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FARM AND GARDEN.
DRAINAGE OF ROADS. Xk Is of the Utmost importance to me Preservation of lilghwij. With wet or clayey roadways, surface arainage alone is not sufficient. With joat underdrainage the crown of such roadways will dry only by slow process of evsj-oratiou, during which' time the topping' becomes more and more rutted ly the passing traffic. A subdrain in such soil will not prove efficient for i rmore than about 12 feet on each side; j ihence, two lines of longitudinal sub drains are needed on those parts of our country roads that pass through -wet places, low-lying lands or clayey soils. They should have an average fall of about one in one hundred; minimum Call, one in one thousand. At short in tervals, say from 36 to 100 feet apart, are placed cross drains to discharge the wa ter into the side ditches. These cross .drains receive a greater fall, say up to one in thirty. Generally two and one half to three-inch pipes are sufficient. It is advantageous to bed these tiles in well-drained brick fragments and to -cover them with road metal. Be certain ithat the tiles are correctly laid and that .nothing interferes with their free dis charge. As said before, unglazed round tiles, about three inches in diameter awl, under certain conditions, jointed with, loose collars, are most suitable for ii bd rains. The bottom of the tiles should be laid both to the proper grade auod. below the frost line, after which the tile trench is tilled ut to subgrade with clean gravel, small field stones, road metal, or broken bricks. . The cross drains are also made of unglazed tiles, with, the exception of their outlet sec tions, which should consist of vitrified culvert pipes. Regular branch pipes should connect the longitudinal and cross tiles. On level reaches the lateral roadway slopes for surface drainage .-should not be less than one in twenty tour, 1 and side ditches should be pro vided. If necessary, as previously in dicated. Finally, a rapid discharge of the Bide ditches, if required, through ad jacent lands, is of the utmost im portance to roadway preservation. Cec Rcy Stone. HHAKKSrKARK ANSWERED. "What's in a name?" There isn't much But what the facts explode : iFor instance, some call mud-hole such As shown above, a "road." Good Roads. THEY GO TOGETHER. Better Roads and Wider Tires Are Needed Everywhere. Farmers have more reason to agitate Cor good roads than any other class, not cea excepting bicyclers. Good roads to the former mean economy in reach ing- markets; often better markets, be - cause they could be reached at the right time; advantages of social life liax the winter and early spring; saving in time and in the wear and breakage of wheeled vehicles, and a general ad vance in all that pertains to a higher state of civilization. JJucyclers - are doing much to pro tmote good roads. Now is the time for our farmers to make n positive move tin cooperation with them. One improvement must go along with Tthat of better construction and drain- -aev o the roads. The wheels of all vehicles should have wider tires. In France the width of tire is from three o ten inches, with the bulk of four wheelers six inches. In Germany every vngou for heavy loads must have at least a four-inch tire; Austria requires a. tire of 44 inches wide; Switzerlad requires all draft wagons to have six-inch tire. If we were to build good . a-nods our wagons, as how constructed would speedilv destroy them. They are road-destroyers as certainly as if built for the purpose. Go on and build ithe roads, and begin at once to reform the wagon wheels. Western Rural. Boca on a Dairy Pi The Indiana Farmer says: "A gentle man who grows and fattens 75 to 100 bogs in connection with his creamery, -says that in this way he utilizes all the jtroduct, except the butter, and makes the business pay him largely. He never .has any hog cholera, for he keeps every rthing clean in connection with his pig .feeding, and the milk with bran and tmeal makes a succulent ration that Itoeeps the pigs very free from feverish sondiUons, and therefore very healthy, The milk and buttermilk with the bran jnetl, etc.. makes them grow rapidly, mad at eight months he has 175-pound pigs to put on the market. He says by combining the two branches of busi ness he finds it very profitable. Feed Ins; Pea Meal to Ilogrm. Pea-meal is rich in protein., which. when peas are fed to hogs, goes to build np the muscles or red meat. The pea: should be ground with oats or corn, u.