the slightest knowledge of the subject is aware that the sparkling quality of water is large ly due to the presence in it of an im mense number of infusoria; and very little research will show that bacteria abound in milk to such an extent that to count the number in a single glass - would be an impossibility. It was in pursuance of his studies f the bacteriology of milk that Prof. il. W. Conn, of Wesley an university, "BACILLUS 41, MAGNIFIED ABOUT 1,000 DIAMKTERS. Each dot represents a single individual. made the discovery of a bacillus which lias so remarkable an effect that but ter made from cream inoculated with :it is of a superior quality and com mands a higher price in the market. .Experiments proved beyond question the efficacy of "B. 41," and practical results have been attained in a consid erable number of creameries in which this "culture" is regularly used. 'It is . an interesting story, whether regarded from the scientific or the popular point -of view. The lucky accident by which a package of sterilized milk shipped from Uruguay to Chicago was found to contain what Prof. Conn had been looking for for years is almost suggest ive of the Arabian Nights tales, and .shows that modern science is far from Jacking in the mysterious and fasci nating. The watchword of science is verifica tion, and in this case it was pursued unflinchingly for months, until the re ; suits followed the application with . such uniformity and regularity that it 1 A G J 4.1 1. J 1 J Al 1 XT tuum cuuuueuuj uts ueciareu mat me point of demonstration had been reached. It is not strange that when the discovery was first made public it : j j i vcxo icteiveu as tue vagary oi a cranK, and dismissed with humor and sarcasm; soor is it surprising that the people en- ,..-. .- A J 1.. 1 : l l :i . tZa.ZK;K XLX ULlLLtTI -IlllUllIW fill L -ftvith doubt and distrust. The dis--coverer, however, was sure of his ground, and a brief course of experi mentation was usually sufficient to convince the skeptical that there was . something practical in it. In scores of 'Creameries "B. 41" is now regularly used, and a new industry has sprung ip in we will not say the manufac ture, but the production of the "cul tture" of the bacillus which chances to "bear this number. What it will ac complish is now a matter of full demon etration; but it does not follow that ai; i a i. i i , UUIU LV'UUtl. LUCl-jr UV U W AUUUU among the myriads of bacteria that swarm in every cubic inch of milk and cream. " Culture butter " commands . iue xiijfiiesfc liiiii iieii piuue, auu win, oi course, be much in request as soon as its virtues become generally known. JN. Y. Tribune. TREES IN THE ORCHARD. The Hexagonal Arrangement Preferable to the Square. There are several methods of ar- -ra nm'nrc thf trpfiR in an nrp.harrL saus a I J - ml rwfint Canadian bulletin. The one usually adopted is the square, most jsed no doubt because many do not know of a better. By this arrange ment the trees are planted in rows the same distance apart each way, four "ipian is what is known as the hexagon al. By this system fifteen per cent, more trees can be grown per acre vithout the least bit more crowding -sin small item when we consider that the profits per acre are increased ac cording1 y. " By the hexagonal arrangement the trees in the second row are set alter nating with those in the first, six trees forming a hexagon and inclosing a seventh in the center. To ascertain the correct position for the first tree At 1 J A 1 in tne seconu row, anu consequently the distance apart of the rows that way of the orchard, take two strings the same length as the distance apart at which the trees are to be planted; iasten the end of one to the first and the other to the second stake in the lirst row, then stretch the free ends ii i , . 41,5c .,,:.. nil till i 1 1 v t - i. i ii i. inj lli j ii in mark the position for the first tree in ihe second row. The Texture of Butter. 1 "The lack of body and grain in sum mer butter diminishes " its keeping qualities and unfits it for refrigeration. Hence it is rushed to market and sold - for whatever it will bring. It is sug- - fTfriri that tliA riiffifMiltv mirrht,- be overcome by feeding cottonseed meah This food creates difficulty in churn- r tf at an nrdinnrir tcmnpratura. but ' the butter will come rapidly when the temperature is raised eight to ten de crees above normal. This peculiarity v skould, it is thought, recommend this meal as a supplement to the daily ra tion during the heated term when the . rass is old and dry. N. Y. World. Ix October or November the trees -should be smeared with axle grease as .J3- protection, against mice and rabbits. .ft-:5:v.v?: r:"tf NEGLECTED CROPS. By Raising Some of Them Farmers Could Improve Their Condition. Even here, in this land of edible veg etation, there has been such an appall ing lack of change in the supply of vegetables for daily use that I looked about to see whether it was the fault of the