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DRAINPIPE JOINTS. lUnkla Hiets ExpUlncd by Equally Val uUa Illustrations. . The joints of two drainpipes may be iil either on the same level or. with mir above the other. The level joint baa the advantage that co loss of fall sussnrir; while the disadvantage is that trrr- can more readily get in. Joining- oa different levels is more easily and is more secure against the of toads; bnt it causes loss of -fsJK. Joining at equal heights must mwt be done by cutting1 the larger pipe am the side and sticking the end of the smaller one in the opening, as this the cross -sect ion of the collect- JOINING TWO DRAIN PIPES BY OVERLAPPING. or, lessens its capacity, and induces stoppage. Where it is inconvenient or t expensive to get proper T-piecea, the joint can be made by rooijng tilj or their equivalent, or pieces of drain pipe, and cement. The end of the f eed sr must be brought up to. a joint be tween two sections of collector, which zre broken away on the ends so as to Kcavc an opening; but the end of the aVwier must not project into this; the int must be built up by pieces of JODHNG DRAIN PIPES BY SPECIAL JOINT PIECE. brick, or tiles, or mortar, or cement. Joints between pipes on the different levels are so made, according to the method recommended by Kuehn: A ind hole is made in the collector and in the feeder, with a pointed ham- arid this must be of the same The joint is then, as shown in fig-. 1, luted with a ring of clay, and the end of the feeder plugged with brick clay to avoid washing away of fa 3. OVERLAPPING JOINT WITH SPECIAL FITTING. tbe surrounding soil. By the use of special joint-pieces, joints may be mod between pipes on the same level as well -as between those on different levels; giving1 the advantages of both methods .atod the disadvantages of neither. These 'pipes are of round cross-section within, .-and D-forni without The pipe for the collector has on its flat side a hole : made before burning of the size of the feeder. For the feeder no special piece 5s necessary, if a joint on a level be re- juired. It is only necessary, then, to 'lute the joint with clay, ik seen in Fig. "2, to make it tight and keep it in place. ireater security against getting out of place may le secured by a ring around the hole in the collector, laid on H'hen jwen, and burned so as to form a -pa rtt.hr reof. The form of special piece -shows in Fig. 2 may be used for a joint at different levels, but in this case Site feeder-line requires a similar, but smaller piece, closed at one end and hav iag' a hole made in its flat side, and two cross-pieces added to prevent the sUkting- of the feeder, before burning (see Figs. 3 and 4). In laying drain pipe the last piece of the feeder-line must always refct.on virgin soil; this insures its remaining in place and the joint remaining tight. Where the end piece of the feeder rests aee-urely on the collector, but insecurely -cm the other end, the joint would be opened by the setting of .the pipe. A ery acute junction is to be avoided, as the feeder would not have a firm bed ; -when the lines would otherwise meet at an acute angle, there should be a -alight later detour made. Lastly, when Janeparing for overlapping joints, the .laborer must be accustomed always to make the trench bottom for the feeder fcigber than that for the collector. The 'vital point in successful tile drainage, fee the grades have been established, as to give attention to properly laying the tile. Robert Grimshaw, in Amer- i Agriculturist. t A mino of the Pm Crop. 'Southern Cultivator sums up the value -mad adaptability of the peu crop as fol lows: It is a nitrogen gatherer; it .shades the soil in summer and aids the process of nitrification; it goes deeply .into the soil and brings up water and .mineral matter needed by the plant; its adaptability to all kinds of soils, stiff est -days to the most porous sands, fertile alluvial bottoms to barren uplands; it. atnads the beat a ad sunshine of southern simmers; its rapid growth enables the firmer in the south to raise two crops a jesr on the same soil; if sown thiokly.it -will, by its rapid growth and shade, ef--teetually smother all weeds and thus erve as a cleansing crop; it is the best preparatory crop known to the southern farmer; every kind of crop grows well auttcr it; it furnishes most excellent food in large quantities for bo'.h mac tad animals. Musces ri Tl U Wti W CROSS SECTION. SOLAR WAX EXTRACTOR. It Makes the ReodrlA( of assail Qus titles of Comb Very Kasy. A solar wax extractor is needed in every apiary; several are kept running in many large apiaries. Extractors which render wax by steam are also used. To the latter class belongs the improved Swiss wax extractor. This implement, invented in Switzerland and improved in America, consists of a tin or copper vessel with a circle of perfora