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.Kansas do EIGHTEENTH YEAIL WA-KEENEY. KANSAS, SATURDAY SEPTEMBER 19, 1896. NUMBER 29. AMBEE PUZZLED THEM. That Is Why the Greeks Called It "IHelctron." Aid from Tfaftl Word- Is Derived Our - Owl -Klectrtclty A ChlaM God ' "x. Xzull of a Farl . other Kan Carton - Speclal Washington Letter. "Electricity is something about which nobody knows Tery much, and concerning- -which Tery few kno anything-, " says the electrician of the cap itol "I have been handling electricity for many years, but I have much to learn About It. "Until Tery recently I did not know -the derivation of the word, because I am not a dialectician. I have become inter ested in the collection of ember, pearl, crystal and other peculiar things in na ture, and will show you the collection; but first I want to tell you about elec tricity. It originated in the Greek word elektron, which was applied to amber thousands of years ago. The ancients discovered amber, but it puzzled them to know whether it was a metal, mineral or jewel. They found that it was made electrical by friction, and so they called it elektron; and from that we get our vord electricity. "There are -various forms of electric ity. Common electricity is produced by friction, and for many years glass and umber were the principle articles used in producing it. Until it came into common use electricity was looked upon with awe by even those who produced it by friction. Then there is galvanic or voltaic electricity, resulting from chemical decomposition in a galvanic fcattery. Atmospheric electricity is seen nd wondered at by everybody from childhood to old age. It comes with thunder storms, and is sometimes Tery destructive, shattering church steeples, setting fire to houses, rushing down the sides of trees, and sometimes killing people in open fields. There are man; artificial manifestations of this mys terious power of nature, and it is be coming a necessary part of modern civ ilization. It is the most economical anil popular motive power for street and suburban railways; it has superseded g-as as an illuminant; it is used for cookery in place of wood, coal and gas oline; and its uses for telegraphing and telephoning are marvelous in extent. Here in the capitol life would sometimes Tbo ua odurable. wRita-s light and its. ieat. "There are thousands of miles of wire concealed in these solid marble walls, and throughout the granite basements and subways. The weather bureau has its connections here, and in the senate And house and lobbies there are skilled scientists who tell the statesmen all 'about the weather in thfiir distant homes, as well as the speed of the wind -and the condition of the temperature outside the capitol building. The tele graph wires which connect the capitol with tbe white house and the executive departments also tap the through wires to the commercial centers, so that with electricity we are constantly in connec tion with the entire world. And yet, as I said before, very few people know any thing scientifically about it, and only .recently did I know the derivation of the word. "But. like all men, I am talking about any own specialty, when I started out A FINE SPECIMEN. to show you my curios and tell you come of the strange things about them. Amber being electric was called elektron, and you see how attractive it becomes with a little friction. Here is a large piece of virgin amber, one of the largest.pieces in the world. By rub bing it with this chamois skin it be comes heavily, charged with electricity. See these bits of paper and cardboard flying after it as I pass it over the table. It is not to be wondered that tha oncients regarded it as mystical and magical. They believed that there was a spirit of good or of evil in the amber, and that heat incited that spirit to man ifest himself. The prevailing impres sion was that it was a spirit of affec tion, drawing others towards it, with out malice. Many, however, believed that the spirit In the amber was mal evolent, and that it would deceive and destroy all who came under its influ ence. The human mind is naturally more theological than philosophical, and hence we have so many religions iu -the world. They all seem to arise from the natural disposition of man to -fathom tbe unfathomable, and to build theories concerning the supernatural. tTlie amber waa fruitful of much specu lation, and tbe old-time philosophers passed sway from earth without even knowing the origin of the mysterious elektron- "Pieces of amber having flies or other