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THE FAEMER: FEBRUARY 1, 1918
THE ACHIEVEMENT WITHOUT PRECEDENT
SECRETARY BAKER commanded the attention: of Con
gress, when he told what the; nation has done to pre
pare for war. In language of the simplest, with candour and
sincerity, he received the tale of a people's crusade, the story
of democracy girding on the sword.
There are more men in France by hundreds of thousands
Zem uic wildest critics of the government dreamed of, when
thev were telling what the government ought to do in 1917.
Upon French soil there are, or soon will be, 500,000 Ameri
can soldiers, fully equipped and ready to fight.
Upon American soil there are 1,500,000 soldiers ready to go
to France as fast as ships can be provided for them.
The tale of preparation in France is a miracle story. Great
harbors have been prepared, as by the wave of a magician's
- wand. A railroad 600 miles long has been made over and ampli
fied to supply American troops. Warehouses in seaport cities
and warehouses behind the fighting fronts spread in row oij.
tow, over miles of country. , . '
Much of the material has come from this country. When
possible it has been procured in France. Tonnage is scarce, and
the drain upon transport has been, tremendous.
Fortunately France has a surplus of machine gun and ar-
) tillery production, ample to supply American troops, so that
! transport has been available for other things, and America has
i had time to fabricate weapons superior to those now in use.
Of the accusations in Senator Chamberlain's speech, Sec
i retary Baker simply said, "They are incidents picked out from
the great mass of things accomplished. They do not represent
j American achievement, but only the points in which achieve
I ment was defective."
' Any man reading what Secretary Baker says will perceive
j thai Senator Chamberlain's indictment was really an indict
iment of the American people. What has been done, after all
tisbot the measure of American civilization, of American indus-
' tof American power for co-operation and unified effort.
The leadership in these things is necessarily in the govern
mretot. It is necessarily not in the possession of , persons stand
iag outside the government, who have no duty except that of
jC&ezRQS, and no- information sufficient for the formation of a
Here is the government, meeting through its experts, the
HKrperts of fbe ADLes, and deciding by consultation between ex
giects precisely what is necessary.
AH things change. Nothing was as it-was before. All the
(teowKfions of war were different. The nalure of the war, the
rtweapons xtsed, were changing from day to day; Things begun
ftwere abandoned, as later knowledge came to hand. New thing!
llWera undertaken under the pressure of necessity.
How" could a government change its views or its methods
trpon the advice of a citizen whose latest military experience
was an old fashioned charge up San Juan Hill?
The experts who came from Europe knew things that Col
Roosevelt never heard of, and that the government learned only
because it was the government.
Even the consultations between experts were insufficient,
fSSWThey produced division of council. The American govern
portent, at the suggestion of Lloyd George, brought into being
v "non council of the Allies, in which all things might be set
' elligently and carried out concprdantly.
Mra. Hoi1"1? s e sPeech of Secretary Baker to the noisy
ana stratff the government and the American people. How na
.d. m. rat General Wood, as an experienced medical man.
ji.ooo. have been selected to prepare the camps and canton
.."in which troops were to be trained.
H -it the moment when the scolding critics were complaining
the failure of the government to avail themselves of General
Wood's services in Europe, came the news that he had been
wounded in France.
Mr. Roosevelt and his kind owe an apology, not to the
American government; but to the American people; not to the
American alone, but to democracy itself. They accused democ
racy of failure, in the hour when democracy was proving its
efficiency to the uttermost.
The greater the task, the larger the number of things that may
be exhibited as defective. ' 'f
In times of perfect peace men commit suicide, murder their
fellow men, make industrial mistakes.; They have mumps,
measles and pneumonia. Coal strikes nave been Known to stop
coal supply more completely ,tnan it is now suspenaea. sick
men are occasionally neglected, even in hospitals. Occasionally
a man in a Connecticut hospital and has been known to leave
his cot, naked, jump out of a window, and run down street.
This is the truth about the government's early war pre
A great work has been carried on more success
fully than any such work was before, but subject to
the mistakes and errors inherent in human endeavor.
Before guns arrived for them a few men drilled for a few
days with wooden guns. ' , ,
Sometimes soldiers came into camp ahead of their clothing.
