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THE MONTHLY MAGAZINE SECTION 11
The term sandwich today does not mean- simply a filling ' placed between slices of bread. It may be pastry filled with jellies, jams or sweet pastes, sponge cakes lined with delicious mixtures, puff pastry with dried fruits and juices, or bread and biscuits filled with savory mixtures. Every season some novelty is added to the list. Day-old bread is best for sandwiches, unless they are to be rolled or folded ; in that case, bread not older than six hours must be used. Butter should be creamed to remove all moisture, and the crusts removed from the loaf before it is cut into slices. To cream the butter, place it in a bowl and work with a sil ver fork until it is smooth and creamy. Drain off the liquid that will collect in the bottom, then with a knife spread the slices evenly and thinly. When mayonnaise dressing is used with the filling, butter may be omitted. The most economical way to serve sandwiches, and one which does not detract from their attractive appearance, is to cut the slices of bread into strips, triangles or halves. There will be no waste as when they are cut into diamond, heart or other fancy shapes, requiring cutters. When meats are chopped, it is wise to mix them with boiled or mayonnaise dressing, or with creamed butter, before spreading. This will prevent the fine pieces of meat from spilling out when served. When serving lettuce sand wiches, clean the lettuce several hours before, tying the wet lettuce in a cheese cloth square to absorb the moisture, then hang in a cool place. The seasoning of the various mixtures is as much an art as making the sand wiches. A little mustard improves the flavor of boiled ham or tongue. Horse radish will be an addition to roast beef ; tomato catsup, capers, olives and cold mint sauce to lamb. Minced celery or celery salt will season chicken or veal deliciously, and for all fish fillings a lit tle lemon juice should be used. Onion juice or minced onion, chives or a tiny bit of garlic may be added to cheese filling. For hard-boiled eggs add chopped pimentoes, or mince the small olives stuffed with red peppers, known as pimolas. Chopped parsley is popular and will flavor any meat or fish sand wiches. Be careful not to use too much. Cucumbers and cabbage may be used with mayonnaise, but they must, like lettuce, be placed between the bread only a short time before serving, or they will lose the crispness which is their most desirable feature. The cucumbers must be cut into shaving-like slices, and the cabbage may be either shredded or chopped. Watercress and nasturtium foliage are not as much used as they should be. Both combine nicely with meat, fish and fowl. When necessary to make sandwiches several hours before using, omit the fresh foliage fillings, like lettuce. Wrap them in a paraffin paper and cover with a damp cloth. Not a wet cloth, re member, but just sufficiently moist to keep the bread fresh. If possible, lay them in a stone crock and cover with the moist cloth. A novel sandwich, but one very diffi cult to make, is the checker and Harle quin tadbit. The necessities are a loaf of Boston brown and one of white bread baked in pans much the same size to avoid waste. (There need be no waste of any bread if the cuttings are dried, then crushed and placed in airtight jars for puddings or croquette or oyster crumbing.) The two kinds of bread are freed from their crusts, then cut into slices of the same thickness. Spread thickly enough with creamed butter sea soned with celery salt, chopped olives, and red peppers, or a bit of onion or chives; then work this into a paste. No other filling will allow of the bread be ing made into these sandwiches. Place the slices together, pressing down gen tly but firmly; then cut into slices half an inch wide and divide into suitable slices again. These are Harlequins. For the checkers arrange the slices of brown and white bread after cutting into Harlequins, so the alternate slices will bring first the brown- slice, then the white over each other. Each slice of brown and white strips must be spread with the creamed butter before laying the other on, in order to keep them firm. Then cut down through from the end and a slice of checkers will be the re- suit, .flace tnese where they will keep cold, to prevent the butter melting and thus loosening the checkers. for sardine sandwiches, remove the skin and bones from the fish ; lay the flesh on buttered bread; then cover with a paste made of the yolks of two hard boiled eggs, rubbed with one tablespoon ful of pimento paste, one teaspoonful of prepared horseradish, and a pinch of dry mustard and salt. Graham or entire wheat bread is best for fruit sandwiches. Sprinkle with any desired candied fruits, chopped fine with English walnuts. Any other nut kernel may be chopped and spread alone over buttered bread for filling. Caviar sandwiches are made by adding ten drops of onion juice to every two tablespoonfuls of caviar, enough lemon juice to suit, then spreading on thin slices of rye bread, in which caraway seed has been baked. For rolled sandwiches, spread with butter and filling, then begin at one end and roll as for jelly cake. Secure with tiny wooden skewers and lay side by I MURDOCK'S fa MUSTARD iSSHW? Th OSeU -Uy A JjLx Ask Your Dealer for the I I CARVED GLASS TUMBLER. ) I side on a towel or napkin until all are. rolled ; then ; pin closely, being careful not to crush, to prevent unfolding. Set in a moist place until ready to serve. Stem, rinse and chop dried figs; add half the quantity of chopped nut meats and moisten with a little currant or quince jelly; spread over buttered wholewheat bread and press together. For toast sandwiches the bread must be delicately browned and'cut into shape before toasting. The cheese filling may be of the sliced cheese, add enough sweet cream to make it creamy, season with paprika, and while hot spread on one piece of hot toast ; then press the other on top and serve at once. other portions there will Le none. It should also be added that these "heat" One afternoon a short time ago a thunderstorms are usually followed by Local Thunder Storms. thunderstorm with quite a heavy downpour of ram occurred over a por tion of a certain county in the West. a quick return to the same heated conditions that preceded them, indi cating a merely temporary disturbed The mulch should be kept up in corn even when the ears are forming by running a one-horse mulch harrow be tween the rows, for at that time the crops needs a great deal of moisture. The shower had not been forecast condition of the atmosphere without by the Weather Bureau, and a few prospect of permanent relief until the days later a letter of complaint was appearance of such a cool, high-pres-received, the writer stating that