farmer or the deficiency of na ture. When the accompanying memoran dum was shown, which only gives the species and not the varieties in garden truck, there were many expressions of: "Why, yes, that's so; we could raise them, but we" just didn't." LEAF. Artichoke Cress water or field .". Beet tops. Dandelion. Borecole, or kale. - Endive. Brussels sprouts. Lettuce. Oabbape. Mustard. Chervil. Mullein. Chicory. Sorrel. Collards. " Spinach. Corn salad, or fetticus. .Turnip tops. VISE. Cucumbera Tomatoes. Pumpkin. Vegetable marrow. Squashes. ( BOOT. Beets. Radishes. Carrots. Salsify, or oyster pliinv Leek. Turnips white. Onions. Ruta Baga, or Russia Parsnips. turnips. TUBES. Artichokes JerusalemSweet potatoes. Potatoes. Yams Jamaica. STALK. Asparagus. Rhubarb. Celery. Sea kale. fOD. Beans shelled. Lentils. Stringbean3. Peas. 8CSDRT. BrocollL Mushrooms. Cauliflower. ' Okra, or Gumbu Celeraiac. Purslane. Egg plant. Sweet corn. Kohl rabi. - GARDEN SEASONING AND HERBS. Anise. . Laveiiuer. ' Balm. Mustard seed. B2ne. ,' Nasturtium. Boneset. Parsley. Borage. Peppers. Calamus sweet flag. Poppy seed. Capers. Pennyroyal. Caraway seed. Peppermint Catnip. Rosemary. Celery seed. Spearmint. Chires. Saffron. Coriander. Sage. Cumin. Savory Summer. Dill- Savory Winter. Dllecampagna Sweet Basil. Garlic. Sweet Fennel. Henbane. Sweet Marjoram. Hops. Tansy. Horehound. Thyme. Horseradish. Truffle, tlyssop. Wormwood. Everywhere throughout the New England and middle states the cry is heard that "farming doesn't pay." Abandoned farms are found in many states, while in some of the most fer tile sections of New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania land which formerly made the owners rich now begs for buyers at less than the cost of the buildings located thereon. It is sim ply because brains and brawn are not made copartners. Fertilizers are re garded too costly and the compost heap too much bother. There are farms within an hour's ride by rail of New York that have been cultivated for over a century and are to-day un produc tive because the soil has been robbe d and because their owners have not varied their products. Were they to fertilize and then make the most of the poss ibilities of the soil, with this list as a directory or guide, they would make farming a profitable in dustry and wonderfully reduce the number of unemployed and in other ways relieve the great centers of pop ulation. Robert Mitchell Floyd, in American Grocer. THE HILLSIDE GARDEN. An Excellent Way of Leveling a Sloping Piece of Ground. Some gardens must be located upon sloping ground, or the making of a garden given up altogether. A slope in the garden is, however, undesirable, as there is a constant washing after heavy rains and in spring, when the snow is melting, which planting rows SURFACE Or HILLSIDE GMOEti THE SAVE Gfif?0EN TERRflQE D at right angles to the slope does not wholly obviate. The accompanying sketches show a plan for making level a sloping garden. Two or more broad terraces are made, the level portions being planted, and the sharply inclined portions being sodded and kept in sod, forming steps leading from the lower level of the garden to the upper. The dotted line shows that the earth re moved from one part is just sufficient to complete the filling of the terrace. Such a treatment not only adds great ly to the attractiveness of a garden, but also adds to its practical value, as repeated washings seriously injure a crop and the soil. American Agri culturist. THEY ARE GOOD THINGS. Wide Tires on Farm Wagons Sure to Im prove Country Roads. ' Farmers can help themselves very materially and in such a gradual man ner that it will scarcely be felt. Ex periments were made in various parts of the country during 1S94, in New York, Utah and by the Studebaker wagon company in Indiana to deter mine the relative ni-erits of narrow and broad wagon tires. These experiments were, as a whole, decidedly in favor of wide tires. In New York the experi ment was made of using wide tires on a road about five miles long leading to a stone quarry. The heavy wagons used were equipped with rear wheels having tires G inches wide, and the for ward wheels having tires 4 inches wide, the forward wheels tracking just inside the rear wheels. Each wagon was thus transformed into a roller covering 20 inches in width every time it passed along. Smaller wagons were equipped with wheels similar in principle. The road, which formerly rutted incessantly and deep ly, was covered with stone chips, which these wagons soon rolled into a hard mass. The road now supports 2oads of from 8,000 to 10,000 pounds, and consequently has a hard, compact and regular surface. The cost of haul ing loads over this road is reduced about HQ per cent. FARM AND GARDEN. BUILDING A SILO. An Ohio 3Ian Describes One Constructed Without Corners. I have looked over many descriptions and diagrams of silos, but have failed to find one that comes up to the stand ard of perfection