insects imbedded in them excited philos ophers and scientists' ' ox the olden schools. Amber must have attracted the insects and swallowed them; and yet amber appeared to be a solid sub stance, without life, without mouth, or digestive organs. These phenomena are no longer mysterious, for we know that amber is actually the fossil gum of an extinct cone-bearing tree. This gum, in the process of hardening imprisoned the flies and other creatures held in its gummy embrace, and there they are to-day, perfectly preserved, and looking very much alive, although imprisoned. I once saw and tried to purchase a beau tiful specimen which contained a little lizard with five legs, looking as much alive as a living lizard could look in a teaspoonful of syrup; but it had been dead for thousands of years. That THE INGENIOUS CHINAMAN. specimen is in a private collection, and no amount of money will buy it. "Amber was at one time more valu able than gold, because it was scarcer. In the Fourteenth century and previous to that time, amber was made into knives and forks with one prong for the cse of princes and dignitaries of the church. In those days nobody knew the real amber fields, and a great deal of it was found by the seashores, where it was washed up by the waves. It has been discovered, however, that the ex tinct cone-bearing trees flourished in immense forests on the plains of north Germany, and amber is there discovered in large quantities by miners. Large quantities of it are also found in the yellow sandstone along the Baltic shores. There are regularly operated amber mines in east Prussia, at Pal micken, and it is also picked from the cliffs, much as placer miners find gold in California pockets. Consequently am ber is no longer more valuable than gold, but on the contrary it is on the market at from two to filty dollars per pound, according to its quality. It is io longer used for knives and forks, but is most gererally used for mouth pieces on meerschaum and other pipes. It is no longer one of the mysteries of the world, but one of the commodities. But the specimens found in various places in peculiar conditions, still find their way into '-he cabinets of the collectors of curios. "Here . is something as wonderful as the amber containing insects. Look at this diminutive Chinese god. It is a perfect pearl, anil yet you must know that no sculptor could ever have chis eled it and polished it so perfectly. "Pearls are morbid symptoms in oys ters. If a bullet is imbedded in human flesh and not extracted, and the man lives, the bullet becomes encysted. Na ture forms a coating around it. That is exactly what is done by nature for the pearl-bearing oysters. AH along the Chinese coast this fact is taken advan tage of. The cunning Chinamen know that if a grain of sand gets inside of the shell of the oyster, nature will form coating after coating of pearly secre tion around the disturbing particle. thereby protecting the oyster from irri tation. "Some ingenious Chinaman fashioned this little god, and then forced open the shell of a large oyster, and put the god inside. Nature proceeded to cover the intruding object with numerous secre tions, until behold we have a perfect pearl god; and it is indeed one of the wonders of my collection. The oyster assaulted must have been a large one. It is not unlikely that this experiment may have been tried on a number of oys ters before one was found strong and healthy enough to live and cover the idol with pearl. "Now, with these few pointers about amber and pearls, if you will go to the Smithsonian institution and study the immense collection there you will find much to interest vou and your readers. You should also look at the crystals. The word crystal comes from the Greek word Krystallos.-which means ice. The ancients believed crystal to be ice so thoroughly congealed that no amount of heat would melt it. That is one of the exploded fictions of ancient science. Nearly all of the jewels of nature have their histories and their legends. Even until this day some of our ladies have their theories concerning lucky stones, unlucky stones, birth stones, and all that sort of thing. A novelist once made a fortune writing a novel about the moonstone. Kverybody read it. Every body loves the mysterious. SMITH D. FRY. Anastasius rarely socke. It is be lieved that he had some defect of tha vocal organs. He communicated w'.ib Ilia attendants by writing. HISTOEY OF CARRIAGES. Involution of tbe Finest- of Latter Day Vehicles. Tkt trtrut r-all-riadg-txi Cose Wne Use Is