the sure area as has been mentioned storm had ruined a considerable acre- above. age of cut alfalfa that had been al lowed to lie out to cure, as the weath er forecast had said nothing about showers Conserving Moisture. It is of little use to store water un- c h, - o moir Yif et-ionro and less means and methods are taken to art of weather forecasting never have conserve it. As previously stated, been and never will be reduced to water moves upward until it reaches the basis of absolute certainty. The the surface unless hindered by a sur- very operation of the natural laws of face mulch or consumed by the plant the universe preclude this, and with roots. If the water is permitted to no type of weather is this impossibil- come to the surface, it is lost by evap- itv of exact forecasting more in evi- oration. The amount wasted through dence than in the case of thunder- evaporation alone amounts to more storms. under ordinary methods than is con- r. ' r . r sumed bv the plant. The waste can xne lorecasung o. genera. i..u..- fa e-nted b" forming a surface der storms over large areas is not so r.nin'rv. attraction takes j r n - 4.DrMM. ri when the soil is reasonably compact, a oronouncea fall in temperature toi- c - - J , , , clear period of at least several days evaporation. After the mulch is . formed, if permitted to stand for a But there are other thunderstorms. Protracted period the soil particles occurring during periods of abnormal naturally readjust themselves and heat, that are caused by excessive air evaporation again takes place. There- S2eMh.Vr rnSkssi ?t SETS? V"Er auTtTof ten, Tv'ln dCTbyaSh"4: falls. It should also rth Thi. are carried uoward to be renewed very soon after a rain, for such an elevation tnat theVecome ".soon as the surface cracks, escape cooled by expansion to an extent that chimneys form. lowers the temperature of the warm In semi-arid regions summer fallow air masses below the temperature of ing is practiced. By summer fallowing condensation, and rain therefore oc- we mean raising a crop only every curs, other year. The procedure is to plow These "heat" thunderstorms are fre- the ground and harrow or disc it from quently very local in character, as time to time, thus conserving the certain portions of the earth's sur- moisture for one year. Hoed crops, face become hotter than others, and especially corn and potatoes, should consequently a "heat" thunderstorm be harrowed as soon as the seed is often occurs in one locality, whereas planted and subsequently harrowed only a few miles, or even a shorter until the plant has attained a growth distance, away there will be none at of three or four inches. The ground all. It is not an infrequent occurrence should then be cultivated from, time to have a severe thunderstorm over to time until the crop is nearly ma enc portion of a large city, while over tured unless there are frequent rains. Fall Army Worm While the invasion of Kansas and Oklahoma by the fall army worm does not seem to be generally disastrous, according to entomological reports, the . worms have been found as far north as Wichita since July 31st. Unless the con dition changes, the principal damage is likely to be to fields of late-planted corn, millet, Hungarian grass, or corn planted for ensilage. It is also likely to attack fields of alfalfa where the hay crop has been removed and the plants are put ting out fresh growth, and also the young plants in newly sown fields. It is in such localities as these that it is most likely to occur, and over such fields the farmer should watch with care; and on his first observing their presence, the use of poisoned bait is recommended. The U. S. Department of Agriculture recommends dusting the plants with powdered arsenate of lead, using from 3 to 5 pounds per acre, mixed with two or three times its weight of flour. This precaution -is, of course, out of the question on forage crops or on corn afterwards to be used for fodder on account of the danger of poisoning stock. In such cases 100 pounds of wheat bran may be mixed with a cou ple of pounds of either Paris green or powdered arsenate of lead, preferably the former, and the whole mass worked into a stiff dough by the use of three to four gallons of molasses and the juice of a half dozen oranges or lemons added thereto. If this is sown broadcast on the ground where the worms are at work they will feed upon it and be killed. The worms, it has been found, will come to the poisoned bait from distances of from 5 to 10 inches. Farther north and later in the season the worms may originate in volunteer wheat or oats; and when this food sup ply is exhausted they may attack the fall wheat, but usually comparatively little damage is done to such wheat. In alfalfa fields the immediate cutting and curing of the alfalfa is advisable as soon as the infestation has been dis covered. This will not only save the hay crop, but will cut off the food of the fall army worm and check thereby the development of another generation which may be many times more de structive than the first. As soon as the hay has been removed from the field the ground should be rolled with a heavy roller or brush dragged, or the poison bait can be used. The necessity of planting good seed is so important that the farmer can not afford to ignore it. He should keep in mind the fact that a seed must possess strength and vitality within itself sufficient to throw out bracing roots and a stem far enough above the ground to breathe in carbon-dioxide before plant food can be taken from the soil. If the seed is weak, the growth will be slow and the stem small and feeble. It is reasonable to assume that a weak, anaemic leaf will not absorb from the atmosphere as much carbon-dioxide as a vigorous one; hence, seed should be planted that will germinate quickly and vigor ously, for the initial growth will be reflected throughout the entire life of the plant. Stock barns should be thoroughly ventilated, whether for hogs, cattle, horses or sheep. It is just as detri mental to an animal to breathe impure air as it is for a human being. A sys tem of ventilation is inexpensive and its results are remarkable. The build ings should be kept clean and disin fected often enough to insure destruc tion of poisonous germs. Floors in hog pens, cattle barns, etc., should not be made of boards, for such floors are full of cracks and . knot holes, which, with the space underneath them, afford a favorable place for the accumulation of fetid matter. If hogs have cholera in a board floor pen, and the floor and the accumu lation is not taken out and the build ing thoroughly disinfected, hogs placed in the same pen years after ward are liable to contract the dis ease from latent germs in the filth. Sunshine being the best disinfectant. Movable hog houses and pens are al ways best.