-- ing two parts of the former to three of the latter for pigs and shoats, and on 3art peas and four of corn-meal for older animals. To build up the lean meat of the hog to give strong bones. shorts should be fed. Bran, mixed will -eorn-meal, shorts or some other simila -eed, will prove excellent for breeding or stock hogs, but it is too coarse and haff-like for use in large quantities in bog feeding. Dakota Field and Farm. The milking should never be hurried but the milk be drawn steadily and as At flows. ' ' " I I 1 MARKETING BUTTER. It Pays to Pat It Up In Meat and Attrac tive Packages. Whether sales are made to stores or regular customers, it pays to send but ter away in as good shape as possible. Some customers prefer their butter in rolls containing one pound. A deft handler of the ladle will readily appor tion and shape the proper amount. after some experience, and affix her stamp, which should be uniform and as imple as is consistent with true ele gance, as a fern leaf, for example, xt the butter maker is inexperienced, or has no scales (with which every house keeper should be provided), then pro- are a "butter-cutter, which cuts the butter into rolls or brick-shaped blocks containing one pound, and also affixes stamp. We believe these cutters can be procured at most stores. While the nice tact of most women will discern what is proper, and so sup ply dainty and nice surroundings for their butter when sending away to mar ket, yet we have known some who were careless in this respect, and sent a really fine article away wrapped in any odds and ends of muslin that came to hand. We have even known butter to be sent to "stores wrapped in pocket handkerchiefs, and the lady who so ap-1 pa relied it thought she was doing the genteel thing, too. In these days of cheapness there is no excuse for any housekeeper, no difference how limited her circumstances may be, not provid ing herself with at least two or three napkins or towels of linen, which should be set apart for butter alone, and not be made to do duty as a bib for baby, r to polish table ware. If no better can really be afforded, rather than de pend upon "fragments" of apparel, save the sacks of thin muslin that dairy salt is sold in; np apart, bem, laundry nice ly, and after wetting in brine, wrap one around each roll. Never wrap butter in paper, unless parchment paper is used. If your butter is to be sent to a dis nt market, use wooden buckets or tubs, which should be soaked in brine boiore the butter is packed in them. If you desire to pack your butter and await a rise in the market use stone ars. Have them perfectly clean, sweet and cold; sprinkle salt lightly in the bottom acd on the sides. Be sure that all buttermilk is worked out. Place the butter in the jar, and with the wooden potato masher, previously scalded and rinsed afterward, press evenly and firm ly; have a cloth (an inch larger in cir cumference than the jar) wrung out of cold water, lay it over the butter and press out all the air, cover with an inch of salt, spread evenly, and press the cloth close to the side of the jar. When the next lot is ready to pack, take off the cloth, salt and all, and lay it in a dish to be used again. The cloth and salt are to exclude the air. Proceed the same manner as before until the jar is within an inch of being full; tnen cut a cloth that will just cover the butter, press so as to exclude all air bubbles, then cover with brine. strong as can be made. It does not mat ter if it be thickened with salt. Tie up with another cloth, three or four thicknesses, and cover all with a plate or wooden cover. When wanted to use. remove salt and brine; rinse, and work out into rolls. Butter so prepared will keep almost indefinitely and preserve its flavor. Mrs. A. C. McPherson, in Ohio farmer. A DAIRY CONVENIENCE. mple Bot Excellent Device for HaorlBg Milk In Wells. Where ice is not at hand, the custom of banging milk cans in the well, for coolness, is often practiced. The il lustration shows a device for holding four cans securely within the well, with chance to draw up water between the cans, the curved iron rods affording this FOR HANGING MILK: IN WELLS. chance. If the well is not large enough for a square frame, a stout hoop can be used, thus economizing space. It is surprising how nicely milk and many other articles can thus be kept in deep well, even in extraordinary hot weather. It is equally surprising how many families fail to use this simple device, which is so easily made and so very convenient. Orange Judd Farmer. THE ROAD MOVEMENT. Bicyclists Should Tax Themselves Will- las; ly to ZsBarnjste It. That the "good roads" plank sug gested by the League of American Wheelmen was not incorporated in the St. Louis platform was not due to any lack of interest in the good roads move ment. It is not probable that a plank of this kind will be incorporated in the platform adopted at any national con vention. A more direct way to accomplish practical work in this direction is to go before the various state legislatures with carefully matured plans for in. stituting a system of road building that will commend itself to the country law. makers and secure favorable action. A tax of one dollar per year upon each wheel would yield nearly $200,000 in Chicago alone and would be opposed by very few wheelmen if it were applied directly to road making. This is merely one of the numerous plana suggested for inaugurating the movement in Illi nois. A