Republican Bonw Roy ml Tan. , oota Which Flared yalH Coiuplcooot Part. Special New York Letter.J The carrige, a vehicle familiar to the street gamin of to-day, has a history which reaches way back into the mazes of antiquity. Its first form was very primitive, and the products of the car riage builders of the various ancient nations were in so far all alike that the box always rested directly on the axles. Wagons are first spoken of in the Bible and many ancient traditions and docu ments speak about war chariots and triumphal carriages used by the an cients. The first carriage used by private persons was introduced in Borne about 350 years after its foundation. It waa called tbe "pileutum," and was granted by the senate to the Boman ladies who had sacrificed their jewels in the in terest of the republic. The privilege was rarely used, however, and up to the time of Augustus, the Boman ladies employed a sort of Sedan chair exclu sively on their travels and excursions. The wagon of the Bomans was called the "Carpentum," and consisted of an arched box resting on two wheels and drawn by one or two mules. The car pentum was often richly decorated. At s later period the patrician Bomans RUSSIAN TELEGA. uswd a four-wheeled carriage called the "Carrucae," and the Boman "swells" tried to outdo each other in the ele gance of their turnouts The knightly costumes of the middle ages and the wretched condition of the roads interfered seriously with the use of carrages at that period and the noble ladies generally traveled on horseback like their lords. Men and women fos tered the noble sport of horseback rid ing; only monks and women using donkeys as a matter of greater comfort. As late as the beginning of the sixteenth century the aldermen in the cities went to council meetings on horseback. When covered coaches made their ap pearance in Germany, at the beginning of the sixteenth century, they were used only by the noblest ladies, men disdain ing to ride in them. The first carriage with suspended box which is mentioned in medieval history served Queen Isabella at her official en trance in Paris in 1405. Fifty years later the envoys of Ladislaus V., king of Hungary and Bohemia, presented the French queen with a "suspended and ichly-decorated carriage," which caused great admiration at the French court. This carriage was not imitated, how ever, for under the reign of Francis I. only two such coaches existed in Paris, one of which belonged to the queen. the other to the kingiU mistress, Diana of Poitiers. Special permission was granted occasionally to ladies of tbe highest rank to use similar vehicles, but in 1563 the parliament of Paris request ed the king to forbid the use of car riages in the city, and this decree was strictly enforced afterwards. Even under Henry IV. carriages were rare objects, the king possessing only one. for common use with the queen. The EAST INDIAN STATE COACH, carriage in which Henry was murdered was a sort of cart, resting on the axles, with a leather roof and leather curtains. The decree of the parliament of Paris was not unique, as other countries also prohibited the use of carriages, some going so far as to make it a felony for the lower nobility and other vassals to use one. A grand tournament in Rnppln (1509), under the Elector Joachim of Branden burg, was attended by the wife of that ruler in a gilded carriage, while her suite occupied 12 richly-decorated car riages of crimson velvet. At the coro nation of Emperor Maximilian in 1562 the archbishop of Cologne and his suite p pea red in 14 carriages. A-chronicler describes the carriage used by the em press of Mathias of Austria during his entry into Vienna. (1011) as "covered with perfumed lea'ther," while Count Khevenhuller, speaking of the marriage of Ferdinand I- says: "The bride with her sisters rode in a gorgeous, golden broidered carriage, the noble ladies of her suite followed in black velvet, snd the rest of the women in neat leather coaches. The fashionable ladies of England at sa earlier period had to resign all comfort during a carriage ride until ia 1564 s Dutchman, named Wilm Boone n. introduced the first coach, for which the queen appouinted him "royal car riage builder." Several highborn ladies leceived permission to use the new vehicles, which caused great astonish ment in 'the rural counties, wherever cne of these ladies happened to travel. The celebrated prohibitionary bill against carriages and their increasing use was issued 50 years later, but with out notable effect. The duke of Buck ingham was the