The machine gun supply has not come along as fast as
the senator believes it should. -
. There is not enough heavy ordnance.
And then there was a very pathetic letter,- written by a
parent, whose son died in a hospital, and received less attention
than he should have received.
These are fair examples of the facts upon which the sena
tor relies to prove his case.
Not a single word of praise has he to say for the great deeds
done. The American navy seemsto him to have performed no
wonderful task in taking troops to France without serious ac
cedent. , " -
All this vast mechanism of accomplishment gives Senator
Chamberlain no thrill of pride. He sees only the defects, the
relatively trifling matters in which a stupendous organization
fails to function perfectly.
The president's charge is proved down to the hilt. Sena-t
tor Chamberlain is guilty of an "astonishing and absolutely un
justifiable distortion of the truth." -
He looks upon the wonderful work his countrymen have
done. He takes a miscroscope to find the defects in their labors,
and alleges that these defects are the true measure of their
By such a process of reasoning the execution of the best
man in the world could be justified, if it could be proved that
he had a wart on his nose.
America is doing a great work. Americans are laboring
proudly and nobly, and successfully, in a great cause. They
expect to make mistakes. They will judge the completed task
by human standards, not by the standards of insincere perfec
tionists Avho mouth unattainable ideals, and think hatefully.
SEIZED AS SPY
AND LOCKED UP
Maine Man Reported , to
Washington That War
Was About to Break
MALICE OR INCOMPETENCE?
SECRETARY McAUOU, alter scrutinizing reports of Fed
eral inspectors, says that the coal famine in New Eng
land is due to the negligence of the New Haven Company,
which deliberately permitted its locomotives to fall out of re
pair, and was unable to move 4,000 cars of coal out of the Har
lem river freight yards, v .. . . .
It is unnecessary to inquire how much of this failure might
have been due to a deliberate purpose to harass the government,
and how much was due to sheer incompetence. Intelligent
trainmen in the service of the New Haven company have their'
own ideas on the subject, and their ideas-are based on knowl
edge and experience. .
Whether this gross failure is due to malice or incompe
tence it calls imperatively for new executives. The govern
ment should forthwith put its own men in charge of transporta
tion in New England.
Malice or incompetence, it matters not which, cannot be
permitted to tie up, impede or suspend the industry of New Eng
land. Secretary McAdoo will take such steps as are necessary
to move coal cars out of Harlem river terminal,, and such fur
ther measures as are necessary to be rid of railroad executives
who do not properly perform their duties.
SENATOR CHAMBERLAIN'S DEFENSE
T N HIS NEW YORK speech Senator Chamberlain made cer
X tain accusations regarding the government and the
management of the war. The president, in a letter,- charac
terized these charges as "an astonishing and absolutely unjus
(tillable distortion of the truth."
Senator Chamberlain has replied. His reply will seem to
a discriminating mind, to confirm the president's accusation.
What is the truth in this matter?
The United States government has raised great armies.
It has sent armies to' France.
It has raised billions of dollars to carry on the war.
It is supplying the Allies with wheat, coal and most of, the
necessities of life.
To do these things the government has been obliged, not
of preference, but of necessity, to change many things.
It has fixed the price of wheat and other foods.
It has fixed the price of coal.
It has taken over management and control of railroads,
It has laid heavy and difficult taxes, because such taxes
had to be laid. No warring nation has escaped that necessity
AH of this has been done with a very slight derangement
f ordinary affairs. The American people have recognized the
imperative nature of the work entrusted to the government
and have complied loyally with its demands. ,
This is evidence that the American people look witn ap
proyal on what has been done.
How well have these things been done?
America sprang to a war basis in a period of time at least
a year less than Great Britain consumed in obtaining the same
' degree of preparation.
Measure what has been done in. all its elements of success
or failure, against the early preparation for the war of 1812
or for the Civil War, or for the Spanish American war. Meas
ure it against the preparation and arrangement of the Boer war.
in South Africa.
. When standards of the past are applied, none is so misin
formed as not to know that the early preparation for this war
l& immeasurably superior Uj the early preparation for any other
war known to this country. , It must not be forgotten that Prus
tin. was preparing for forty years. -
x When -a thing has been done better than it was ever crone
before, it becomes very difficult to say, and more difficult to
' prove, that somebody else would have done it better.