dollar a wheel would build more highways than 1,000 "good roads' planks in national platforms. Chicago Times-Herald. Butter once thoroughly warmed through will lose its flavor. THE FARMING WORLD. USE OF GERMICIDES. la Certain Conditions Their Use Is Posi tively Dangerous. The method of adding something to the cream that will destroy the bacteria or prevent their growth, no matter how worm the weather or how distant the market, appeals to the dealer on account of its cheapness, simplicity and effec tiveness. Cream in which a sufficient quantity of boric acid or salicylic acid has been introduced, for these are sub stances generally used as preservatives of cream, will remain perfectly sweet for an indefinite time even in the hot test summer temperature. These chem icals produce no decided change in the taBte or appearance of the cream, and t is no wonder that this method has sometimes been adopted by those who have seen in it a solution of the only difficulty in the way of extending a lu crative cream trade. What, then, are the objections to this method? The first and the very decided objection that will occur to the consumer is, that when paying for sweet and wholesome cream he does not want it diluted with anything else.- In view of the compara tively small quantity of the preserva tive that has to be used, this objection might be overcome by. an appeal to the reason of the consumer, if he did not have reason as well as prejudice on his side. If it could be shown that the pre servative was as harmless as the cream iteelf there would, perhaps, be no rea sonable objection to it, but the best that can be claimed for these chemical pre servatives is, that while they are sure death to bacteria, they also endanger the health and derange the digestive apparatus of human beings. Among those qualified to judge of the effect of these substances when taken into the stomach of human beings there is practically but one opinion, and that is, that the constant consumption of tltem is harmful even if taken in small quantities. In certain cases where per sons are suffering from disease of the digestive organisms the use of cream preserved by this method is positively dangerous. Farmers" Review. THE WAY TO SUCCEED. Keep a Mllst Record According; to tho Plan Here Described. To know something of what the cows are doing it is necessary to keep a record of the milk from day to day. Hang up a bit of board and a pencil in the stable, HOW TO KEEP A MILK RECORD. with scales for weighing. Tack to the board some loose sheets of writing paper, as shown in the cut, and as the milk from each cow is drawn weigh it and put the record in black and white on the paper. Each sheet may be ruled for seven days. With such a record one can see instantly what cows re spond, and to what extent, to increase of feed. Don't keep a cow without knowing whether or not she is doing the square thing by you when you are doing the square thing by her. N. Y. Tribune. New War to Kill Weeds. While on his recent western tour, Chauncey M. Depew was shown an elec tric weed killer in operation, the suc cess of which means much in sparsely settled sections of the country. An or dinary flat car is equipped with metal brushes, which extend out over each side of the car. . Their height is regu lated so that they will brush the tops of the weeds, which in the western and southern states overreach upon the company s right of way, as the car dashes along at express speed. A dyna mo on "the car, run while the train is in motion, is connected with the metallic brushes, which receive the full force of the current, which is communicated to the weeds, passing through them to the ground, with the result that the weeds are instantly shriveled up. A Word A boa t Grocery Batter. Every man takes good, sweet butter to market. (He thinks he does.) He knows he does, because his groceryman tells him so, and he puts it in the box with all of the good butter, and his wife made it; how could it be otherwise. But he has to take a low price for it, there was so much of the same quality on the market, so they do not try to make it so good the next week, for it did not pay to work so hard for so little money, If grocery men could be a little more particular in testing the butter they buy, and take nothing but good, poor butter would be very scarce, as there would be no place for it. But just as long as there is a place where it can be sold at all, it will be made, and lots of it, too. Farmers Review. Thinning Out Osrdss Crops. Few practices are more profitable than thinning out garden crops. If the knowledge of the proper sowing of seeds was more widely prevalent no thinning would be needed, but so many persons sow the seeds - fearing -that numbers will fail to grow, and there fore many more seeds are used than is necessary. But sometimes all these superfluous seeds gsow, in which case it is desirable that they should be thinned. Not only do the vegetable plants grow larger under these circum