first one to drive a six-in-hand, and the earl of Northum berland tried to ridicule the new luxury by putting eight horses before his car riage. The idea of renting out carriages and horses originated with a Frenchman in Paris, Nicholas Sauvage, in 1650, and CARRIAGE OF THE YEAR 1650. since his house bore the name "Hotel St. Fiacre" these coaches were general ly called "fiacres." Sauvage soon found imitators and improvers, and only a few years later four-in-hands could be hired ior excursions to the country palaces which the court occupied alternately. They were called: "Vottures pour la suit de la cour. The practical Dutchmen did not re gard the evolution of the carriage with much favor, for in 1663 the use of car riages was prohibited in Amsterdam, to save the costly pavement," as the edict said. The carriage in which the wife of Charles of Anjou accompanied her hus band in his entry into Naples must have been a real gem. An old historian says: "She rode in a caretta upholstered with blue velvet, embroidered with golden fleur-de-lis, the like of which Neapoli tans had never seen before. This luxury spread from Naples over all Italy." It cannot be ascertained whether the ex tended use of carriages spread from Italy or not, but no nation is as en thusiastic about carriages as the Ital ians and especially the Neapolitans, may the vehicles be ever so primitive. No where can be seen more stylish car riages than, in Palermo. But it is said that these elegant carriages which cause so much admiration on the corso ere often owned by several parties, who exercise the strictest system of econ omy in their household to be able to in dulge in the luxury of an elegant turn out. It is also remarkable, that tha TURKISH "ARABA." occupants of these carriages, ladies and children, always peak out from closed windows and drawn curtains. This fact reminds one of the "sweet waters," the favorite place for carriage riding with the Turkish ladies of Con stantinople. It is peculiar that the eristocratic ladies of the harem use an ox cart of the most primitive construc tion. The box rests directly on tho axels and the wheels are simple wooden disks. Curtains protect the occupants against inquisitive glances and the slow gait of the animals, as well as a number of black attendants who surround the carriage, prevent any possibility of a mishap. ' The coaches in the Flowery Kingdom, which are awkwardly constructed of the hardest woods, are a torture to tha foreign traveler, who generally prefers a horse or donkey. The carriage used by the emperor of China cn solemn oc casions reminds one of the antique iorms of the Boman and Greek chariots. The most magnificent carriages which Lave ever been used by crowned head are surpassed however, by the fairy like coaches and sleighs, of the lata Eing Louis IL of Bavaria, which no visitor to Munich fails to see. SIGMUND KRATJSZ. llndSof Financial frsmlM. The Washington Post tells a story of a young man in Washington who came to this city the other day, not be cause he wanted to see New York, or because be had business here, but be cause he had a pass on one of tbe rail roads and didn't mean to let a thing like that escape him. He came back recently. Everybody asked him what Le had wen over in the town. He hadn't seen anything. - . "Well, didn't you go anywhere?" asked somebody, finally. "Not on your life, said the boy. "D'ye think I was going to pay two dol lars a day for a room and not use it all the time?" If. . Tribune. Bow Chmrlle saved Her. "That Charley Spindles is a horrid fel low, isn't he?" "Yes, but he once saved me from a mad bull." "How was that?" "I saw Charlie coming and went though another field." Cleveland Plain Dealer. A lidlrat CnllMt "Mabel," said the man who favors free silver, "that young maa who calls ' to see vou remains aliAO-ether too lsts.- It was after half-past 11 when, ha start ed for home last night." "I cant help it, father." " "Can't you give him some kind of a hint?" - "I did. ' But be said he had too much respect for your sentiments to think of leaving until 15 minutes to one." Wash ington Star. "You women f olks'complained young Mr. Sypher at the dinner table, "al ways laugh at the least little things." "You wrong us," returned the beau tiful Mjss Eoolson, earnestly. "When, Mr. Sypher, did I eTer laugh at you?" And while they were removing the roup plates Mr. Sypher looked into his napkin and thought and thought and thought. As well he could. N. Y. Becorder. NOT EASILY DISCOURAGED. The Lady If you do not moTo on I hall whistle for the