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THE FARMER: FEBRUARY 22, 1918 AUSTRIAN'S BUT W ITHIN THE borders of 'the people nominally subjects of the Hapbtirgs, but in tensely loyal to the country of their adoption. They are Bohemians, Croatians, Hungarians, Italians, Jews. Lithuanians, Loranians, Moravians, Poles, Roumanians, Ru thenians, Serbs, Slovaks, Slovenes and others. - . . The House Committee on foreign affairs has favorably re ported a bill, exempting these peoples from classification as alien enemies, except those who claim military exemption on the ground of alienage. Most of these millions intend to make America their home and the abiding place of their posterity forever. Here they sacrifice nationality, language and all the pe culiar culture which is nationalistic, and take on the culture i that is American. . Already some millions of the children of these stocks are i American in language, American in ideals and without substan tial traces of the culture of the homes their parents left. The word culture in this case being used, to describe that education peculiar to nationality, but not that education general to all. As subjects of the Hapsburgs, or of the Hohenzollerns, these people struggled bravely, and sometimes fiercely, to retain na tionality, language, and peculiar culture. There are the Slovaks, the Irish of Austria, who have large : ly colonized in Bridgeport, and are among the most loyal of iAmericans. The Bohemian state has achieved a legal existence i by the presence of a Czechoslovak army, which has declared the ! existence of the Bohemian nationality as a distinctive, sovereign ' entity. ! , Why is it that the peoples I Hapsburgs and Hohenzollerns a their own language and culture, gether American, in language, The answer is not far. Autocracy oppresses; democracy ! brings freedom. The subjects of an autocracy find in the bond I of language and a common blood the basic necessity for union to win against the force of despotism. The same peoples, admitted to a government in which they have an equal share, are contented with the institution. They no longer need the organizing forces of peculiar tongue or race to obtain justice. On the contrary, they cannot share in the lull blessing of democracy until they learn its language, practice its i customs, and understand its institutions. The president anticipated the action Congress will take. These subject peoples are aliens in the political sense, but by the bonds of sympathy are truly American. THE PEN ALTY BOLO PASHA, a French adventurer, a. handsome fellow, - with a gracious manner and a princely carriage, a very ; type of the successful American lobbyist, has been sentenced to ; death, being found guilty of treason by a French tribunal, which i deliberated the evidence for a trifle more than fifteen' minutes. What did Bolo Pasha do? He did not organize armed re sistance, nor blow up ammunition plants, nor shoot French sol diers in the back while they were on guard duty. . , His treason was of a different nature. He gave aid and comfort to the enemy, by fostering propaganda. Using German ' money to influence persons and newspapers, he flooded France with tales that the Germans were invincible, that their frightful ness was beyond comprehension. He brought about the circu lation of peace rumors. "Why fight any longer, let us make peace!" This was the burden of the agitation he conducted, while denouncing the Germans in the strongest terms. The .'Germans are wicked, they are cruel, Huns, barbarians, but 'they will win! Why fight? This propaganda he created in France, in Italy and to some I extent in America. Therefore he is found guilty of treason and i will be executed by a French firing squad, if he does not sooner j commit suicide. In the fate of Bolo Pasha there may be a lesson for some in America. Bolo Pasha led in asserting that the French govern- iment was incompetent, that it never accomplished anything, Ithat it ought to be supplanted. The time draws constantly nearer when the man who can- ;not see any intelligence, efficiency or military skill in his own ! Countrymen and his own government will be the object of war ranted suspicion. . THE NATURE i HE GOVERNMENT commands people make them. The women especially are faithful to the utmost. Man, I op woman, they practice thrift, anad buy bonds, or stamps, j Habit has to be conquered. It is not so easy for him to save, i who has spent his money upon cherished gratifications. To deny wheat, sugar, fats and meats, these are triumphs I of the spirit more difficult than many victories that have a 'larger sound. The crowning sacrifice placed upon the boys who go fb war, is a tremendous fact. But the mere willingness to give ! life is probably not so distressing to the spirit, as the self de jnials and discomforts that inhere in the life of the soldier. To I shoulder a musket and pack a load; to dig trenches and hike ,for miles; to stand in mud and water in zero weather, these are , real sacrifices. The government, seeing the wThole area of necessity, has .given advice, to individuals and communities. To communities it has said, deny yourselff. Spend no money except for what is -fNabsolutely necessary. The political machine charged with the government of Bridgeport hears this advice, but