The best typewriter in the market, is the best until some
body produces a better one. It is no argument at all to say that
Jones, could have made a better typewriter, if he had tried
Jones didn't make a typewriter. That settles it.
In carrying on any great w ork, or, indeed, in contriving
any sort of work, things are never a hundred per cent perfect
N THIS COUNTRY every man has the right of free speech.
But not the right to say what he pleases. The right to
describe a law as unwise, or unjust, belongs to everybody. But
the right to oppose the operation of a law is admitted to no
The right of free speech is held in check at all times by
public opinion. The person who advocates birth control, an
archy, and so on,, will usually find himself in trouble with his
In time of war, when the necessity for unity is so great,
this same public opinion operates as a check jupon free speech,
as the young man discovered, in New Haven, who wrote into
his questionnaire that he hoped the Kaiser would win.
The instinct of self preservation is strong in the masses, and
when the common safety is threatened the masses are quick to
feel and resent. This is why some of the rights of free speech
are usually put aside in war times.
THE RIGHT OF FREE SPEECH
NOT A DISGRACE,
Petrograd, Jan. 29 (By the Asso
ciated Press) Leon Trotzky, the Bol-
sheviki foreign minister, and M. Ka
meneff, left Petrograd yesterday for
Brest-Litovsk to resume the peace ne
gotiations with the Central powers.
The congress of the councils of
workmen's and soldiers' delegates,
while deploring the imperialistic tenor
of the German peace terms, approved
all the actions of the Russian delega
tion and charged the government to
continue the negotiations.
The congress adopted a resolution to
this effect after the minority, made up
of Minimalists and Social Revolution-'
ists of the right, had sought vainly to
persuade the adoption of ar policy
flatly against a separate peace. Dur
ing the debate Foreign Minister Trot
zky declared he could not give a
guarantee that he would not sign a
separate peace, saying:
"To call a separate peace a dis
grace is blasphemy in' the sight of
blood covered Europe."
MAN WHO KILLED
TAILOR TO HANG
DEYENS CAKPENERS KILLED
Leominster, Mass., Jan. 29. Three
carpenters on their way to work at
Camp Devens were killed and four
were injured by a Boston & Maine
freight train which crashed into their
car at Lunenburg depot today.
New Haven, Jan. 2S Frank Durso
Of New York, convicted by a jury last
week of killing Morris Goldstein, a
tailor, of West Haven, was sentenced
in the superior court here today to
be hanged on June 7. Goldstein was
shot down In the sYreet in Novem
Three other men have been con
victed of the crime. Two of them.
Carmine Pisanello and Carmine Lan
zillo, are under sentence of death.
They appeared at Durso's trial as
witnesses against him. The third
man, Luigi Larizillo, is serving a life
The motive for the crime was rob
bery, Durso being brought here from
New York to assist in carrying out tin
Plot. The shooting occurred when
Goldstein called for help as his as
sailants surrounded him.
Concord, N. H., Jan. 29 Solon A.
Carter, who retired in 1913 after serv
ing 42 years -as state treasurer, died
here today. He was born in Leomin
er, Mass.. in 1837.
Wajgi&ngton Jan. 29 Representa
tive Frank p! Woods of Iowa, was
re-elected chairman of the. Republi
can National Congressional Campaign
Committee by unanimous vote at a
meeting at the Capitol last night.
Other officers elected were: Vice
chairmen, Representatives Julius
Kahn of California and W. R. Wood
of Indiana; secretary, Representative
E. H. Wason of New Hampshire;
treasurer, ex-Senator Nathan B. Scott
Of West Virginia.
Bangor, Me., Jan. 29. To a Maine
man, Francis E. Mallett of Lee, who
has been visiting in Bangor this week,
fell the honor of being the only man
in the United State Consular service
who had his ear close enough to the
ground in 1914 to predict the com
ing of the great war. ;
By the irony of fate this brought
fcim, not recognition or praise, but
imprisonment on the charge oi pemg
a spy. Russian officials had him ar
rested while on a visit to Petrograd
in December, 1914, on the ground that
any man who knew enough to pre
dict the war had inside sources of In
formation only open to those who
practiced espionage. .
ihe dispatch predicting the war
was sent from Budapest, Hungary,
where Mr. Mallett was vice-onsul, 'on
July 15, 1914 but did not reach the
state department until July 30.