tions in the bottom near the sides to let in steam from a boiler below and within this upper vessel another re ceptacle the comb receiver made of perforated zinc Within a few years wax extractors employing the heat of the sun and known aa solar wax ex tractors have come into general nse. The essential features in all the forms that have been devised are a metal tank with a glass cover and usually a wire cloth strainer, below which is placed the receptacle for the wax, the whole so arranged as to enable' one to tilt it at such an angle as will catch the di rect rays of the sun. The effectiveness of the solar wax extractor is increased by having- the glass doubled and adding also a reflector, such as a mirror or a sheet of bright metal. An important advantage of the solar wax extractor is the ease with which small quantities of comb can be ren dered. By having this machine much is therefore saved that might be ruined by wax moth larva if allowed to ac cumulate, besides serving at the same time to decrease these pests about the apiary. The wax obtained by solar heat is also of superior quality, being clean, never water-soaked nor scorched, end also light in color, owing- to th5 bleach ing action of the sunlight. The cost of a medium-sized solar extractor does not exceed that of the larger Swiss steam extractors, yet of the two the former is likely to prove by far the more valuable, even though it can be used only during the warmer months. Farm and Home. FOR SHIPPING FOWLS. The Kind of Crate Which Prevents Birds from Injuring; Themselves. I havesh:pped a large number of fowl3 to breeders and farmers in all the west ern and southern states and never had but one injured. For one Plymouth Kock cock I made the coop 16 inches wide, 18 long and 20 high; for two or three hens, 16 inches wide, 16 high and 24 long; for cock and two hens, same width and length, but 20 inches high The bottom is tight, one-half-inch stuil with one strip across each end and one across the middle, underneath. Sides, ends and top are made of plastering laths placed one-half incr apart. No cloth, pasteboard or paper is used. The only bird T ever failed to land s:ife and sound at its destination war; placed in n coop lined with cloth and open only at the top. II. met with disaster in a warm express car and arrived looking weary and sad, find soon after it turnel up it toes. I used lath coops to confirm to the new reduced rate rule of the express companies and to secure good ventila tion. A fowl that can't stand ventilation is of no value as - breeder. In a proper ly constructed coop a fowl will go to the farthest corner of the country as safely as to roost, Fred Grundy, in Rural New Yorker. AN UNNATURAL HABIT. Best Way to Care an Kgg-Eating Hen Is to Est the lien. The habit of egg-eating is a vice, of which, when once contracted, it is al most impossible to break the hen. When the habit is acquired by a hen it will spread throughout the flock, if not checked in the beginning. The best way to cure a hen that eats eggs is to eat the hen. Egg-eating is encourag-ed by leaving eggs in the nest over night; they get broken and when a hen once gets the taste of an egg she is always desirous of cultivating that taste, and eats everything that looks like an egg. If you must keep an egg in the nest, use artificial ones, those that cannot be broken, or if broken, are unpalatable and bad for digestion. There are all sorts of artificial eggs, wooden, china, chalk, etc., any of these will do for nest eggs. Boiled meat seasoned with a little pepper and salt and ground bones, will sometimes satiate this un natural appetite. Dark nests are also used for hens that eat their eggs, but not with good results. It is better by far to do the right thing at once and eat the hen. You will save yourself lots of trouble. Feather. LIVE STOCK MATTERS. It is estimated that 613,000 sheep were killed by dogs last ye:ir. An eastern stockman says he used to grind corn and other grain for pigs, but years of experience have 'taught him that the most he got out of it was hard work. The wool clip of Robert Taylor, of Casper, Wyo., for the present year is 560,000 pounds. Mr. Taylor is believed to be the largest individual wool grow er in the United States. W. B. Snow has made a careful inves tigation of the status of the sheep in dustry and estimates the total number of sheep in the country at about 32,000, 000, or 6,000,000 less than he estimate of the department of agriculture last January. Farmers Voice. Tka Curse or the Pigeon. If a man wishes to keep pigeons and confines them in wire-covered yards, they will pay, but to have a lot of pigeons flying over the whole neighbor hood is a curse to every farmer and poultry man, as they not only eat- food that other persons than the owner of the pigeons must pay for, Hut they bring and carry disease from one flock to an