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uuuiv 1 111L.U England, France, Russia, Belgium and Servia Pitted Against Germany and Austria Armies Mav Spar Ten Days to Hide Plans for World's Greatest Fight. BRITISH CHALLENGE George V Declares War When Ultimatum to Kaiser Goes Unanswered. BIG BATTLE IN NORTH SEA Physicians Ordered to Northern Scot land "to Attend Naval Wounded" by Admiralty All News of Activities Suppressed. WAR'S RAPID PROGRESS July 28. Austria declares war on Servia. July 30. Germany gives Russia 24 hours in which to explain the mobilization of her army. August 1. Germany declares war on Russia. August 2. Germany Invades Lux emburg and violates Belgium. August 3. German army of nearly one million moving on France. Frontier is crossed and fighting occurs at numerous points. August 3. Germany asks Belgium to facilitate passage of German troops through the country. August 3. Belgium refuses and appeals to King George. August 3. Sir Edward Grey an nounces England will fight Ger many if the kaiser's fleet attacks the French coast. August 4. Germany declares war on France. August 4. Germany declares war on Belgium. August 4. England sends ultima tum to Germany. August 4. Germany declares war on England, and England at same time, declares war on Germany. England, France, Russia, Bel gium and Servia are now pitted against Germany and Austria in the great Euiopean struggle, and at least two more nations are ex pected to enter, the conflict within a short time. Belgium had to enter the lists because Germany violated her neu trality. It is believed Sweden and Switzerland also will have to de fend themselves against invaders. avussia uity irv iu overrun sweu en. The Kaiser's armies already threaten the Alpine republic. England actively entered the great struggle when she formally declared war on Germany at 7 p. m., August 4, at the close of her twenty-four hour ultimatum that German troops leave Belgian ter ritory at once. The Kaiser ignor ed the ultimatum. A great naval battle between the German and English and Russian fleets in the North sea is reported from points on the Swedish and the Scottish coasts. Details are lacking. The admiralty has ordered all the physicians of Aberdeen, Scotland, to rush on a special train to Cromarty "to attend the naval wounded." Seven hundred and fifty thousand British troops, fully mobilized, await orders to go to the continent. When they leave England depends on the outcome of a naval battle between the British and German fleets. Experts declare there- will be no Important land fight within ten days. Such clashes as occur in the mean time will be merely blinds behind which opposing armies will move to positions for- what, it ia predicted, will be the greatest and deadliest match at arms in the world's history. About 70 per cent of England's 750, 000, half ol Russia's 2,500,000, 80 per cent of France's 1,250,000, all of Bel gium's 250,000 and two-thirds of. Ser vians 210,000 soldiery will be hurled against all of Germany's 2,050,000 and and all of Austria's 810,600. - It appears certain, of course, that thegreater combination will be vic tors, but victory may bring its own defeat in a stupendous death toll, war xperts say, because the Germanic allies are fighting from a center. . Aircraft, of which all the warring nations have an abundance, will play an important part in the conflict. Italy Is .Neutral. - London. The French embassy in London has been informed of the declaration of Italian neutrality and that Italy probably will call out one or two classes of the army but with no aggressive idea. Germans Invade Holland. Brussels. The Burgomaster of Ant werp announced that the Germans had invade Limburg, Holland, and that the province had been placed under martial law. Limburg has a popula tion of nearly 250.000. nnrr at hart lyuwtf ni vvmii Germany and Austria, are placing their greatest faith in the enormous Zeppelin dirigible baloons, while their opponents will use mostly aeroplanes. Of these lighter and faster ma chines, which look like huge dragon flies or "snake-doctors," France has an .incomparable fleet of more than 2,500. . Most of these travel faster than 0 miles an hour and all of them carry explosive bombs and light rapid-fire guns. Refused to Respect Belgium. London. Great Britain has declared war on Germany. An