A New York newspaper of July 30,
1914 in referring to Mr: Mallett's pre
diction, printed the -following from its
"He was incorrect in only one con
jecture, expressing the opinion that
Austria would wait until the crops
were harvested before bringing mat
ters to an issue. His dispatch is con
sidered as of the greatest Importance
at the state department, since it sap
ports the general contention that Aus
tria had been preparing for the clash
with .Servia and that the murder of
the Austrian heir apparent was only
an excuse employed to cover the Aus
trian design to crush Servia.
"No ambassador or minister in Eu-
ope or any of the higher consular of
ficials gave any information of im
pending trouble. Mr. Mallett is con
sidered one of the most efficient mem
bers of the consular service. He speaks
Hungarian fluently as well as severa.
other languages, and has a wide ac
quaintancs in Hungary, where he has
been stationed since 1906."
This' newspaper reference to his In
timate knowledge of conditions abroad
proved to be disastrous to Mr. Mai
After the start of hostilities, he
took over the consulates of the allied
powers and conducted their business.
He inspected prison camps in Austria,
where allied soldiers were held, and
in the latter part of December went
to Russia on a similar mission. He
was at the Hotel de France in Petro
grad when, on the morning of Jan.
1, 1915, at 2 o'clock, a maid knocked
at his door and told him there was a
riessenger with a telegram" waiting
I opened the door," said Mr. Mal
lett, "and six soldiers, two officers and
three civilians rushed inside, threw me
to the floor and forcing me to sit
there undressed facing a stove, they
informed me I was under arrest. I
protested and requested that I be per
mitted to notify the American ambas
sador, offering my passport as credential.-
This request was refused, -and after
they had searched various articles of
clothing peered at the soles of my
feet and at the seams of my pajamas
to see if anything was concealed in
them, they permitted me to dress and
I was driven to the office of the gov
ernment secret service. .
"Here I was questioned again and
an official "drew from a formidable
looking envelope a clipping that look
ed strangely familiar. He presented
it to me without a word, and it was
the article in the issue of July 30 of
the New York Herald, relating how
I alone of all American officials in
Europe had notified my government
of the coming war.- I had sent two
notifications, one in January and one
in July, just preceding the outbreak
I -had no comment to make on the
article, which was shown to me as evi
dence that 1 had sources of secret in
formation. So I was taken to the
prison for political criminals and plac
ed in a dungeon beneath the street
level. It was pitch dark and silent
and I spent 24 hours there before" I
again was removed to another prison.
I was held here for ,15 days incom
municado, while Russian officials
searched through my correspondence.
I had more than trunkf ul of it on vari
ous official matters and it took some
time to go through it.
"It was impossible for Tne to get
a.ny word to the outside, but it so
happened that Miss Hellaa Rumel, the
daughter of a Russian official, whom
I had helped get out of Budapest at
the beginning of the war, heard by
accident that I was under arrest. She
enlisted the aid of her father and I
was released. , -
"I left Russia and went to Vienna
on business and while there I was ap
proached by foreign officials and re
quested to explain how If had obtained
the information spoken of in an Amer
ican newspapers as furnished to the
United States. And once more the
clipping was shown to me. I replied
that I got it in the ordinary way by
merely using my eyes and observing
the trend of events."
On his return from Europe, Mr.
MaHett resided in New York city
where he was at all times in touch
with the Russian revolutionary ele
ment, having known many revolution
ists during his stay in the old coun
tries, r among them Leon Trotzky, "I
came in frequent personal . contact
with Trotzky," said Mr. Mallett, "and
I regret to say but little of the com
plimentary can be said regarding his
character. I remember when he was
married a few of his friends made up
a purse and bought furniture for him
But his married life was short, as he
deserted his bride and took up with
ai- affinity. Trotzky was not indus
trious but, - unlike Others of his type,
he was always neatly groomed and in
variably made a fine impression upon
people he met for the first time.
"Trotzky was opeij . -cied in
the Russian colonies of being in tne
pay of Germany, and with good rea
son ,1 believe. I knew the Russian
woman who had been detailed by the
Cr.ar's government to watch Trotzky,
and I understand that she had docu
mentary . evidence of his guilt. You
know Trotzky was driven from Eng
land, France and Spain on suspicion
of being a spy."
