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RECIPROCITY WITH CANADA eview of Treaty of 1854 Which Continued in Ef fect Until 1866. 'Annexation Suggestion tSufesequent Tariff Rela tions and General Tariff Conditions Discussed In telligently Some Present Conditions Predicted. following: article was written Dy Bollee, editor of the Xew Milford tte, prior to his death several MO. and was forwardeu to the Mr for publication, but being mls- ow appears In print for the first le. Id. Farmer.) Liberal trade arrangements with Canada were demanded by the Dem ocratic party In the national platform of 1904. A large number of the peo ple of New England. Republicans as well aa Democrats, favor such ar rangements with our northern neigh bor, a fact strikingly exemplified in Massachusetts where the recent Pres idential election (1904) resulted in the Choice o a Republican for the Presi dent of the United States, Roosevelt receiving a plurality of 92.076 over Sharker, and at the same time in the 1 1 ImnQli of Douglas, the well known 1m mian and a Democrat, his plural ity ww his Republican opponent for srnor being 36,989. The victory of under such peculiar clrcum- It im known and admitted largely due to his demand for a wer tariff and free raw materials. larly as regard our trade with Since the national election j.'Jie growth of the sentiment in favor f a lower tariff has been marked (throughout this country. It is evi that the people will insist upon Either the Republican meat within a reasonable length ie yieia to the urgent demand or will be a political revolution, the leans going out of office ana Democratic or some other political party pledged to give tariff reform eoming Into power. Accordingly, we Inay expect tariff agitation to occupy a foremost place during the next few years and may look for the people to Vtanlfeet unusual interest in a sub- ect so intimately connected with their elf are. That portion of the subject . -hich deals with trade arrangements with Canada and. in a lesser degree with the other British Provinces of Jforth America must, on account of OontiguKy and the close relations in separable from it, as well as for other reasons, be of unusual Interest to the people of the Eastern States. But the topic 4s far too broad to receive complete treatment in one article, ana tn the present paper I merely attempt to set forth in se simple and popular a .form as I can important historical tacts and. pertinent considerations Soaring on our commercial relations With Canada. The Reciprocity Treaty with ( aji SM)a of 1854" included in Its provisions not only Canada but also the other British American possessions, and was concluded between the United States and Great Britain. It consisted of seven articles Which provided for mu tual rights of fishing m certain Ca nadlsn and American waters, for free interchange of the products of the sea. the soil. the. forest and the mine: the '- treaty also all owed Americans the us- at the St. Lawrence river and Canad ian )mim on the same terms as Brit ish subjects enjoyed; and gave to Ca nadians the right to navigate Lake JUVchigan. Th third article of the treaty read as follows: Article III. It is agreed that the articles enumerated in the schedule hereunto annexed, being the growth ; and produce of the aforesaid British colonies, or of the United States, shall be admitted into each country respec tively tree of duty. SCHEDULE. Grain, flour and breadstuff s of all Jtiode. Animals of all kinds. Fresh, smoked and salted meats. Cotton-wool, seeds and vegetables. Undried fruits, dried fruits, nah of all kinds. Products of fish and all other crea . frures living in the water. Poultry, eggs. - Hides, furs, skins or tails, undressed, i Stone or marble, in its crude or un flrrooght state. Slate. Butter, cheese and tallow. V Lard, horns, manures. S Ores of metals of all kinds Coal. V Pitch, tar. turpentine, ashes Timber and lumber of all kinds found, hewed and sawed, unmanufac tured in whole or in part. Firewood. Plant, shrubs and trees. J' Pslts. wool. Fish-oil. :' Rice, broom-corn and bark. ' Gypsum, ground or unground. Hewn or wrought or unwrought tulle or grindstones. Dyetsuffs. Flax, hemp and tow, unfanufactur fcd; unmanufactured tobacco. Bags. The first thing to be noted as to the (causes which led to the adoption of the reciprocity treaty is that the de sire and the demand for it came from Canada, that province decidedly tak ing the initiative, while the attitude of the United States was at first indif- ferent, if not offish. The Canadians were stung by the unjust tariff pol icy of England toward them and sought relief and additional prosperity by aiming to secure improved trade relations with the United States whose rapid and remarkable advancement in wealth at once excited the envy of and served as a stimulus to the lagging people just north of the great repub lic England had imposed on Canada differential duties which discriminated In favor of the former country and i against the United States and contin ; tied the unpopular policy until 1845 when it was deemed best to placate the people by permitting the Canadian (Legislature to regulate its own tariff; and. in the exercise of its new priv ilege, the provincial Parliament in 1847 abolished the differential duties and admitted imports from the United States on the same terms as from Great Britain. Prominent among the- causes that induced the British gov ernment to change its attitude on the tariff was fear of the marked tend ency in Canada to favor annexation to the United States. Even after the considerable concessions made by Eng land discontent