other, says an exchange. Choier. roup and lice are spread by pigeons. Every community should rebel against the man who turnsa flock of pigeon looss to fly where they desire. Owls, hawks and minks are blessings compared with pigeons where poultry is kept. FARM AND GARDEN. FARM FISH CULTURE. Aa Interesting- Industry and Oao That. . Caa Bo Made to Pay. For many years past the government has been at great pains and expense in establishing- and keeping up piscicul ture establishments. And millions upon millions of fish have been batched and distributed to private individuals and turned loose in the water courses in various parts of the country, and have perished for the want of proper atten tion. And the public, generally, have derived but little benefit for the money expended. In foreign countries, fish culture has been profitable, and it could be made profitable in this country pro vided the farmers would turn their at tention to it, and prosecute it with judgment and energy. Every owner of a farm of any dimensions can have his own private fish pond, and supply his table with the rarest and best of food at little expense. And fresh fish is always ready Bale in the country markets. On a great majority of the farms there is a place worth but little for cultivation that might be converted into an excel lent fish pond, and made to yield its proportion of food for the sustenance of the family. But so far, farmers, or at least very few of them, seem to have given the matter any attention. I know but one farmer in my neighborhood who has given the matter any thought, and he has been remarkably successful. Ponds intended for fish culture (if possible) should be made where there is an abundance of shade, and made as deep as possible, so that when full there will be no possible danger of their freez ing to the bottom. And on the bottom should be placed large flat stones with their edges elevated by placing another stone under them. Under these stones the fish will go for protection either in very cold or hot weather. The margins of the pond should be made slanting gradually. Water growth should be let grow around the edges, as it has a ten dency to shade the water and keep it cool and fresh. The purer the water can be kept the better. Consequently, stock nor fowls should have access to it, for when the water becomes impure the fish are not good for food. And they soon sicken and die. ' The German carp.the California salm on, the pike, the shad and many other kinds have their admirers, and are high ly recommended, but for hardy kinds, and those most likely to thrive, I would not exchange the bass, the buffalo, the perch and th; cat of our owe native streams for any others. Fish, like every thing else confined to narrow quar ters, should be regularly fed. Coarse bread of any kind without salt or grease is an excellent food. When wanted for table use they can be taken with a clip net or small sieve and the small fry returned to the pond. C. Glover, in Journal of Agriculture. FACTS FOR FARMERS. To get good horses, breed right and then feed right. Keeping the harness, especially the collars, well oiled will help prevent galls. The nearer you get to full blood in breeding the better will be the re sults. The thrift and condition of the moth er largely determines what the pig will be. A well-fed pig is usually a contented one, and will usually take only such exercise as is needed for health. On the farm, as elsewhere, economy of time and space requires every team to accomplish the greatest amount of work. The quality of the meat may be readily improved by careful and clean ly feeding, as well as changed by the kinds of food. Horses may get fat and look well standing in the stable all of the time, but they will hardly be in a condition to stand hard times. Farmers' Union. LOADING CORN FODDER. Bow t2-B Work May Be Done Without Too Much Exertion. The accompanying illustration shows how fodder may be loaded without much exertion. Place an ordinary rack on a low-wheeled wagon or a sled. To the rear of the rack hinge an apron of sufficient length so that when one end is on the ground the slope will not ex ceed 25 degrees. Fasten a pulley, a, to the front end of the rack at the middle. Back the wagon or sled close to the shock. Turn down the apron. Make a loop on one end of a strong rope and place this over the shock, b. Run the other end through the pulley on the front of the rack, then back to a stake or iron pin, c, driven into the ground. Start up the team slowly and the shock will be pulled onto the rack. W. II. Ross, in Farm and Home. " Barbed Wire and Stock. We cannot object too much to the use of barbed wire for fences for stock. Some years ago we were riding across the Dakota plains in a train. A herd of cattle became frightened at the train, and some of them made a break for the barbed wire fence. None of them