for neatness, and be ing air proof. An enthusiastic , siloist who made, some years ago, one of the old-styled square, double-lined affairs, and hav ing given the subject much thought and personal investigation, said to me a few days since: "Why don't you give an illustration of the manner in which the best modern silos are made?" re ferring at the same time to several that had been constructed during the past two years. The only feature that we notice, that places this silo ahead of those de scribed in recent publications, is the manner of completing the joints of the fig. 1. ocvagon, which is after the form given in the accompanying illustration. Some very costly silos about here were greatly damaged by having to cut the cornerboards to a bevel instead of using block A cut with sufficient curve to allow the lining to match per fectly with tongue and groove intact. Where the lining is cut to a bevel the air is sure to get in and do considera ble damage in a silo. The matching can be made still more perfect by tak ing off, with small plane, a light shav ing on the inside edge at a slight bevel. These silos are constructed much the same as other octagon structures, with this exception, which we are satisfied is a very great improvement over those made with corners, and can be erected with much less cost than the round ones, and in every way give just as good satisfaction. One of these silos has been furnishing ensilage put up last fall for a herd of twelve cows, for the two past months, and the ensilage is as good now as when used during the winter months and seems to be keeping the cows in excellent milking condition. This season is sure to convert many doubting Thomases over to the silo, as the very short hay crop , is bound to leave a great aching void that will not drive the ghost out of empty mows till grass grows again. Many are prepar- FIG. 2. lng to build silos and cut up their field corn, to be able to bridge the coming winter, and it may be the part of wis dom to do so. Where this is the case, it would be wise for such parties to either visit a successful silo or become satisfied that the plan they propose to use is after such a one. Don't depend upon any carpenter, however expert he may be, to plan one, unless be has had experience in constructing a successful one. George E. Scott, in Ohio Farmer. CHURNING WITH ACIDS. Important Discoveries Recently Made is England and America. Probably in no department of re search is a greater amount of investi gation going forward and valuable data and actual discovery being made, says the Mark Lane Expressy than in dairy science, and while some of the discoveries bare been of little orao value, a wonderful amount of useful and practical material has been, placed in the hands of the dairyman. Among the things announced, since- it has been shown how nearly the ferments and flavors in butter are associated, is that if certain acids are added tosweet cream it is not necessary to wait for the development of lactic bacteria in the cream, but that it could be churned at once- and churned quite readily and the true flavor secured. Investigators have been at work on this problem, and an announcement of the results has been made. The most satisfactory re sults came from using hydrochloric acid diluted in twice its bulk of water, and adding this in small quantities to the sweet cream. Everything was satis factory, except that the. butter had no aroma, though it was pronounced fair and good by the judges. The butter kept well and had a water content of 12j per cent; but the low flavor was against it, though not a trace of the acid was to be detected or found by analysis. About the most important thing brought out was that butter seems to be fully dependent upon bacteria for true flavor rather than the food, provided that the latter is whole some and not of a character to impart obnoxious flavors to the milk, which, after all, could not be called butter flavor in any sense of the word. Cheese the Best Bacteria Soil. Cheese, the supposed-to-be-edible milk curd of commerce, is the best soil in the world for microbes and bacteria, and on its surface flourish millions upon millions of infinitesimal parasitic plant growth. A microscopic examina tion of a single grain of fresh cheese, such as is usually sold at the grocer's proved that it contained not less than 0,000 separate and distinct specimens of bacteria. After seven days this same section of cheese was examined and found to contain 80,000 separate and individual bacteria. Prof. De Kahn says that a chee-so. properly sliced and exposed will within a week be implanted with a bacterial growth containing more separate specimens (than there are trees Tspojo. the whole oi the earth's surface VALUE OF SPRAYING. Summary of Experiments Conducted at the Ohio Station. 1. The profit to be derived from spraying orchards often exceeds S20 per acre, and for vineyards is much more. The fruit crop of the state would be enhanced in value by several million dollars annually if the practice were generally followed. 