was not entirely allay ed, and Lord Elgin, the Governor-General of Canada from 1847-1854, desiring to bead off any attempt that might be made to obtain annexation and recognizing that through the acquire ment of a reciprocity treaty with the United States he could best suit his pirpose. put forth a successful ana (dnnagfins effort to negotiate It. Although the tariff change made by Canada in 1847 placed the United States on am equality with England by lowering the duties on American man ufactures from 12 to 7 per cent., and by raising those on British man ufactures from 5 to 7, the American people did not appear to recognize that they had gained enough to be eiy interested. But the Canad deslred still less limitation on ana in is meir rsmiament an act providing for reciproc- tne two countries. The (.liver Ge jreare ;JTa.T-n attitude of the Americans was differ-: what were the conditions preceding forcibly felt, although they may real-1 conclusive that the United States of ent. They raised the objection, aft- and to a certain connected extent fol- ize that they have much at stake. j fended) by assuming at the beginning erwards to become stronger, that the lowing the adoption of the Reciprocity The leadine and strongest oblection 1 of the war that the interests of Eng- niarkets of Canada were not equiv- a'ent to those of the United States and also demanded certain concessions from Canada, particularly that Anier- ican vessels should be allowed to nav igate the St. Lawrence river and the Canadian canals as freely as British subjects were permitted to do. Ques tions connected with the fisheries on the coasts of British North America could not be ignored. These ques tions, of course, involved the Interests of the maritime provinces much more thon those of Canada proper, and arose from several different ways of inter preting the treaty of 1818. The evi dence, indeed, points to the conclusion that the United States wanted various concessions to be granted in return for yielding to Canada's urgent desire for the free admission of certain arti cles reciprocally. The two countries approached the question of reciprocity from different standpoints, the United States not expecting to gain much from the free exchange of " products, 'certainly not nearly as much as Can ada, would. Various reasons can be cited to show why the people of this country were not eager or anxious for a free ex change of raw materials with Canada at the time when there was agitation for the reciprocity treaty which was finally agreed upon in 1854. Prices to the domestic consumer were not then, as in these days of outrageously pro tected trusts, raised to an abnormal height, or. at least, to a height that could be burdensomely felt. Indeed, high protective duties were not en forced in the existing tariff. Not only were the tariff duties low, from 1846 to the opening of the Civil War, but the commerce of the country was also a great deal smaller in volume, and the need for its extension was much less imperative than at present. Our vest territory possessed great and varied natural resources, and to use them there were, according to the cen sus figures, only 23.191.876 persons in 1850 as against 7,304,79B, or more than three times as many in 1900. The people felt that they were independent and self-sufficing At the same time there was little active objection to a free exchange of raw materials under, reciprocity because the general ten dency of the time was toward lessen ing restrictions on international trade; as shown in the United' States by the adoption of the Walker tariff, which was rather a revenue than a protec tive tariff; in England by the repeal of the corn laws about 1846; at an earlier period' by the organization of the German Zollvereln which by means of reciprocal concessions greatly aug mented the trade between the German States. The liberal trend notably widened' in 1860 when was negotiated an Anglo-French treaty which by means of reciprocity, the removal of not a few duties on exports and im ports and of all absolute prohibitions cleared away to a very marked extent commercial barriers standing between England and France. This important treaty was followed by twenty-seven similar treaties in which all of the States of Europe, except Greece, were interested. Even backward Russia caught the spirit of progress and join ed in the movement. "It needs hardly to be said," say Professors Laugh! in and Willis in their recently published book, entitled "Reciprocity", "that under these con ditions, the prosperity of European trade increased enormously. The commerce of Austria, Belgium, France, Holland, Italy and Great Britain grew between 1860 and 1873 more than 100 per cent., while the trade of the same countries with nations not having reciprocity treaties with them in creased, according to Mr. David A. Wells, only about 66 per cent." The outlook of the world was wid ening, nations were more and more trading with each other in the natural manner, removing from commerce those shackles on liberty which In many different and unjust ways have ever tended to retard the progress of true civilization. Great, indeed, had been the advance from the ignorant, narrow policy of the middle ages when restrictions on the freedom of trade were even enforced between the dis tricts of the same country; from the early period when in France and in other northern countries of Europe the levying of the odious octroi was prev alent, it being a toll or tax upon arti cles that passed the entrance of a town; from the English tariffs which were prohibitory before