dog. The Man Let me sell you a whistle, mum. Truth. Appropriate. Parrott I'm thinking of starting a paper whose mission will be to fight all our modern corruptions and abusers and frauds but I don't know what name to give it. Wiggins Call it the Earth. Parrott Why? Wiggins Because it will be one ever lasting bawl! Bay City Chat. - THE RIVAL. SUITORS. ' Miss Columbia You 11 have to see papa about it. A. Reflection Resented. She I know Harry Hopkins must have a mercenary motive in this match. How can he love Miss Van Million when she is so much older than ne is? He Oh, you do the boy injustice. Even if he doesn't love her, he venerates ber. Bay City Chat. Probably. Brown It is rather strange that none of our popular novelists have heard that monkeys talk. Jones How do you know they have't? Brown If they had, we'd have some monkey dialect stories. Up-to-Date. Only Woman fjnderatande Woman. Mistress Now, Jane, clear away the breakfast dishes and then look after the children. I'm going around the cor ner to have a dress fitted. Faithful Yes. mum; will you take the night key, or shall I set up f er ye ? Texas Sifter. Kept Her Word. Mr. Meanitall That Miss Flurtsome is literally throwing herself at Cholly Chumplaigh's head. Miss Coldeal I don't doubt it. She said the other day she would stop at nothing to make a hit. Brooklyn Life. He Had His Revease. "Come, dear, kiss my cheek and make it up," she said, forgivingly.' "I ll kiss it, he answered, "but I c.on't think it wants any more making up." Tit-Bits. HtHS mm Site Is Done. ' The stranger drew himself up stiffly. "Sir," he said, "I am an honest mam. A look of pity came over the face of' the capitalist. Tap to that moment he had known nothing of the stranger with whom he had struck up an ac quaintance while waiting for the car. He put his hand into hia pocket. " "Ah, my poor fellow," he exclaimed, "I would that I could do more for you. But here, at least, is enough to get on square meal." Chicago Tribune. A Questionable Compliment, Charley Chumpleigh Ah, Miss Nightingale, that "Winter Song" was charming; it carried me back to the days of my childhood. Miss Nightingale I am so gHad yon like it. Charley Chumpleigh Why, I could actually hear the cattle bellowing, the old windmill creaking and the dis cordant winds howling about the door Washington Times. .Provided For, Two citizens of Houston, old friends, met and one asked: "What has become of your son, the one who lost his job? Has he got a po sition yet?" "He is all right. He ii engaged to a rich girl, and in a few days he will ac cept a lucrative position as son-in-law." Texas Sifter. i i i Bis Opinion. It was Uncle Allen Sparks first view of a nail-making machine. "By George!" he ejaculated, after watching it a few moments in silence. "there's a pair of jaws that never bite off more than they can chew. Tha machine ought to be allowed to- vote!" Chicago Tribune. i Ready to Retire. "Well," said Tenspot, "I'm getting pretty tired of ladies society." "What's the matter now?" said Tad dells. "Why, just as soon as there is no long er any necessity to tuck in balloon sleeves, I've got to lace up bicycle leg gings." Town Topics. A rrodigry. i What thouprh he scarce can.read or writs. : And Is the dullest boy In school? What though his teacher looks upon - Him as a hopeless fool? The other boys look up to him He's envied by them all, For be It known that he's a star 'A Cleveland Leader. I. -5?.r WwtlxCi U CJOU.VYVB.Y 1 - Domestic Pbllosopby. "This is the day on which our bouse is to burn down." "Gracious, what do you mean." "Vhy, buildings always burn down the day after their insurance has ex pired." Chicago Record. His Own Coin. Van Arndt One of the greatest satis factions in the world is to feel that you are the only man who sees a joke. It gives one such a feeling of superiority. Fenilworth Yes, especially when the . joke is one's own. Truth. Good Advice. "Say, Tve had an offer to go to work for a Chicago wholesale bouse. What would you do if you were in my shoes?" After a careful inspection "I think I would black 'em. Rock ford Republic Tbe Lmnk Saved Trouble. "Why do you laugh at his stale jokes?" "If I did not laugh he would think T did not understand the jokes and would try to explain them." Truth. A Backward Pupil. Dora Can't you ride a bicycle yet? Why, Mr. Silver-spoon has been teaching; you for three weeks. Cora I know it. But he hasn't pro posed yet. Tit-Bits. ureal Saver. She They tell me that Mr. Hustle? saves all he makes. He That's what his creditors say. Detroit Free Press. '