2. Combined fungicides and insect icides are recommended whenever ap plicable, because of a saving of time; a less liability of injuring .foliage, a greater efficiency in some cases, and as a precautionary measure in others. 3. Dilute Bordeaux mixture, copper arsenic solution and ammoniacal solu tion of copper carbonate are the most useful for the treatment of the dis eases herein mentioned, and the first has the widest range of usefulness of all. 4. Early spraying is the key to suc cess in the use of fungicides. 5. For the plum curculio and shot hole fungus use Bordeaux mixture and Paris green combined, making three or four applications. It is not known that the' treatment will prevent the black knot, but cutting away and burning the diseased branches will ac complish the result. 6. Scabby apples rot much earlier than those free from scab, and spray ing with fungicides will save at least fifty per cent, of this loss. 7. Spraying with fungicides in the season of 1S93 prevented much of the early dropping of apples, which is usually attributed to wet weather. 8. For apples, two applications of Bordeaux mixture before blooming are advised, and two of the same mixture after blooming with Paris green added. 9. The same treatment is recom mended for the pear as for the apple, before blooming, but the copper-arsenic solution is applied after blooming. 10. The Bordeaux mixture, if used too late, causes a russet appearance on both pears and apples. 11. The quince may be treated the same as apples, or with Bordeaux mix ture alone. 12. The treatment advised for the cherry consists of using two or three applications of Paris green, two ounces to fifty gallons of water. 13. Peach trees and American vari eties of plums have very tender foliage and must be treated with very weak mixtures, if at all. 14. Raspberries may be treated with Bordeaux mixture alone; grapes with the same until the fruit sets, after which use copper carbonate. Potatoes should be sprayed at least five times with Bordeaux mixture and Paris green. Prof. W. J. Green, of Ohio Ex periment Station. WEEDING THE ONIONS. How to Make an inexpensive Tool Suita ble for This Work. How to manage the onion patch dur ing, the last stages of growth, when the mass of tops forbids the further use of the wheel hoe among the plants, has often been a puzzle to onion grow ers, and is a matter of frequent in quiry. The harm done to a crop by the breaking down of the tops during the process of cultivation usually is in significant to the damage resulting from an early cessation of tillage. We prefer to till the ground between onions, potatoes, cabbages, and other crops, when well advanced, and to risk occasional injury to the leaves or stalks. Finally, cultivation has come to a stop, however, but the growth of weeds will not. Purslane, especially, is the curse of the onion grower at this DEVICE FOB HOEING ONIOXS. late period of growth. The tool which is usually most convenient "for stirring the soil between onion rows is a nar row steel rake. It can be drawn along be t ween the rows of bulbs, of course with proper care, and will loosen the surface and keep the weeds down. The ordinary garden rakes are rather- too wide for this purpose, but may be easily cut down. Another tool suitable for this work is shown in the accompanying sketch. The nearest blacksmith can make the hoe part out of steel rod, or- an old pitchfork. Insert the hoe firmly into a good handle, and then draAv the tool along between the rows, in the same way as a steel rake. American' Gar dening. - FRESH DAIRY NOTES. Use tin milk pails always and keep them bright and clean. Poor butter deteriorates, rapidly. It has the elements of rapid decay in it to start with. If the butter is not of good quality, sell it as soon as made. Do not at tempt to pack it. If the churning is only done once a week, good butter is out of the ques tion. Churn every two days or every three days at most. To kill the horns on calves, cut the hair from around the horn, or around the place for the horn, wet the nub and rub on'caustic potash. The potash comes in sticks and must be wrapped in paper or it will burn the hands! Farmers' Voice. Treason to Be Learned from Rome. A lesson in the wisest political econ omy may be learned "by a survey of the Roman road They were so planned and constructed that even to-day their remains are eloquent of Roman glory. Of those who first trod upon them even the dust has crumbled into nothing ness, but the modern -sights'r must pay tribute to the enduring strength and artistic beauty of the Fenian road. Ada Langwortuy Qblller, Du buque la. . AGRICULTURAL H INTS. GOOD ROADS CRUSADE. Facts and riffurea Collected by the eagae of American Wheelmen. The racing man and his many troubles have been attracting so much attention of late there is a tendency to forget the League of American Wheel men has