Mr. Mallett is now conducting a cab
in colony at Mattakeunk Lake, Lee
where he has entertained Russian
revolutionists, writers and others.
Trotzky at one time wrete to him with
a view of navine the colony a visit,.
BATTLE LINE IN WEST
FROM RUSSIAN FRONT
United States Government Exposes Teuton
Treachery in Transferring Men From ln
action of East to Fight Against Brit
ish, French and Americans. ' ;
Washington, Jan. 29 Charges that Germany is violating
the terms of the Russian truce by withdrawing troops from the
eastern front and transferring them to the western battle lines
were made today by the w ar department
The war department made this statement:
"The general staff of the United States army announces
that the German military authorities are evading those terms
of the Russian truce which provided that German troops were
noi to De wiuiurawu xruiu me eastern 1 runt tor use. in me ,wesi,. :
during the peace negotiations.
German troops on the Russian
front are being allowed to go home
on furlough. These soldiers are then
transferred to recruiting stations and
sent to the western front.
The troops are taken in this way,
man by man, for two reasons first
because it deceives the Russians, and
second ' because the eastern troop3
have been so influenced by the Rus-'-eian
revolutionary propaganda that
the German "military chiefs have de
cided to separate the men and scati
ter tljem in unaffected western regi-;
CE FLOES CARRY OFF
DOZEN RIVER PACKETS
Paducah, Ky., Jan. 29. Descending
Ice gorges in the Tennessee and Ohio
rivers, converging here 'today, swept
the winter. fleet of packets and other
craft from their moorings at up river
points and in the Paducah harbor
and carried it on down the Ohio river.
Appeals for help from persons ma
rooned on the icebound craft plainly
were heard as they were carried past
A report from Metropolis, 111., said
several packets were seen standing ' on
end in the ice as the floe passed that
The number of boats caught in the
torrent has not been determined. It
was said that they probably would
reach more than a- dozen. A prelim
inary estimate of the damage, if all
were hist, placed if at more than
Eagle line steamers, St. Louis pack
ets, several Tennessee river and- other
smaller craft were, in the harbor here
when the gorge broke. The boats
rocked and swayed with the . impact
of the ice. Additional cables were
hastily run to shore but failed to hold
the iboats as the pressure of the ice
became greater, and one by one they
were torn from their moorings and
swept on down the river.
The survivors of the helpless fleet
are expected to reach Cairo,. 111., late
Pittsburgh,Jan. 2S. Reports reach
ed the weather -bureau here today that
the Monongahela river was rising rap
idly from Fairmont, W. Va., nerth.and
the ice was moving out. It was ex
pected that the ice would reach the
pools in the neighborhood of Pitts
burgh tonight and ewery possible pre
caution against damage to river craft
was taken. The ice averages about -18
inches in thickness.
While there was possibility of con
siderable damage the news was heard
with interest in Pittsburgh, since the
Monongahela has been closed by the
severe Weather for more than a month
and large quantities of coal, badly
needed by the mills In this district,
have been tied up.
U. S. TAX AGENTS
FIND WEALTH IN
Income tax collectors are lotid in
their praise of the manner in which
the farmers of Fairfield county keep
their books. Not only do they far
surpass their city brethren in the
conduct of their financial affairs, but
also in most instances they far sur
pass them in wealth. Nearly every one
of the farmers call for the blanks
known as the "millionaire sheets,"
which have not arrived at the local
office, from Washington up to the
Yesterday the tax collectors work
ed until 9 p. m. and interviewed no
less than 2,000 taxpayers, who filled
out tax forms, showing upwards of
3, 500,000. When it is taken into
consideration that all of those were
of the working class taking advantage
of the federal holiday to fill out their
tax papers, the amount of wealth is
amazing. . . " - .
Among the big crowd which - jam
med the tax office today were dozens
of women who all were eager to tell
Uncle Sam bow wealthy t,hey were.
There are only a few of the many
factories in this district that have not
taken advantage of the tax collectors'
offer to straighten - out any tangle
that they may have in their books.
AMERICAN FLIER KILLED.