announcement that Germany had declared war on Great Britain was due to an error in the admiralty's statement. The British foreign office has is sued the following statement: "Owing to the summary rejection by the German government of the re quest made toy his Britannic majesty's government that the neutrality of Bel gium should be respected, his maj esty's ambassador at Berlin has re ceived his passports and his majesty's government has declared to the Ger man government that a "state of war exists between Great Britain and Ger many from 11 o'clock p. m., August 4." Martial law has been declared throughout Great Britain and Ireland. The step places the military authori ties in supreme control everywhere. French Port Bombarded. Paris. A Havas dispatch- from Al giers says it is reported that French warships have sunk the . German cruiser Panther. Another unofficial re port from the 'same place says a French fleet has captured two Ger man cruisers, the Goeben and Bres lau. The governor of Algeria, in a tele gram received by the French govern ment, says that the German cruiser Breslau fired eight broadsides some sixty shellsinto the French fortified town of Bona. One man was killed and some buildings were damaged. Two German steamers at Bordeaux have been seized. Fight in Belgium. Brussels, Belgium. Following ru mors that Germany had official ly declared war upon Belgium, the kaiser's columns crossed the frontier in a dozen places. The large commer cial city of Liege was shelled by a force of German artillery, supported by infantry. The Belgian troops re pulsed the Germans. Declares War on France. Berlin. Germany has formally de clared war on France. In a lengthy statement issued from the foreign of fice accompanying the formal declara tion it is alleged that France has been the aggressor. Berlin. The German border troops from Lublinitz, Silesia, after a short skirmish with Russians took posses sion of' Czenstochowa, Russian Po land. Bendzin and Kalisz, Russian Poland, also have been occupied by the Germans. Czenstochowa is a city of about 50, 000 in habitants on the River Waethe, near the Silesian frontier. It is noted chiefly for its manufactures of woolen and cotton cloths and paper. Bendzin is a coal and zinc mining center. It has a population of slightly more than 20,000, about half of whom are Jews. Kalisz is the capital of the province of the same name. It is the most westerly city in Russian Poland. Its population of 20,000 i3 engaged in various manufactures. First Naval Battle. Stockholm, Sweden. A battle was fought between the German and Rus sian fleets off the Aland Islans and resulted in the Russians being driven back. The Russian war vessels took refuge in the Gulf . of Finland, where they still remain. Holland Opens Its Dikes. London. There Is a report that Holland has been invaded through the province of Limburg. The people of the Dutch kingdom, resolved to go to any extremity, are said to be opening the dikes and flooding the country, which would make the passage of an army impossible. . . -Japan to Aid England. Tokio. The Japanese foreign of fice has issued a statement that if the wl r extends to the Far East and Eng laod is involved in it Japan may find it necessary to participate in fulfill ment of the Anglo-Japanese alliance. Serbs Won Big Battle. Paris. A dispatch from Nish, Ser via, to the Matin says the Austrian troops were defeated with heavy losses in a battle against the Ser vians near Semendria. Pov-,ers May Cut Cables. Washington, D. C. Although all the cables between the United States and Europe are protected upon the high seas by international treaties, they are entirely within the jurisdiction of European governments on the other side and may be cut. German Cruisers Hidden. San Francisco. The best confiden tial information in the possession of invaded Limburg. Holland, and that man cruiser Leipzig Is somewhere off tho coast of Lower California. BELGIAN TROOPS REPULSE GERMAN FORCE AT LIEGE Kaiser's Army Pays immense Toll in Dead and Wound ed Soldiers. THOUSANDS OF CRAVE MEN DIE IN ASSAULT ON FORTS French Navy Wins First Sea Battle- One Vessel Sunk and Two Cruis ers Captured Near Al gerian Coast. Brussels. Several thousand dead and wounded is the toll paid by tho German army ef the Meuse for its at tack on Liege. The Belgians made a heroic