tried to get over except a calf. The poor animal got partly over, the wire and was held there by the barbs. As the train went out of sight the creature Was seen still held fast by the same prongs. As there was no help in sight, we can not know the suffering occasioned the dumb brute. This is doubtless only one case of the thousands, but it shows the inhumanity of man. Let us disr courage the barbed-wire barbarism. Farmers Review. A NEW YORKER'S BARN.; Its Adftstsfn d Construction scribed in Detail. The perspective. Fig. l.and the ground plan. Fig. 2, give a pretty clear general idea of the barn. The posts are 22 feet and the ridge about 40 fet above sills. The two center beams are 4 feet higher than outside ones, so all pitching is done under them. . I have tracks fast t? perliae beams or. plate extending length of barn. Floor-14 feet wide. A chute in mow 14 feet high to deliver hay in front of rack "in cleaning room, FIG. 1- PERSPECTIVE OF A EARN. with doors on hinges every 4 feet to raise as needed. There should be a space of 3 feet between front wall and grain bins so a man can go in to clean it out. There should be a brick floor in cleaning room and under granary. My barn was built in 1871 and no rats have troubled me and no grain has been lost from dampness. The air space under the granary must be kept open and extend to near floor over head so no straw or chaff can get in to stop the circulation of air. The feed, hay, etc., are put down from the floor under the girt, through a chute. V.tvrrucyr Woke.v; ? n3 i i i i i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r Rk-v ,1 It 1 1 Single - I Stall V" I FIG. 2. GROUND PLAN. into the alley in front of the cows. The horse stable floor, first cement, with 3 inch fall to where droppii-gs fall and -inches from wall, so that the lowest place comes where droppings fall, then cover with plank. The foundation walls on three sides should be 6 feet high to make room for granary. Would use oak for sills. My barn holds all grain and fodder pro duced on 150-acre farm and nothing i stacked except straw. J. C. McVean, in Ohio Farmer. TRAINING THE COLT. Frightening or Ill-Treating Must Be Studiously Guarded Against. When a colt has been left till three or four years old, as is often the case, before any attempts are made to han dle him, it is wise to devote, if possi ble, at least a month to the process of gentling, as a preliminary to actual breaking. Frightening or ill-treating such an animal must be studiously guarded against. ' Speaking from a varied experience, the writer is con vinced that to engage in any struggle with a young horse is in the highest de gree unwise if it can possibly be avoided. The fight to halter a strong animal will give -him a severe fright, and one which it takes him a long time to forget; and, besides this, if he should succeed in breaking away dur ing the effort to fix his halter, he will become conscious of a victory gained over his master a fact which will not soon be dispelled from his mind. The knowledge of success in an attempt to break away not only induces ob stinacy in future stages of his tuition, but will also prompt him to resist by every means in his power a repetition of the effort to halter him at the time. When wishing to halter a young horse, there is no plan so good as to noose him quietly first of all, and the best way of doing this is to drive him gently through a partly open gate preferably that of a yard in which he has been confined where a noose is suspended by cotton in such a manner that he cannot pass out without lodg-ing-the rope round his neck or shoulders-. The noose mnst be knotted so that it cannot pull quite tight round the neck, while the loose end should be 15 or 20 feet long.- When the animal has been driven back to the yard, the end of the rope can be secured and the noose drawn close up to the head. If steady pull is kept upon the rope, the horse will turn and face his trainer, who should approach him quietly and gradually. If the animal is very nerv ous, wait for a few minutes without moving, and then again approach him, always keeping the rope taut. When at last within reach, rub his ears and forehead with the halter for awhile and then slowly place it in position. He should next be coaxed into the stable, or wherever it is wished to tie him up. A young horse must never be forced into a building of which he is suspicious. If he is led up to the door, and the trainer, allowing six or seven feet of rope, stands inside, and keeps a gentle tension on the halter, the animal will eventually make up his mind to enter, although it may take him half an hour to do so. London lave Stock Journal. Prof. Henry, of the Wisconsin experi ment station, finds that cabbages have a. good deal of value more than pota toes and turnips as a swine feed, es pecially in the first part of the fatten ing period. A