the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Nothing promotes better conditions between countries than mutually beneficial and friendly commercial conditions long continued. But, alas, the barbaric and selfish impulses of mankind were destined to : be aroused from slumber. The un fortunate frictions which caused the Civil War In the United States and the Franco-Prussian war In Europe brought about great and adverse changes. Herbert Spencer has clear ly shown In his "Principles of Socio- pgy" that "the governmental-military Organization of a society is initiated by, and evolves along with, the war fare between societies." Under such conditions aggressions and infliction of injuries are not alone felt by the outward enemy. The effect is reac tive. Within the society defended by large armies the militant tendency grows, although in a milder form. Greater and sterner restrictions are placed upon the personal liberty of the citizen than when there is no war. For instance, he must express opinions and guide his actions in conformity with the controlling feeling of the peo ple or he will meet with the fate of the Tories during the Revolutionary War or endure indignities and losses as did the loyal Unionists who lived in our Southern States at the time of the rebellion. He will have to pay high er taxes for the sake of carrying on a war that he may believe to be unjust. Extra revenues must be raised to meet heavy expenses of feeding, clothing and equipping large bodies of soldiers in the field. Abnormal duties will be placed on imports. Internal revenue taxes may likewise be levied on bank checks, matches and other things suit ed to the purpose. Then, after the fighting is over and the need for rais ing large sums of money is greatly diminished, changes like those which were made after our Civil War may be expected. The burdens on excises will be to a great extent removed but the high tariff on imports will be re tained or only a little lessened through the infleunce of manufacturers who by means of this tariff have been en abled to raise prices to domestic con sumers to an abnormal extent and who desire to continue advantages unneces sary and unjust in times of peace. The manufacturers conceal their selfish purpose under the false and hypocrit ical plea that they are so full of solici tude for their workmen that they fa vor the excessive duties in order that they may be able to pay their em ployes high wages, ignoring the fact that such wages chiefly depend upon the efficiency of the hired toiler and the demand for labor. The people in general, benumbed by the militant in fluences that have taken from them the appreciation of individual liberty and the keen zest for it that they pos sessed in the preceding peaceful era. are skillfully guided Into the wrong way of thinking and are actually made to believe that a tariff once ac knowledged to be for revenue only should be retained solely or principally for the protection " and coddling of home industries. The wars which I have mentioned rudely Interrupted, the strong and wide movement toward greater freedom in international trade and substituted the high tariffs and high tariff tendencies which are the rule rather than the ex ception at the present day. Big standing armies and high tariffs are two of the leading burdens under which Europe now groans. The bane- ful effect of the militant influences on the Reciprocity Treaty with Canada of 1854 will soon be pointed out. I have endeavored briefly to show j Treaty and the causes which led to i its negotiation. It is not necessarv to j weary the reader with a minute ac- count of the legislative and diplomatic steps that were taken to bring the iff on uroducts of the United States tie known in this country, the general proceedings to a close. Suffice it here not Included in the reciprocity provls- editorial tone of the British press at to say that finalb" underthe direction ions of. the treaty, mostly manufac- I the time was that of sympathy toward of the English government a. partj-, tured products, of course. It must be ' the North and of condemnation of the comprising Lord Elgin, Mr. Francis confessed that it was natural that course of the Southern States. (For Hincks, then prime minister of Can- Canada's course in this respect should detailed proof of what I have asserted, ada. Captain Hamilton, A. D. C-, and irritate the Americans. It needs but I refer the reader to the chapter en Lawrence Oliphont, private secretary ; a moment to conclude that our manu- titled "Perverted History" in "Facts of Lord Elgin, left England, were join- facturing industries as a whole must and Comments," a book written by ed by Colonel Bruce and one or two have been much superior to those of .Herbert Spencer.) Canadians at New Tork, and thence Canada, and no doubt our manufac- On the whole it is reasonable to con proceeded to Washington where by turere anticipated the development of elude that the working of the reci means of skillful diplomacy, some of it, j a most excellent and profitable trade procity treaty was more beneficial to according to certain writers, not being . with Canada, under duties no higher this country than otherwise and that above reproach, they overcame the than were Imposed at the beginning its abrogation, forced by political corn opposition of the Democratic majority j of the treaty. But Canada raised du- plications, was unfortunate. It Is to in the Senate and successfully paved j ties on imports through her tariff of be regretted that the treaty could not the way for the adoption of the treaty, j 1858 and it was done for the sake of have been given a good, thorough trial It was approved by President Pierce ; making important internal improve-! under normal conditions. As it was. on August 5th. 1854, and following his proclamation promulgating the treaty on March 16. 