defense, repulsing the Germans after heavy and continuous fighting. The fortified position of Liege had to support on Wednesday the general shock of the German attack. The Bel gian forts resisted the advance fierce ly -and did not suffer. One Belgian squadron attacked and drove back six German squadrons. Attacked Without Support. Eight hundred wounded Germans are being transferred to the city of Liege, where they will be cared for. Most of these wounded were aban doned by the German army when it was forced to retreat. The Belgian artillery carried the day. The German cavalry attacked Imme diately on arrival, without waiting for either the infantry support or for the artillery. It was because of this mistake that the Belgian forces were able to get in the advantage. When the infantry and supporting cavalry reached the scente of battle it found that the cav alry and motor cycle brigades had been decimated by the fire. The Ger mans charged, but could- not carry the Belgian position and finally the entire army was 'Withdrawn toward the Meuse. ' ' French Army Joins Belgians. It is announced here that the French army has affected a junction with the Belgian army at Tournai, a point 3o miles west of Liege. From now on it is expected that the Belgian and French armies will operate together. French Win Naval Battle. Paris. After bombarding the Al gerian town, of Bona, the German cruisers Goeben, Breslau and Panther were caught by British and French squadrons which had. been awaiting them. The French warships captured the Goeben and Breslau and sunk the Panther. The cruiser Breslau fired sixty shots to which the port batteries replied. Details of the fight are lacking. German warships have destroyed some fortified towns and places for the embarkation of French troops on the coast of Algeria It is reported from Calais that French torpedo boat destroyers cap tured two large German sailing ships. A message received here from Guernsey, Channel Islands, says that a French gunboat towing a large Ger man steamer anchored in the road stead under the guns of the castle. ..- THIRTY-FIVE DIE IN WRECK Injured Passengers Burned to Crisp Near Neosho, Mo. Xeosho, Mo. A northbound passen ger train on the Kansas City South ern, leaving Neosho about 5:30 p. m., collided headon with a Missouri & North Arkansas motor car south-bound eight miles north of Neosho. The gasoline tank of the motor car ex ploded setting fire to the car. It is estimated that thirty-five passengers were burned to death. The northbound train was running eight hours late and had orders to pass the southbound at Tipton Ford. The motor car had passed the station and was proceeding south. Gasoline from the motor set fire to the rassenger train. The ulaze was extinguished by the passengers with water -from a nearby creek. No one cn the northbound train was serious ly hurt. - - The wreck occurred on a curve with bluffs on one side and Shoal creek on the other. The injured were taken to Joplin.' Thirty-five charred bodies were brought to Neosho. Most of them were through passengers for - points south of Neosho, down as far as Eu reka Springs, Ark. Other bodies doHbtless were burned to ashes. The motor car, which "was totally de stroyed, carried over 100 gallons of gasoline. - Adamson Darn Bill Passes. Washington. D. C. The Adamson general dam bill to authorize federal permits for dams on navigable streams for power purposes, limited to terms of fifty years, was passed by the house by a vote of 187 to 45. Senate Favors Bank Men. Washington. D. C. Confirmation of Paul M. Warburg of New York and Frederic A. Delano of Chicago to com plete the federal reserve board ' has been recommended I7 the senate banking committee. Left, emperor of Austria, of Servia. Top, ce AND ISSUES THAT FIGURE IN To Count Leopold Berchtold, Aus train Foreign Minister, Must Be Given First Place BROUGHT ABOUT CONTEST It Is Understood He Believed the Time Ripe for Favorable Action Career of Nikola Pashitch, Servian Premier Russia's Part in Embroglio. Count Leopold Berchtold, a quiet man, with English manners, sitting at a desk in the foreign office in: Vienna such is the unimposing presence of the Austro-Hungarian statesman who precipitated a situation more serious to Europe than any that has arisen since the events that immediately pre ceded the Franco-Prussian