anything more serious to occupy its time. The fact remains that racing and the matters pertaining thereto are but a side issue and have little or nothing to do with the actual business of .the league. The league, which was formed in 1SS0, had been in existence but a short time when it was discovered the roads of this country were vastly inferior to those of other countries. In view of the fact that bicycle riding was poor sport on any but the best of roads the league took up the matter of arousing interest in the question. Starting with a purely selfish motive the subject has grown till now the league is pledged to all of its vast membership to continue the agitation till success shall crown the efforts to secure favorable legislative action on the question. In order that the movement might prove a success the farmer had to be interested, as he it was the principal burden of the improvement would fall upon. At the outset the wheelmen were unfortunate enough to incur the dislike and antagonism of the rural element through the fact that the courts had to be resorted to in order to decide that the wheel was a vehicle and entitled to a share of the road. The farmer contended that the bicycles scared their horses, and as a result they were greatly opposed to allowing the rights of the road to the advocates of the new method of transportation. The matter was fully settled in the courts, and in a number of instances the misguided farmer was compelled to pay for the machine that his wrath had impelled him to firive over. This state of affairs naturally led the farmer to believe the wheelman' his natural enemy, with the result the good roads agitation met with scant courtesy. That good roads are for the benefit of the farmers as much or even more than any other class, was a fact that had then to be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the tiller of the soil. Progress in this line has been slow, but at last matters appear to be progress ing nicety, and the chances are the near future will, see a great movement in favor of road improvement. The poor condition of American roads arises from a number of causes. The country is newer and less densely pop ulated than the farming districts of Europe. As a result, each of the rural residents is responsible for a greater amount of roadway than is his foreign cousin. Another and potent factor in the present state of affairs lies not in the total neglect of the highways, but because a great deal of labor that is now put on the roads is not applied in a manner calculated to produce the best results. Every community has laws requiring a certain amount of labor to be expended on the roads each year. This labor seems to consist in scraping the mud from the sides of the road and piling it as high as possible in the center, thus . forcing the teams to drive in the ditch, to either side till the road is gradually beaten down to the center again. Were the same amount of labor expended each year in building gravel roads the result would be miles and miles of valuable turnpike in the course of a few years. There is no manner in which money can be applied for improvement on farming property that will pay larger EOAD IX 3OS31A?nT. returns than the money devoted to the roads. The League of American Wheel men has been gathering statistics on the question for a number of years. One case that points a moral as well as can be desired is that of the village of MoorstoWh, N. J. For a number of years real estate there was not market able at any price. The country was in a wretched conditions Finally the town supervisors got together and voted bonds to the extent of forty thousand dollars for road building, with the result that real estate is now enjoying a steady demand and the country is being supported by garden truck that can only be transported to market by teams. Realizing that, the matter of road im provement could best be brought to the attention of the farmer by an ar gument of dollars and cents, the. league has compiled a great deal of literature on the direct eost of building roads and the direct returns that. such, an outlay will produ.ee- Taking the state of Lllinois, it is found there- has been built during tho past ten years. 