1855, it went Into effect. WORKING OF THE TREATY. The treaty continued in operation for eleven years and two months, or un til May 17. 1866. Had the trial of the treaty been made under normal or nearly normal conditions we could Judge of its merits much better than ; ian statesmen having been to consoli it is possible to judge of them under 1 date the separate provinces and by an the abnormal, even violently disturb- ' increase in the material wealth of the ing conditions that existed during the j people to remove all discontent, which major part of the period. The crisis from the situation of the country, so or panic or io unsettled Dusiness to a marked extent in the United States and to some extent in Canada, but was fortunately not long in dura tion. "In the inquiries which were made as to the causes of the crisis," writes Prof. William G. Sumner, "the state of the currency was generally recognized as the root of the trouble." It Is clear that the crisis -udely inter rupted an encouraging growth in trade between the United States and the British provinces in the first years of the treaty, both imports and exports falling off largely in 157 and 1858, particularly in the latter year, fol lowed in 1859 by a noteworthy bound toward improved conditions. But the business crisis was merely like a thun der shower which makes big commo tion, then quickly passes away, leav ing a landscape flooded with sunlight and full of promise. Far more seri ous was the effect of the Civil War of 1861-65, and we should also allow for the effect of the troublesome agitations that led up to it, agitations developed from the increasing hostility between the North and the South on account of the slavery question. The most important deduction to be soundly made from the statistics cov ering the working of the treaty is that under the favorable years of the treaty, I meaning by favorable years those which were not disturbed by the business crisis and actual warfare, there was a marked- increase in the trade between the two countries; and it seems safe to conclude that a large part of this increase, at least, was due to the direct effect of the treaty itself. (For an exhaustive presentation and discussion of the relevant statistics, see the valuable pamphlet entitled "The Reciprocity Treaty with Canada of 1854," written by Frederick E. Haynes, Ph. D., and published by the Ameri can Economic Association.) Concerning the working of the treaty during its latter years I may fittingly quote from the already mentioned book of Laughlin and Willis as follows: "During the war, of course, when the productive power of our own coun try was curtailed, we naturally looked to Canada for supplies, and 1860 and 1861 were the only years in which our imports from tr.at country exceeded our exports during the life of the treaty, until just at the time the agree ment was about to close. Recovery had already begun before the end of the Civil War, and 1864 might be con sidered a more normal year. Then, with the general recognition of the fact that the treaty was practically certain to be abrogated, came a great rush to bring quantities of Canadian goods over the border before the duties again became effective. This movement ac counts for the. abnormal increase in imports in 1865, and particularly in 1866, which fell off as sharply in 1867. I During the four years after the ter mination of the treaty 1867-1870 trade continued on a lower but fairly nor mal level, and the close of the period shows a marked tendency to an In crease in both exports and imports." It .may be said that the reciprocity treaty was popular in Canada through out its life, certainly there was little, If any, noteworthy opposition to it, and the dissatisfaction that brought about its abrogation was on the part of the United States. At first the treaty was favorably regarded by the people of both countries. The idea was also prevalent among us that the treaty would pave the way toward a closer bond of 'inion with Canada, one writer express.' himself as follows: "A people so identified (with us), it Is argued, cannot long remain politic ally separated, but must be united by annexation. Events will probably justify this last line of reasoning. But whenever annexation comes, be it sooner or later, the operation of the treaty will make it, beyond all doubt, a peaceful, amicable, and altogether salutary transition." But following the crisis of 1857 dis satisfaction began and increased in the United States in various ways which Influenced not a few to enter tain the notion that Canada was gain ing under the treaty advantages a good deal greater than we obtained. There is an unlikeness between the inhabit ants of different countries, even when they speak the same language and are of the same ethnical stock, which pre disposes them to be jealous and sus picious in their mutual dealings. Their governments. their interests, their points of view, their ways of doing things are sufficiently divergent to make the cementing of close and quite friendly relations more or less slow and difficult. Wide prejudice still ex ists against a foreigner Just because he is a foreigner and because his in terests are supposed to be opposed to ours, and, it must be recollected, this prejudice, founded in ignorance and nourished by ignorance, was once very strong, not comparatively mild, as it is in this day of enlightenment when a population