war. And the most extraordinary feature of the crisis is that it should have arisen di rectly out of the assassination, by a Servian, of Francis Ferdinand, the archduke who in his life time was re garded as the firebrand of-Europe. Thus the archduke, after death, as he was in life, remains the great men acing factor in the affairs-of European Christendom. . Count Berchtold assumed the port folio of foreign affairs at Vienna upon the retirement of Count von Aehren thal, who put through the act of an nexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina, which set in motion the wild passions that culminated in the assassination of the Austrian heir to the throne. Russia Back of-.Servia. When he took office as the director of the foreign office, Berchtold found a situation full of portent Servia. in censed by Austria's absorption of ter ritories which formerly had belonged to Turkey and to which Servia consid ered itself the heir, because they are populated largely by a people of Serb race, was clamoring for the undoing or that which had been accomplished by the decree of annextion. Behind the clamor at Belgrade could be heard the sinister undertone of the growl of the Russian bear. ".. Berchtold set himself to work to re- j duce relations to a normal basis. Be j hind him were the two other members of the triple alliancg Germany and Italy and opposing bim were Russia, the self-imposed protector of all the Slavic nations, including Servia, and the two other members of the triple entente. Great Britain and France. -Broke Up Balkan League. Then came the Balkan war in 1912, In which the Bulgarian, and Servian Slavs crashed the power of Turkey tn Europe. The formation of the Balkan alliance and the utter defeat of Turkey were startling events which caught Berchtold napping. His next move was to break up the Balkan league by stimulating the land hunger cf Servia and Greece, with their ally, Montenegro, and turning them against Bulgaria, which was the predominant military factor In the war of 1912. The Graeco-Servian success, though, were another development for which Berchtold was unprepared. After Bul garia had been defeatecLby the combi nation of fire nations, including Tur key, the clamor at Belgrade against the annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina b; Austria was resumed -with re MEN WAR SITUATION r.:o;iARciis of the countries nter, czar of Russia. Bottom, center, doubled vituperativeness and noisy rancor. This agitation, it has been pointed out by Berchtold, was the direct cause of the tragedy at Sarajevo, when the archduke and his morganatic wife fell by bullets fired by a Servian. The Austrian - minister of foreign affairs demonstrated in the judicial inquiry that followed the crime, that Servian officials, civil and military, had been involved in the events that led to the assassination. Deemed Time for Action. The moment for action had come. Berchtold surveyed the international horizon. -- He observed that Russia was in volved in a big strike which had a rev olutionary tinge.. " That France was in a turmoil of po litical uncertainty. That Great Britain was facing an internal convulsion, as a result of the Ulster situation. The Austrian ultimatum to Servia, demanding an apology for Servia'S part in the tragedy of Sarajevo and a suppression of the anti-Austrian agi tation in Belgrade, followed promptly in the midst of the preoccupation of the triple entente. Berchtold realizes more clearly than anybody else that he has challenged the entire Slav world, with the ex ception of Bulgaria; that his quarrel is not -with Servia, but with Russia, which has stood back of Servia In her attacks upon Austria. Nikola Pashitch, Servian Premier. Nikola Pashitch, premier and min ister of foreign affairs of Servia, has twice before been the dominant figure in Servian politics in the course of his 40 years in the public affairs of his country. His policy always has been bitterly hostile to Austria-Hungary, and the present crisis in the relations of the two countries is largely the out come of his provocative attitude. Pashitch throughout his career has conducted a vigorous fight for the economic freedom of Servia from Aus tria, By means of railway tariffs and inspection regulations on the frontier of Austria, Servia'a natural road to the markets of western Europe, the Austrian government has been able to control Servian trade in pigs and poul try, the staple products of Servia. Clamor Against Austria. But the chief grievance of the Ser vians has been the continued domina tion of Austria-Hungary over a large population across the frontier which the Servians maintain Is of Serb blood. . Although a considerable part of. this population has contested the claims of the Servian jingoes and has Austrian War Record- 300 Years 1613 to 1643 Thirty years' war. Defeated by Gustavus Adolphus at i-elpsic, 1631; at Lutzen, 1632. Province of Pomerania seized. Beaten by French and compelled to make peace. 