long lived animal m ust be of slower growth than one for early maturity. THE FARMING WORLD. EARLY FATTENING. Pork Prodaoed trmma cm Alone Is Kst tss Best Product. "Corn is not so exclusively the feed of hogs at any age as it used .to be. Instead of growing pigs on their swill with pas ture, and thus stunting their early growth,' it is the practice of the best farmers to begin the high feeding from birth, keeping the pigs always in eon-' dition for the butcher, and topping off the last few weeks with a clear corn diet. Many farmers, according to American Cultivator, "prefer that pork for their own use shall not be thus topped off. , It is sweeter but less firm in texture, containing more moisture. This, however, only means that the pig killed after being fed so as to waste in cooking is by that fact shown to be in healthy condition. . All animals in perfect health are composed largely of water. This is evaporated when inter nal fevers evaporate the internal mois ture, and the meat is then said to be firm, solid and will waste little in cook ing. Whenever pork of this kind is not wanted, it Bhould be fattened with boiled vegetables or fruit mixed with wheat middlings and bran to make the right proportion of nitrogenous mat ter. We have often more than half fat tened hogs on boiled pumpkins and windfall apples, and never had pork that tasted better than that thus fat tened. Even before we knew that it was unwholesome, we never much liked the pork fattened on corn alone. "It is well always to select the breed ing sow early and give her the especial kind of feed and care adapted to pre pare her for her mission in life. The old-fashioned practice of some farmers of feeding all the pigs together on corn until nearly fattening time tended al ways to deterioration. Not but that the sow which had fattened least and had made liberal growth instead of putting on fat even with this feed was the sow out of the lot that was then the best adapted to breeding, but it was also the sow that had shown by its "failure to fatten when highly fed that it lacked the especial trait that made a hog valu able. What is wanted in breeding sows is the greatest possible ability to make use of all the food given, so that the tendency will always be to an excess of fat, and feed them so that this ten dency will be kept in check and yet so liberally as to promote vigorous growth. This means an abundant, but not any concectrated, ration of food adapted to make growth rather than fat. All the grains are too fattening. Wheat middlings and skim milk diluted w'th dish washings, with enough grass in summer or beets in winter to keep the pig from squealing, will build up a long, rangy sow that will produce more and better pigs in half a dozen years of her life than a farmer can make by any ether like investment of his money. AN ENSILAGE WAGON. Plan ana Description of a Bsck for Haul ing l&a silage Corn. We can do no better than to give an illustration and description of the rack used by the Wisconsin experiment sta tion and described in their annual re port. The two stringers are 4xS's, 18 or 20 feet long, swung from the front axle- tree by a lengthened king-bolt pro vided with nut and washer; and from the hind sxletree by three-quarter inch rods provided with nut and washer be low and with hook above which hang from the bolster. The stringers are ENSILAGE RACK, about 20 inches apart, outside measure. in front, and a short reach keeps the hounds from tipping up. "These racks not only dispense with a man upon the wagon in loading, but they materially lighten the labor of the man who takes the corn from the gavels, for it is only the top of the load which need be raised shoulder high; again, when it comes to unloading the man can stand on the floor and simply draw the corn toward him and lay it upon the table of the cutter without raising th corn up to again throw it down." Ohio Farmer. Mortgages on Feeding Stock. There are. few experiences in busi ness, however unsatisfactory they may be, that do not in the end teach a valu able lesson or result in some good. Thus the difficulty in getting money which the western feeders now experi enece may yet result to their advan tage by inaugurating a new system of credit in such business, whereby the feeder will not be so dependent upon the ability or the disposition of the banker to accommodate him. It is now possible for the western feeder to got cattle to consume his grain by giving a mortgage on both cattle and corn, thus making the seller perfectly safe and paying him good interest on hLi money. This is now only a makeshift to overcome the difficulty of borrow ing money, but it and other credit ex pedients now necessary may be useful in future business. National Stock man. Boots of the Cora Pleat. It has been estimated by one who ha had tune to experiment in the matter that the roots of