Paris, Jan. 29 Dumaresque Spen
cer, of Highland Park, 111., was kijled
a few days agro while returning from
patrol 'duty across the German lines
near Belfort. He was a member of
the Franco-American flying squad
ron and a graduate of Tale.
TURKEY TO TAKE
CENSUS FOR FIRST
TIME IN HISTORY
Amsterdam, Jan. 29. For the first
time in' the history of Turkey, a com
plete census of the whole empire is
to be taken. ' A German statistician
has been appointed to superintend the
preliminary formalities. The Turkish
newspaper Sabah says: "We are the
only nation in Europe not excluding
even the Balkan states which pos
sesses no official statists of our
The estimated population of Turkey
before the war was roughly 21,000,
000 of which 7,000,000 were Turks, 9,
000,000 Arabs, 1,500,000 Armenians, 1,
500,000 Greeks. 1,500,000 Kurds, and the
remainder Druses, Jews, and the
NEW HOME CARD
SOON READY TO
Washington, Jan. 2. The new
home card -of the food administration
has been issued and soon will be dis
tributed throughout the United States
to aid housekeepers in observing the
1918 , food conservation program of
two wheatless, one meatless and two
porkless days as announced in Presi
dent Wilson's proclamation.
The card carrying an explanation
of the weekly plan will go into effect
today when the bakers begin the
manufacture of the Victory loaf, a
war bread containing a 5 per cent.
substitute for wheat flour. Bakers
are iu lnciceuw uic buuui-uli i mi
wheat flour until a 20 per cent, sub
stitution is reached on Feb. 24. . At
the same time grocers win sell house
holders wheat flour only when the
purchaser buys an equal amount of
some other cereaL The food admin
istration card asks "every loyal
American to help win the war by
maintaining rigidly as a minimum of
saving the following program:
"Have two wheatless days (Monday
and Wednesday) in every week and
one wheatless meal in every day.
"Explanation On wheatless' days
and in 'wheatless' meals of other
days, use no crackers, pastry, maca
roni," breakfast food or other cereal
food containing wheat, and use no
wheat flmir in anv form exceot the
small amount that may be needed for
thickening soups or gravies, or for a
binder in cornbread and other cereal
breads. AS TO oreaa, n you Dame n
at home, use other - cereals than
wheat, and if you buy it, buy only
war bread. Our object is that we
should buy and consume one-third less
wheat products than we did last year.
"Have one meatless day (Tuesday)
in every week, and one meatless meal
in every day'. Have two porkless
days (Tuesday and Saturday) in every
"Explanation 'Meatless' means
without any cattle, hog, or sheep pro
ducts. On other days use mutton and
lamb in preference to beef or pork.
'Porkless' means without pork, ba
con, ham, lard or 'pork products,
fresh or preserver. Use fish, poultry
and eggs. As a nation we eat and
waste nearly twice as much meat as
we need. '
"Make every day a fat saving day
( butter, lard, lard substitutes, etc.)
Explanation Fry less; ibake, broil,
boil r stew instead. Savi meat drip
pings: use these and vegetable oils for
cooking instead of butter. Butter has
food values vital to children; there
fore give it to them. Use it only on
the table. Waste no soap; it is made
from fat. Be careful of all fats. We
smaller tnoes. xne rurKisn , w i . ,, , uf
anxt- uoc -
pers have recently shown some
ety as to the large decrease in popu
lation lately caused by the war "and
the prevalence of diseass,. and
urged the government to take stepa
to decrease mortality and increase
the birth rate.
but as Mr. Mallett had not long be
fore that helped Trotzky out with a
loan, he did not feel like playing the
part of host to him for an indefinite
period. Emma Goldman, the anar
chist, was another radical who wished
to spend a vacation at the colony but
was not tticouraged by Mr. Mallett.
as much fat as W need.
"Make every dy a sugar saving
"Explanation Xfee less sugar. Less
sweet drinks an candy containing
sugar should be used in war times.
As a nation wehave used twice as
much sugar as e need."
The card caujons householders also
against hoardirf food, and gives re
newed assuran that the government
"by its controor exports mi retain
for our peopla sufficient supply of-.'
every essentia' foodstuff." Warning J
against limits: the food of growing
I children alsds riven.