9oo, miles of improved roadway.. This im provement has been confined to thirty counties. In f erty-five other counties the roads are. what ares term-ed mud roads. Basing calculations on the last ten years it is found the thirty improved counties have been assessed for the building and care of the highways a total of ?a,S34,34G. In the mud districts there has been spent $9,693,84$, or near ly two-thirds as much, and they are in no better conditioa than they were tea yer4rsago. A comparison of values shows that the land in the improved counties has an average value of S21.28 an acre, while that in the mud district is valued at 512.97 an acre. The total assessment on V '- behalf of roads has been $3.55 for cacti $1K) valuation in the improved coun ties, while those district that have spent their money in piling the mud up in the center of the road a couple of times a year have saved-43 cents on each $100, an amount that ha in all likelihood been spent many times over in horses and repairs to wagon and harness made necessary by the awful condition of the roads during several months of the year. The average cost of constructing gravel roads is various ly estimated at from $1,000 to 81,500 per mile, according to . the locality. Dirt roads require two-thirds of that sura to keep in repair for ten years, while the former method, it is figured, adda S10 an acre to the value of the prop erty. The increase in the value of the property is not the . only return that a farmer gets from his investment in good roads. Gen. Stone, of the federal department of agriculture, has found three independent estimates which place the yearly loss to farmers in the United States from bad roads at about $600. 000, 000, equivalent to 81 an acre annually. Capitalized at 5 per cent, this amount if saved would increase the value of farm land 820 an acre, or a total increase of 812,000,000,000. As the total value of all farms is about $26, 000,000,000 this would be an increase oi 50 per cent, in their value. As thfl total annual value of farm products is only 83,600,000,000, one-fourth of its value is lost through bad roads. Comparisons have also been mada horse does twice the work of the American horse, the French horse three times the work; not because they are better horses, but because they travel better roads Mr. Wollen estimates the annual ost of maintaining a horso at 8100. If only one-fourth of the horses in Illinois could be spared, in stead of one-half or two-thirds as in England or France, the annual saving in horse maintenance for this state X HILL OX THE BO AD BETWEEN BT. LOUIi AND WASHINGTON, MO. alone would be $30,000,000. Prof. Ely holds that poor roads cost the farmer 815 per horse. The truth of the facts as they are set forth by the league is rapidly . being realized by the farmers with the result that each year adds to the list of con verts, till now the time seems nearly at hand when the entire country will en ter into an era of scientific road build ing. Chicago Tribune. SKILL IN THE DAIRY. How One May Succeed Under Any and! All Circumstances. In producing a pound of butter, says Prof. Robertson, there are 66 times more room for skill than in the pro duction of 1 pound of potatoes. Dairy ing offers a man the best chance for putting his skill into money. The ob ject of the butter-maker is to get tho fat out of the milk with as little of the other constituents in the milk as possible. In every 100 pounds of but- water, 82 pounds of butter fat, 3 pounds of salt and 2 pounds of the other coustituents in the milk. A cow is not a machine, but a living organ ism, and therefore will not give a dif ferent product because she takes dif ferent food. The food does not affect the' blood of a cow, from which milk is largely formed. Food will affect the quality of the milk sometimes by changing the composition of the fat itself. If the quantity of fat is not af fected the volatile fats from the food will become part of the fat in the milk, and give its peculiar flavor to the milk. These volatile flavors can be expelled by heating milk or cream to 150 degrees. The case with which cream may be separated from, tho milk sometimes depends upon the kind of food a cow takes. Cows for making butter should be handled under such conditions as will give them perfect repose. Cleanliness should be strictly observed. Impure air of the stable will affect the milk, and ensilage will not injure the milk when fed to cows. When cows have been milking a long period or have been overheated, or without salt, the milk will become sticky and prevent a complete separa tion of the cream. By having a few fresh-calved cqws' milk to mix with the milk of cows that have been, milk ing a long thne, a better quality of buttear can be made. Keep the cream, sweet and cold, and use a saitable fer mentation starter, and yotf will get a quality of butter in January as good as the quality of June butter. If cream is properly tempered, a temperature of from 54 to 58 will be suitable for churn ing and 45 minutes will belong enough to get butter. Prairie Farmer. Mafcey VaiBtft- of Good Xtoada. As an illustration of the importance of good reads it is stated that in Union county, N. J., the farming lands have, increa&ed in value an average of $20a per aere owing to the improved system of road construction. An engineer re cently calculated that the annual cost of bad roads in Virginia was no lesa than 84,275,46,031.' This he charges to interest oa the depreciation of land, additional cost of hauling, deprecia tion of vehicles and depreciation of horses. This amount of money, ho adds, would cover the expense of build ing 1,710 mile3 of the best macadam i roads each year.- 2. x. bun.