1583 Defeated by the Turks. Emperor Leopold flees Vienna, Appeals to King John Sobieskl of Poland. Sobieskl defeats Turks under walls of Vienna and drives them back. - iow nunLnan r-nnce cugene acTcau i unci at enta. 1701-10 War of Spanish succession. Prince Eugene defeated French in Italy. Joined Marlborough and defeated French at Oudenarde, 1708, and Mai- plaquet, 1709. 1717 Prince Eugene defeated Turks at Belgrade. 1741 Frederick the Great takes province of Silesia from Austria. Defeated Austrians at Mollwitz. -1755 Seven years war. Frederick defeated Aurtrlans at Prague. 1757 Austrians defeated at Leuthen. 176C Austrians defeated at Torgu and Liesnitz. 1762 Austrians defeated at Freiburg.' , 1796 Austrians defeated by Napoleon at Lodi, Areola, RIvoIi. Driven out of Italy. 1799 Austrian defeated by Moreau at Hohenlinden. By Massena at Zurich. 1S00 Defeated by Napoleon at Marengo'. 1EC0 Defeated by Lannes at Montebello. 18C5 Defeated at AusterlHz. Vienna taken by Napoleon. 1SC9 Defeated at Eckmuhl. Defeated at Asperln and EssIIng. Defeated at ' ' Wagram. Vienna taken. 1Z53 Defeated by Napoleon III at Magenta and Soiferino. 1S66 Seven weeks' war. Pefeatsd by Prince Frederick and Von Moltk at Sadowa. involved emperor of Germany. Right, king repeatedly demonstrated its prefer ence for Austrain rule, the campaign, for liberating the ""Servian brothers from the Austrian yoke has been kept up with, frequent outbursts of anti Austrian clamor in Belgrade. To this clamor Russia, always Jealous of Aus tria, has lent her secret and some times her open support. The annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina by Austria In 1909 produced a wild demand in Servia for immediate war to liberate the Bosnian brothers from Austrian rule. At that time, however, Russia was not ready for ac tion against Austria, so the clamor spent itself in torrid speeches and fervid press declarations. Occupied Adriatic Ports. Pashitch was premier of Servia in 1912, at the outbreak of the Balkan war. He saw an opportunity to block Austria's long-sought road to the Aegean sea. The first objective points of the Servian armies in the first war were the ports of the Adriatic, in what is now Albania. These, with the help of Montenegro, Servia, occupied In the first stages of the struggle. At this stage, however, Pashitch's calculations were upset by Austria. Acting In conjunction - with Italy, which also had pretensions to the country inhabited by the aboriginal stock of the Balkan peninsula, tho Austrian government succeeded in in ducing Europe to order Servia, Greece and Montenegro out of the Adriatic territory occupied by them, and set aside this region as an independent state, to be called Albania, Servians Nursed Their Wrath. The negotiations which Pashitch conducted in this phase of the Balkan struggle were protracted and delicate, but eventually the Austro-Italian de mand was carried out, and the Ser vians nursed their wrath. For the success of his defiant atti tude toward Austria, Pashitch depend ed almost entirely upon Russia, It was realized clearly by General Put nik, the Servian chief of staff, that re sistance to Austria upon the field of battle would be unthinkable, so far as an ultimate triumph" for Servian arms is concerned. In the course of the past score of years Servia has been conducting an active agitation among the Slavic population of southern Austria, and Pashitch undoubtedly counts upon in ternal disorders in the rear of an ad vancing Austrian army to embarrass the enemy in a campaign into Servia. Of the success of this plan there is grave doubt, however, as the Catholic and Moslem Serbs of Austria have no hankering for Servian rule.