stances, but in many cases they come earlier into use. Rural World. -i I- ::U: THE CURRANT" WORM. .formation Supplied by the Indiana Ww perlnaant Station. A bulletin from the Indiana experi ment station says: The currant worm. or, more properly, the .gooseberry saw fly, was introduce Into this country from Europe about the year 1S27, com ing, as did the luKrt-l cablings but terrly, by way of Canada. It Is prob able, however, that It was landed st other poluts aloiifr ottr eastern const. Like most of our Imported In wets. It spread very rrfphlly, until now H rov ers ttio greater portion vt thi United States. This fly Wlonifs in lit order Tfy- menoptera. which liti'lintes the bees, wasps and ant. It 1ft dnimn to en tomologists na a kind of connecting link between this order nnd ttta Lepidoptern, to which ttelnntf the moths and butterflies. Th Hiltiltn tntiks their appearance soon after the leave of the currant and gooseberry bush come forth. The female lays her rutin along the principal veins on the tinder side of the leaf. These hutch In about ten days, and the young larvae tuny tx detected by the minute holes which they have eaten through the leave. As they approach maturity they be come ravenous eaters, soon stripping the bushes of their foliage. They then seek for a secluded place In which to pupate, and in about four or Ave weeks the second brood makes its appearance and the same process is gone through as before. Remedy. The most successful reme dy yet 'discovered for this insect is white hellebore. Dust a little of the powder over the infested bushes while they are damp, either early in the morning or just after a shower. II this is done promptly, before the worms have spread all over the bushes, one oi two applications will usually be suf ficient. LARGER PEACHES. Thinning- Out by Hand Is the Best Way to Produce Them. Mr. J. H. Hale, one of the greatest peach growers in the United States, in speaking of the manner in which he makes a success of the business, is re ported as saying that one must thin by hand. He puts stepladders under the trees and puts boys on them whose bump of destructiveness is large and tells them to go ahead. He begins when the peaches are three-quarters of an inch in diameter and takes everything that is curculio-stung and diseased. These he carts away and burns. The rest that are taken off are dropped on the ground and left there. In future, he says, three or four-year- old peach trees shall not bear over 250 peaches; four or five-year-old trees not over 300, and full-grown trees not over 500. That means six inches apart; 500 peaches on a tree will make six or eight baskets of fancy fruit. Three thousand peaches to a tree won't make more or sell for more money, and the trees are ruined. Peach trees are planted on a good or dinary corn or wheat land in a fair state of fertility. The holes for the trees are dug about twice as large as necessary to receive the roots and a big handful of fine ground bone is scattered at the bot tom of the hole and two or three more on the dirt, and that is worked in around the roots at the time the tree is planted. Then is put on muriate of potash. The next year is broadcasted from 1.000 to 1,500 pounds per acre of fine ground bone and from 400 to 800 pounds of muriate of potash or its equivalent, and this is kept up every year whether the trees bear or not. "It is pretty liberal feeding, but it pays to be liberal with trees, says Mr. Hale. Western Rural. MARKETING PRODUCE. Handy Box for Carrying Small Pro It, But ter and Eggs. Many a farmer goes to market Carry ing fruit, butter, eggs, and a number of other articles. A convenient package for his use is shown herewith. The box has a bail for carryinglpurposes. One side, instead of the top, is hinged, dis closing shelves when opened. Fruit, BOX FOR MARKETING 'PRODUCK butter, eggs and other FmaU articles can be placed on these shelves, and reached instantly without disturbing other articles.which is not at all the case when the package cpens at the top. Orange Judd Farmer. ORCHARD AND GARDEN. All fruit for market should be handled carefully. Keep up planting of sweet corn for roasting ears. ' When there is a crop of fruit send only the best to market, and have it in good condition. While no variety of plums is free from curculio, keeping the trees healthy will help materially. Peach trees suffer most and pear and cherry least from standing in a thick growth of grass. If pruning is neglected for the first few years the removal of large limbs may be necessary. If a piece of land is to be planted to small fruits this fall grow some hard crop on it this summer. St- Louis Re public Heavily-Ladem jrrnlt Tiees. When a tree is allowed to bear a xull crop of apples it costs the tree more to produce the seeds than the pulp. Every apple left on the tree, whether the fruit is good or not, taxes the tree and the land. If one-half of the fruit of a heavily-laden tree is removed by picking, the remaining fruit will be of