does not heed it. In every direction these politicians are embarking upon a career of ex penditure shamelessly unpatriotic. City Hall knows neither the nature of shame, nor the nature of patriotism. Why does it spend and spend, when it knows that the nation demands thrift and self denial? TYING UP OTHER WORKERS THE ACTION OF the ship carpenters was the more injuri ous because it threatened to stip the labor of millions of other men. The workers of the nation, hand and brain, are mostly engaged upon things for the war. Most of these things are for shipment abroad; if they cannot be shipped it is useless to produce them. A mere handful of men, members of a comparatively new organization, threatened to tie up the entire war industry of the United States, and would have done so had it not been for the smart reprimand of the president. h4 The leaders of these men were without support, either rom the great labor leaders, or from anybody else. They were p'oing contrary to the labor policy of American workers as de fined by Mr. Gompers, without any excuse. Fortunately these ien have seen the error of NOT ALIEN'S United States live 5,000,000 who constantly demand of the government of their own, and here are willing to become alto customs and all? FOR TREASON OF SHAME many sacrifices. Most their waysu A SLITTER T HOSE WHO prefer anarchy to order may look at Russia. Those who prefer a weak government to a strong one may gaze upon the countries so recently ruled by the Czar. Russia was a union of dissimilar elements, of widely sepa: rated peoples, of varying stocks speaking numerous tongues. Every country contains within its borders dissimilar elements. There are political differences, social- differences, Industrial separations and all that sort of thing. The miracle is that men, who have so many opinions, and who are so tenacious in their beliefs, should be able to establish organized governments. ' The United States is also an assemblage of parts not quite concordant. New England immemorially insists that the South and the West are hostile to it. The class and mass cleavage ex ists. There are elements not in sympathy with the war. More tongues are spokenun America than are heard in Russia. In spite of these difficulties, the United States offers to the world an internal solidarity that is amazing. But the binding force of this solidarity is largely in organized government; weaken the government, destroy the people's faith in it, and disturbance, anarchy and dissolution may follow to jits the ex tent that the forces of destructive criticism are successful. Keep the government at Washington strong. Support it. Have faith in it Talk for it and pray for it. This is the road to unity, and the broad highway that leads to victory. Men, of their savage nature, tend constantly to fall apart. Dissension is easier than unity. It is harder to do team work, than for each to play star all alone. The measure of civilization is co-ordination. How can we do things together; thqe are the really civilized men. Who can do nothing but rend and destroy, these are the men in whom the instincts of the savage are strong. ; ' TWO CENT SCHOOL LUNCH THE OBJECT of public education is to make the state strong. The public schools are industrial establish ments that create intelligence. The raw material is the mind of the child. The job is not entirely dissimiliar from other indus trial operations, in which the raw material is in the order of in animate, unintelligent matter. In this lower field of industry, if the material is not up to specifications, it will be reworked and made so, if that is pos sible. The same rule is wise in the higher industrial effort. If a child is backward because of physical defects, or by reason of underfeeding, elemental manufacturing knowledge requires remedy for the defects. Only a stupid manufacturer, or an im poverished or dishonest one, will waste effort on inferior ma terial that can be made right. It is senseless to waste education on children not physically able to receive it. This is why the two cent lunch will be justi fied, even if it costs five cents and the community has to pay the extra three cents. If the object of schools is to manufacture citizens well equipped to do the work of life, correctible defects, which stand in the way of successful production, must be corrected. TRAIN PIGEONS AT DEVES FOR DUTYJN ARMY Birds Will Be Used to Carry Messages at American Front in France. Camp Devens. Feb. 18. Seventy-five of the finest breed of carrier pigeons win De inducted into service at this cantonment this week. The new quar ters, a large roomy cood. has been completed and occupies a position in the rear of divisional headquarters. 