more heterogenous than formerly, due to the emigration of peo ple from many countries, occupies the United States and when a greater and more intimate relationship with other nations exists 'because of wonderfully changed conditions with which every moderately informed person is well acquainted. The felling toward Eng land had not been improved by two wars with her. that of the Revolution and that of 1812, and Canada as a de pendence of Great Britain had to share in any dislike that might be manifest ed toward the English. The evidence points to the conclusion that the causes for dissatisfaction were not sufficient to sustain the claim that Canada derived far more benefit from the treaty than did the United States, and the notion that she did may be re garded as an exaggeration largely traceable to the prejudice against for eigners and In the selfish attitude of certain interests which are wont to ar gue that anything interfering with their profits- must be prejudicial to the country in general although, in real ity, the welfare of the country and es pecially of. its consumers may be great ly promoted. Everybody is a con sumer, and yet, m tai-irr matters, the immense interests of millions of con sumers are commonly relegated to the background while in the foreground great stress Is iaid on the claim that a certain industry or a few industries will be harmed or benefited if duties are made different than they are now. Certainly the reciprocity treaty with Canada was helpful to the great ma jority of American consumers, but con- Lsumers are seldom adequately repre sentea at Hearings given by Congres sional committees They are custom arily too inert to make their wishes THE FARMER: APRIL made by the opponents of the treaty was to 'the s.n-naUo "vinintlnn of the spirit of the treaty," on the part of Canada, because she increased her tar- ments that were considered necessary or very desirable for the development , untoward and unusual circumstances of the resources of the provinces. Can- I and was not extended far enough un als and railroads were built and im- der normal and favorable conditions provements were also made In canals . for a clear and satisfactory demonstra- and in the navigation of the St. Law- rence river. Mr. Frederick B. Haynes takes the ground that the object of these works was as much political as i commercial, "the desire of the Canad easily developed into a deei-re for an nexation to the United States." Mr. Haynes points out that to obtain the large revenues needed for the improve ments increase of taxation was essen tial, and that the easier method seem ed to be to raise the tariff. '"This," he adds, "could not be done in the case of those articles included in the treaty, but could be done in the case of man ufactured goods. This was done, and then arose the grievance of which the Americans so bitterly complained. From year to year, as greater revenue was required, a higher tariff was im posed to the increasing disgust of the American manufacturer." In this connection it is important to consider some things contained in a report, dated May, 1860, and made by John W. Taylor to the Secretary of the Treasury of the United States. In this report Mr. Taylor seems to have taken a broad and unprejudiced view, i favoring Canada to an extent that could hardly have been expected. He compared at length the American tar iffs of 1846 and 1867 with the Canadian tariff of 1858 and found that Cajmda had done nothing more than to tiring her duties up so as to approach an equality with ours. Mr. Taylor even claimed that the demand that Canada should put her duties back to where they were when the reciprocity treaty was ratified or endure the abrogation of the treaty itself, bordered on arro ganee in view of the fact that the du , ties imposed under the tariff of 1867 were at least per ceni. niner tnaai the corresponding rates of the Canad ian tariff. Referring to the pamphlet of Mr. Haynes again, I find that he admits that the complaint of the Americans might have had a doubtful justification before the outbreak of the Civil War, while the tariff of 1867 was in force, but he adds: "It could have none at all after the war tariffs came into existence. Even under the tariff of 1857 the tariff rate of the United States upon cotton and woolen goods was 24 per cent., 4 per cent, higher than the Canadian duty under the tar iff of 1859." But suoh facts as have just been cited had to contend with popular prejudice and the self-interest of pro ducers, and we all know that a biased mind seeks to justify itself rather than to learn the truth against which, in deed, it often steels Itself with a per tinacity that would be astonishing, were we not aware that men are gov erned far more by strong feelings en gendered by prejudice than they are by rationality. But the commercial and economical objections to the treaty that to which I have made reference and others that either were advanced or may have been advanced' were not the direct and predominating cause of the abro gation of the treaty. Indeed, it may well be doubted whether these objec tions alone, un trammeled by the com plications leading to and following the opening of the Civil War, would have ended the efforts to promote ieciprocal trade between the two countries. I write advisedly; for, in spite of the more or less- dissatisfaction here and there, there was a. strong sentiment in the United. States which favored the continuance of liberal trade arrange ments with Canada. This sentiment was unmistakably shown in a conven tion held at Detroit, July 11-14, 1865. The convention was composed of