better quality and also produce as many bushels as though all of the fruit bad remained on the ties. AGRICULTURALHINTS. FOR BERRY GROWERS Ff lata oa the Propagation of Strawberries and Black Raspberries. It is not always best to invest too much money in new things. Nowadays, hundreds of new varieties of fruits are beinir propugated and introduced through the catalogues, describing the characteristics end good qualities of each in such a way that would excite ohm's curiosity and tempt them to in vent. So doubt, though, pome of the newer varieties are better than the old ones. Hut if you desire to try some thing new, don't go In too steep; buy just a few and try them, and if they in ova satisfactory, you can make more of thei same by propagating them your wlf, just the same as the nurserymen. It is possible to produce oo to l.oou strawberry plants from one healthy KIO. L plant in one season. The plant is put in a very rich bed, deeply trenched and enriched the year previously with all the manure that can be mixed thereon. The plant then set, work the soil about it frequently, but not deep. Remove all the runners thatr appear at first- As the plant gains strength, permit the runners to remain, and draw them out in all directions from the parent plant, laying a small stone over each where the leaves appear. (See Fii. 1.) When rooted, separate them, set them from four to six feet apart each way, and treat them in the same manner as just described above for the parent plant. Continue this course, watering in time of drought with diluted liquid manure. Boil so rich as that is not desirable for producing fruit, but is just the thing for growing more plants. Propagating the black raspberry is also easy to perform. If we observe closely the plants in the woods and learn the nature of self-propagation we would be more benefited therefrom. We observe the blackcap, with its long canes drooping the tips to the rich loose ground, where they coil and assume a snakish appearance and send out root lets into the rich soil, thus forming a new plant. The natural mode of self propagation is almost unknown in a great many places nowadays, since the woods are being cleared out, as the winds have full sway, swinging tfie plants to and fro, forbidding them fix ing their tips in the ground. Natural conditions have been changed to some extent, and now nature has to be as sisted somewhat to fill the deficiency. Just after the fruit has been gathered is the time to commence "tipping your plants. Cultivate the soil very finely and dig little holes two to three inches deep, and bend the tip ends of the canes into them perpendicularly, not slant ingly, ami cover with dirt to hold them in place. (See Fig. 2.) By following this method attentively it is possible to make above a hundred plants from a rigorous plant in a reason. The red raspberry and blackberry are propagated from the roots sprout ing up. It is quite an item to the farmer and fruit grower to understand propa gation; they may 3ust have only one plant of a rare variety and increase it to many the same season, thus getting a start very cheaply, even if they do pay a big price for the first one. o. C Vaughn, in Farm and Fireside. PROFITS OF DAIRYING. Why Batter Makers Should Study the Tastes of Their Customers. The pleasant feature about dairying is the profit. If the profit is not found, there is no pleasure in the work. This is a general law, but it applies with a special force to dairying, because profitable-dairying is a fine art, and success is won by strict attention to business. The man who looks upon a cow as a necessary evil, can never be a decided success as a dairyman, any more than a slovenly farmer can make a success at farming. The price received for butter depends chiefly upon the taste of the consumer. The intelligent butter maker studies the tastes of these people who are willing to pay well for what suits them, and then he learns how to make. that kind of butter. It is the only way he can get their money. It Is not the expense of manufacture that fixes the price, says a writer. The consumer cares not that the butter perhaps cost untold labor on the part of some one who churned and prepared it for mar ket. If inferior, it sells for an inferior price, regardless of the cost of produc tion, and if it is superior, it sells at top prices, though made with ease and little expense. And the beauty remains that (he cost of producing the best butter need not be greater than that of pro ducing goods of a poorer quality; in fact the bad article is generally made at the greatest cost. Ignorance is expen sive. I think it will make every one who owns cows a better dairyman to sit down and compare the prices of dairy goods with other farm products. If your cheap grains can be converted into 20 and 25-cent butter and 10-cent cheese or SI to per 100 for milk, it will pay better than selling the raw material and robbing the farm of all the fer tilizing material that much of the land (a