a single corn plant, if placed end to end lengthwise, will ex tend fully one mile. Of course, this in cludes uXl the rootlets, and demonstrates the enormous feeding capacity of ths plant. Other plants also have large root capacity and enable them to seek out every particle of food in the soil It is better, therefore, t? broadcast manure or fertilizer than to place it in the hills, as it can be more easily appro priated by the roots. Turpentine, a little in their slop and a little rubbed over their backs, is a good remedy for worms in pigs. - , MOVABLE HEN HOUSES. They Are a Oood Thing When - Properly Constructed and vared For. In England movable poultry-house have been popular for a long time. -m. .i4,niiiirH of such houses con- sist chiefly in furnishing fresh ground for the fowls and, II tne nouses are uauo nrithnn 4nrL in avoidinir cleaning them. There is also an advantage in having the flock small. lor small doom, from some unexDlainable cause, usually do better than large ones. Mr. H. H. Stoddard, then of Hartford. Conn., some years ago advocated in "An Egg Farm? a colony plan of keeping fowls. This plan consisted in brief of portable houses, which were construe v lflro a rewvf nttphed both WATS, with I . doors and windows at the ends, and MOVABLE HEN HOUSE. resting upon runners. There were no floors. Houses were moved frequently a few feet, and thus the droppings were cared for. The houses were to be paint ed with different colors, that the fowls might recognize them the more read ily. The objections to portable houses are: First, the greater cost; second, the greater amount of time required to care for the fowls; third, the fact that theydo not afford the best quarters for the fowls during the winter. Where many fowls are kept, the labor ques tion, usually ignored, is an important one, and anything which will save labor is worth consideration. In permanent. THE HOUSE ON WHEELS. i fixed houses, conveniences for water ing, feeding, cleaning, etc., can be intro duced, which it would not be feasible to introduce into movable houses. By providing two yards for each pen, which can be done with a little foresight in laying out the hennery, the objection to foul earth can be overcome. These yards can be used on alternate years, the year in which they are not used by the fowls geing devoted to tho growth of a crop of clover. By having portable fences, and the yards upon op posite sides of the house, the cost of fencing will not be appreciably in creased, and the ground upon which tho hens have run can be plowed and sowed without difficulty. Raising a crop for one year takes out all the noxious qual ities from the soil. It is, therefore, m qusetion whether it is - advisable to adopt movable houses or not. If one decides to adopt such houses, and intends to keep a large number of fowls, we think the colony plan one of the best which has been devised. The houses, for winter use, however, should be provided with a floor. During the winter they can be drawn together so as to avoid a large amount of travel in caring for the fowls. Country Gentle man. AMONG THE POULTRY. Sunflowers are a good thing to havs about the poultry quarters wh-?rc they can be grown. It is a good way to have the roosting poles and nests movable, anil place them in the sunshine a part of the day. The survival of the fittest is good poultry doctrine. Find what individual hens are doing the best, and breed from them. - - An egg contains from 25 to 27 per cent, solid matter, nearly 14 per cent, albu men. That means that laying hena need food rich in albuminous matter meat, oil ir eal, milk, bran. etc. ' A Boston commission merchant says that if farmers would market all tho chickens and eggs they can spare each, week, they would be surprised at tha regular income that they were recelv- ing. and they would find more profit in poultry. t A writer in Farm Poultry says that crop-bound is nothing more than indi gestion, and that charcoal-fed fowls rarely ever have this trouble. Thin pre vent it by every now and then charring several ears of corn and allowing tha hens to pick it off. A Wet SoU Is Cold. - It is not difficult to see how certainly a wet soil must be a cold cnesince un der the summer sun there must take place a constant and rapid evaporation of the1 surface water of the soil and a corresponding cooling of the surface) must take place. When evaporation has progressed until the absorbens power of the earth is greater than tha sun's rays, or so to speak, until th pores of the surface are closed, then commences the baking process so well known to farmers and so difficult to. manage, Underdrainage is the simple and eerta'n'remedy for these evils, sincv by removing and keeping remored tha surface water the soil becomes both dry and warm, which renders it ali-3 mora friable, and in every sense easier to cul . tivate. Farmers Review.