prominent business men and others representing the leading commercial bodies of the United States ,and the British North American provinces and came "to substantial unanimity, and they united in urging upon the gov ernment at Washington the great im portance of Immediately opening nego tiations with the British government for a new arrangement, at the least as liberal on both sides as the one about to expire had been, and as much broader as should appear practicable. Their action was approved by every Board of Trade and Chamber of Com merce in the country taking any in terest in the matter; it was disapprov ed, so far as we ever heard, by none." Certainly the business interests in a broad sense put themselves on rec ord as desirous that reciprocity with Canada should be continued in some form; but the unhappy political influ ences of the time were sufficient to override wise utilitarian considerations, and were the direct cause of the abro gation of the treaty as is freely ac knowledged by all writers on the sub ject whom I have consulted. One of them, Goldwin Smith, the famous his torian, has expressed himself as fol lows: "To the anger which the behavior of a party in England had excited in America Canada owes the loss of the reciprocity treaty. If Great Britain can, with justice, say 'that she has paid heavily for the defense of Canada, Canada can with equal jus tice reply that she has paid heavily In the way of commercial sacrifice for the policy of Great Britain." I have already mentioned the hin- drance to enlightened and friendly re- latlons between the inhabitants of dif ferent countries which springs from the instinctive and unreasonable preju dice against a foreigner simply be cause he is a foreigner. If the effect of this prejudice was seen in our com mercial relations with Canada to some extent, as has been pointed out, much more was It apparent in the political complications which arose between England and the United States at the time of the Civil War and in which Canada was involved as a third party whose political affiliations, of course, drew her to Great Britain but whose commercial interests, on the other hand, urgently demanded maintenance of friendly relations with the great country lying just south of her. Can ada may indeed be regarded as the unfortunate victim of circumstances which she was helpless to control. She wanted the treaty continued, for, after the year's notice of its termina tion had been given by the United States, the Canadians sent a delega tion to this country for the purpose of securing an extension of the treaty. If possible. The delegates axrrvea in Washington on January 24, 1866. and remained until February 6th. But their of forts were in vain. I gather from the evidence that both England and the United States were much swayed by prejudice and by re fusal to investigate the facts. The United States could point to serious grievances suoh as those connected with the depredations of the "Ala bama" and other Confederate cruis ers that hod been built in English ports and allowed to escape from them. On the other hand, the evidence is 2, 1909. land must be with the South or the Cnnfwlwate States "because the Brit- , Ish were large consumers of cotton, Nevertheless, although it is a fact lit- its operation was greatly disturbed by i tion of what it could do. . I SINCE THE ABROGATION OF THE TREATY. Within a year we have heard' a good deal said- about the advisability of trying to negotiate another reciprocity treaty with Canada and the subject promises to become one of paramount importance, at least In Is ew England; but for many years after the abroga tion of the treaty there was little to encourage the hope that liberal trade arrangements with Canada would be resumed. To be sure, there were made toward them numerous attempts, emanating chiefly from the Canadians and finally to some extent from the United States: but these attempts, not being backed by a powerful public sen timent, attracted very little attention and soon languished or became abor tive. In the winter of 1897. the year in which the present highly protective Dlngley tariff was adopted, the Canad ians made their last serious effort to bring about a treaty of reciprocity with the United States. From "The Cyclopedic Review of Current His tory," Vol. VIL 1897, pages 174-175, un der the head "The Dominion Parlia ment," I quote as follows: "The liberal hopes for a treaty of reciprocity with the United States on the basis of mutual concessions have been for the present abandoned. The tendency of fiscal policy In the United States, as embodied in the Dlngley bill, promises no relief to Canadian trade. Consequently the remissions to be made in Canadian rates will be grant ed as far as possible to goods of which the principal import is from Great Britain. Canada will look elsewhere than across her southern border for a market for her goods, and will pos sibly retaliate by discriminating against American products. "In accordance with the policy of the liberals, overtures were made by Can ada, looking to a reciprocity arrange ment; but they met with no encour agement Early in February Sir Richard Cartwright, minister of Trade and Commerce, and Hon. L H. Da vies, minister of Marine and Fisheries, vis ited Washington to confer with the Republican leaders on the matter. They had been preceded in January by Messrs. Charlton and Farrar in on unofficial capacity." It is interesting to notice that the repulse which the overtures from Can ada received from the United States induced the Dominion government to retaliate by discriminating against American