already in need of. Farmers Voice. THE ROMAN ROADS. Some of Them Are still In Use and Call for o Repairs. The Roman road was built for eter nity. When the roadbed had been pre pared by excavation it was carefully refilled, regardless of expense, with layers of sand, stones and cement. The surface was so solidly dressed that the wear and tear was reaucea to a mini mum. Investigations with regard to the preparation of the roadbeds were made years ago by Bergier on Roman roads that are still m use in France, ana with the following results: In one road the excavation down to hardpah was three feet deep. This trench was filled up first with a layer of sand and cement an inch thick; then came a foot layer of flattish stones and cement; then a foot layer of small traveled stones and cement. These last two layers were so hard and firmly knit together that tools could break off fragments only with great difficulty. The next layer con sisted of a foot of cement and sand. covered with a top-dressing of gravel. In another road in France the foot layer of cement and sand changed places with the layer of cement and traveled stones. A third road in France was ex amined at a point where it had been raised 20 feet above the level of the sur- - rounding country, and a vertical sec tion revealed a structure of five layers. First came the great fill of 16 feet; on top of tins till vney piaceo. nrai a foot layer of flattish stones and cement, then a foot layer of flattish stones with out mortar of any kind, then a half-foot layer of firmlv-packed dirt, then a half-foot layer of small gravel in hard cement, and, lastly, a half-foot layer of cement and large gravel. Paved roads were exceptional. An example of paved roads is the Via Ap- pia, whose pavement consists of a hard kind of stone, such as is used for mill stones. The stones of this pavement are carefully hewn and fitted together so precisely that the road often appears to be solid rock, and has proved to be so indestructible that after 2,000 years of continuous use it is still a magnifi cent road. Ordinarily, however, the top dressing of the road consisted of gravel and hard cement, and when, in the countless inscriptions such and such a governor is said to have restored a given road, reference is made to this top dressing of gravel and cement. The width of the military road was usually 60 feet; the raised center being 20 feet wide, with side tracks each of the width of 20 feet. In some roads the raised center was paved, while t he side tracks were dressed with gravel and cement. The viae privatae and the feeders of the military roads were usually dirt roads. They were much narrower than the military roads; sometimes they had a width of only ten feet, and, indeed, the feeders of the Via Appia were only two feet wide, but paved. The width of the Roman roads, all told, varied, there fore, from two to 120 feet. N. Y. In dependent. MAKE IT AN ISSUE. i The Bad Roads (Jueation In Township and County Politics. Discussing the bad road-s question in the light of a local campaign issue, the Los Angeles (Cal.) Times makes the pertinent question: "By way of a starter in this matter, how would it do this fall to make can didates for supervisors take a cast-iron pledge to favor a comprehensive system of road improvement that will put an end to the present extravagant method of tinkering roads, and give us the be ginning of a first-class system of pub lic highways? Our present method, or rather lack of method, of constructing roads is extravagant and ridiculous, and would have excited the derision of those early road builders 2,000 yeacs or more ago, whose work still remains in good preservation on the continent of Europe- , The American idea of a country road appears to be to level off the soil, and wherever there is a hole filling it with loose dirt and then filling it again. It needs as much science to con struct a first-class road that will last as it does to put up a building, yet it is tr.lien for granted that the first man you meet oa the street can build a road. Consequently it is no wonder that the roads of this country cost every five years almost as much as the courthouse, and then we have nothing to show for it. THE FARMER'S BIGUEST TAX. We prove by soggy, sorry facts. - The truth of what we say: The mud on the wheel Is the biggest sal That the farmer has to pay. L. A. W. Bulletin, DAIRY SUGGESTIONS. Always strain the milk as soon as it is drawn. Churning at too high a temperature, or too long, will produce greasy butter, in which the grain is injured. It is the attention paid to seemingly insignificant things in dairying that make or mar the profits. Large cows need more feed than smaller ones, and a cow in the flush of milk needs more than when dry. If you fear mottles in butter neve ship it until it has been tested. Work out the streaks if any are in it. It is essential in dairying that the food of the cows be uniform, and th supply should be arranged to have it so. ltural World.