products through the enact ment of the Preferential British Tariff of 1897. Under this tariff duties on imports from the United Kingdom and not a few of its colonies were reduced 12 per cent. In 1898 this reduction was increased to 25 per cent, and in 1900 to 33 1-3 per cent., and has been continued at the latter rate to the present day. Nevertheless, in spite of the handicap of this preferential tariff, the exports of the United States to Canada have steadily and gratifyingly grown as can be learned from the sta tistics that appear in a statement sent out from Washington, D. C, in De cember, 1904, by the Department of Commerce and Labor, through its Bu reau of Statistics. The figures are impressive. They 'show the size, im portance and great increase in the trade between the two countries, the significant balance of trade In favor of the United States, and the very note worthy fact that during the operation of the preferential tariff the share which the United States supplies of the total imports into Canada has grown more rapidly than that of the United Kingdom, favored though It has been by & special and considerable protection. It is natural that contiguous coun tries should trade with each other more than they do with distant coun tries and the strength and persistency r.f this natural tendency are strikingly seeen in the commercial relations of Canada, and the United States. Not withstanding high protective and pref erential tariffs, jealousies, narrow mindedness, selfishness, stupidity, in a word, various kinds of discourage ments and drawbacks, the natural ten dencies of trade have moved forward in their indomitable, inevitable course. The goal is freedom from tariff and all other artificial shackles which pre vent men and nations from dealing in the manner which, broadly considered, Is the most advantageous to them all. The studenc of history, of government, of economics, of sociology, would, in deed, be discouraged, did he not reach the cheerful conclusion that through the toil, the misery, the injustice, the mistakes, the reactions, the painfully slow 'progress of the ages, the power of natural and moral law is never overcome and ever works unconquered toward what is better. The attitude of Canada during the period of which I have written was one which an unprejudiced spectator would praise. She excelled the United States in efforts to bring about reci procity and she did not wish the treaty of 1854 to be abrogated. After its abrogation she favored the estab lishment of closer and broader rela tions wlththi s country until her over tures in 1897 were opposed by our government in such a manner that she became offended, if not disgust ed, and soon after retaliated by adopting the preferential duties which discriminated against the United States. We cannot particularly blame her, seemingly we cannot blame her at all: and now we should pause be fore seeking to provoke her further and consider that she has it in her power to do us yet more Injury. In the Review of Reviews, October num ber, 1903, Eugene Hay says: "Our average tariff on dutiable goods coming from Canada to the United States is 4 9.83 per cent., and the Canadian average tariff on dutia ble goods going from the United States into Canada is 2 4.83 per cent. Unless commercial reciprocity is soon obtained Canadian tarlfTs will un doubtedly be raised to approximately the level of our own. which will prac tically destroy commerce between the countries." It is a time when we should exer cise calm judgment, for the condi tions are now so rapidly changing that far-seeing men recognize that we shall soon need more liberal trade arrange ments with Canada more than she will need them with us. F0IIY5 KIDNEY CURE 1 Will cure any case of Kidney or Bladder Disease not bevand tv .r of medicine. Mo medicine can do more. V. B. Brill. Mindful of the rebuffs she has re ceived from the United States and of her present prosperous condition, Can ada is in a rather independent mood just now. At the sixth annual ban quet of the Canadian club of Boston on November 28, 1904, George E. Fos ter, M. P., from North Ontario, said: "Before I came to the banquet I was told that I would be expected to speak on reciprocity. What is abso lutely a dead question with us is very much alive with you. During my term of service with the Conservative party and while a member of the Canadian government, I made two or three pilgrimages to Washington and begged your senators and representa tives to grant us reciproeial trade re lations. I failed in my mission every time. And now that tiie creation J dead with us it has been raised from its grave by some of vou Americans Canada may be trusted to work out her own salvation without the aid of any reciprocal treaty witn the United States. Such is the discouraging attitude of Canada at the very time when many people in New England as well as millers in the Northwest who desire Canadian wheat for making into flour favor putting our commerce with Canada on a more libera basis. For the Eastern States the case is thus succinctly stated by the New Tork Times: "In New England the revolt against the burdens of the present tariff sys tem is more formidable because it is based on practical and immediate in terest. That section of the country wishes to buy of Canada. It needs fuel and iron and lumber and wood pulp and other materials and requi sites of manufactures, and it is fined heavily if it seeks them In Canadian markets, where they can be had in exhaustless quantities and at relative ly low prices. As a manufacturing section its business has largely gone West with the movement of popula tion and the development of the re sources of that vast region. Its fu ture growth in prosperity unquestion ably depends on the ability to get ma terials and fuel at low cost. Hence the increasing earnestness of its bus iness men for the reduction of duties either directly or by reciprocity. Its Interests are practically the same as those of all the seaboard states." William L. Douglass, the new gov ernor of Massachusetts, in his recent inauerural address, set forth cogent reasons why Massachusetts should re ceive the aid to be derived from a suitable reciprocity treaty with Cana da. It is reported that the farmers and merchants of Canada are quite strong ly In favor of negotiating a reciproci ty treaty with the United States. On the other hand, the manufacturers and politicians do not want it. No doubt if the question were made a leading issue there would uiso be a divided sentiment in the United States; for selfish and personal interests are so much involved in all tariff matters that it is impossible to get up any tariff plan for benefit in the broadest sense that will not be bitterly fought by some. The present situation Is not as encouraging as it might be; but we can hope and believe that in time the majority of our people can be educat e dto see that a liberal commercial The Kind "Sua Have Always lr use for over SO years, and All Counterfeits, Imitations and "Justas good are boh Experiments that trifle with and endanger the health oaf Infants and Children Experience against What is CASTORIA dastoria is a harmless substitute for Castor Oil Srie, Drops and Soothing Syrups. It is Plea contains fleitber Opium, Morphine nor other substance. Its age is its guarantee. It destroys Wc and allays Feveriahness. It cures Diarrhoea and Win Colic It relieves Teething Troubles, cures Constipation and Flatulency. It assimilates the Food, regulates the Stomach and Bowels, giving healthy and natural sleep. The Children's Panacea The Mother's Friend. CENUINE CASTORIA ALWAYfc Bears the The Kind You Me Always Bought In Use For Over 30 Years. GEO. B. CLARK & CO. 1057 to 1073 Broad St. NOW OPEN AT THE NEW STORE. THE FRANK MILLER LUMBER COMPANY. WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALERS D MICHIGAN FINE LUMBER. Siding, Shingles, Spruce Timber. Lath, hash Doom and Blinds, Mantela an4 carvings, mouldings, hard wood trim. Southern Pine limber and Lumber. a specialty. 160 EAST WASHINGTON AVE, BRIDGEPORT. OONTf. Planing Mill and Yarrta. affSt0 Druggist, Stratford Ave and policy would be better for both coun tries than the present one. To this end let careful consideration be given to the following weighty words of Goldwin Smith: "Let any one scan the economical map of the North American continent, with its adjacent waters, mark Its northern zone abound in minerals, in bituminous coal, in lumber, in fish, as well as in special farm products, brought in the north to hardier per fection, of all of which the southern people have need; then let him look to its southern regions, the natural pro ducts of which, as well as the man ufactures produced in its wealthy cen tres of industry, are needed by the peo ple of tne norttieino 2,je; ie W1U see that the continent is a anonomle whole, and that v mn a austoma line athwart it ana try to sever Its mem bers from each other, is to wage a des perate war against nature." J. A. BOLLES. NOTE. In the preparation of this article I am -largely and particularly indebted for statistics and facts to the valuable pamphlet entitled "The Re ciprocity Treaty with Canada of 1854," by Frederick E. Haynes, Ph.D., I am also indebted for not a little use ful information to the work called "Reciprocity," by Laughlin and Willis I have also consulted a number of pub lic documents, histories, newspaper ar ticles and other means for reference; and I have selected, condensed, ar ranged and combined, and have added new thought in such a manner that I trust I have presented the subject of reciprocity and our commercial rela tions with Canada in a way a good deal new and different from what it his been presented elsewhere. In considering facts and statistics the reader must bear in mind that Can ada as now constituted includes a far greater area of territory than the country known as Canada previous to 1867. In that year the British North American Act went into force and pro vided for the voluntary union of the whole British North America into on legislative confederation, under the name of the Dominion of Canada; and most, if not all, of the old separate provinces now belong to the confederation- GILBERT RE-ELECTED Danbnry Republican Major Was by 4f Votes; One Democrat in. Danbury, March 30. William C. Gil bert was re-elected mayor by the Re publicans here yesterday, defeating his Democratic opponent, M. J. Cunning ham, by 45 votes. The only Democrat elected was D. V. Height, city treas urer. The board of aldermen now stands solidly Republican and the coun cil three Republicans and one Demo crat. There were about 3,50 votes, which is large. Priotas, Sonora, Mexico. March 30. Five bandits, three ranchmen and e Rurale were killed in a battle between renegade Indians and the troops in the hill district northeast of Pasqueria. on the Chepau river. The band had been attacking and robbing lone m nsrs and ranchmen. It was said the leader of the bandits was fatally wounded. Boujrfct, and which has has borne the has been made under his sonal supervision since Ms infancy. Allow no one to deceive yon in this. sant. IB! Signature of ici:acbe Corrects Irregularities Do not risk having Bright's Disease or Diabetes Sixth Street.