'lhe birds which will be brought to Camp Devens will be the pick of the trained racing pigeons from New England's finest coops. Lieutenant Robert Milne of 47 Ocean street, Dor chester, one of the most expert and best known pigeon breeders of the country, has been placed in charge of the work of training the birds for war work. Under the plan the birds will be kept in the coop for one month. Dur ing this time they will be allowed to perch on an extended fhelf, enclosed by wire netting. In this time the birds, following their wonderful in stinct in this regard, will make a close study of the landscape so that they will know its every identifying mark. Meanwhile the reof of the coop will be painted in the colors of the signal flags. With these, too, the birds will familiarize themselves. At the end of one month the birds will be freed for the first time. As they return to the coop they will be tried on longer flights, anrii eventually they will be trained in making flights of 25 and 50 miles. From this time on they will be trained in the carrying of messages. The carrier pigeon is at its best at the age of six years. For this reason young birds are being sought. By the time they are trained they will at the height of their worth as mes sengers in No Man's Land. The peculiar instincts of the pigeon have never teen accounted for. Mere ly instinct is the answer to their adaptabilities for messenger work. They are a most sensitive and yet in telligent type of bird. Despite their sensitiveness, however, it is said that at the front they ac custom themselves to the noise of the heavy artillery fire and the screaming of the 6hells better than tie horse or mule. Before being ' sent into the smoke of battle the birds are given a trial near the front line trenches, just as soldiers are. They are then provided with respirators which, made of alu minum and attached to their leg, does not impede the bird in its flight, but in case of gas attacks protects it from the nauseating fumes. Experiments will he conducted throughout the country from now on. As in everything else Uncle Sam, with very .good reason, expects to eventually surpass all other countries in this work. Kven little Belgium, the home of the carrier pigeon, will finally be surpassed, say Uncle Sam's lieutenants. Some day in the not far distant fu ture these birds will tie carrying our messages over the battle lines of Eu rope at the rate of more than a mile JLa Minute. OF CHOICE DANIELS SENDS MESSAGE ABOUT NEED OF SHIPS Hartford, Feb. 18. Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels has joined the list of prominent government officials who have telegraphed to the Connect icut State Council of Defense empha sizing the importance of the enroll ment of shipyard volunteers now go ing on in Connecticut under the direc tion of the defense council and Leo A. Korper, federal director, in co-operation. The telegram received last night from Secretary Daniels says'. Ships, ships and more ships is the call of the hour. We must have them to carry our armies to Europe and to keep our troops and our allies sup plied with food and munitions. Gen eral Pershing calls for a bridge of ships across the Atlantic .and that is what we are bending every effort to furnish him. We must have more ships to win the war. We must have them for the great merchant marine that will carry America's commerce under the American flag to all the world's ports after the war. ".Every vessel that is turned out in this country counts toward the defeat of Germany. Every worker in a ship yard can feel that he is doing a part toward winning this struggle only less important than that of the mei: on. our warships or in tho trenches. Let Americans who are not called for mil itary service enlist in the army of shipbbuilders and work for the flag which our soldiers aiwi sailors are fighting to uphold. Victory ships is a good name for the vessels being built for the government. For each one brings nearer the defeat of autoc racy and victory for democracy which will usher in a new era of peace and prosperity for the world." U. S. INFORMATION BUREAU FOR LABOR Washington. Feb. 16 Appointment of Roger W. Babson, the statistician, who is a special agent of the labor department's employment service, as director of a newly created division of industrial relations of the com mittee on public information, was an nounced today. The new division will serve as a point of contact between the infor mation committee and the labor de partment and Mr. Babson's first work will be to inform manufacturers of the war work which the department of labor is doing and of the assist ance that the department can lend to employers. BRITISH TROOPS IN GREAT RAID London, Feb. 19 An extensive raid was carried out by British troops last night on the Flanders front, in the southern section of Houthalst wood; the , war office announced today. There were two other successful raids, one in the region south of Lens and the other on the old Arras front, in the neighborhood of Epehy. Prison ers were taken in all these raids. The Flanders raid was a particularly im portant affair, resulting in heavy cas ualties to the Germans. STATE SEEKING CO-OPERATION IN FIGHTING FIRES Cities May Aid Each Other With Apparatus When Necessary. Hartford, Feb. 19 Towns and cities in Connecticut which have fire departments are to be called upon by ths Connecticut State Council of Uefense to put into effect throughout the entire state a plan for the inter change of fire apparatus in emergen cies. The matter has been investi gated by the council's committee on industrial survey, which has reported that, due to the efforts in the past few years of the Fire Chiefs' Asso ciation, there is mutual aid co-operation to a very considerable extent among the various towns and cities. The committee recognized the de sirability of a standard thread on hose and hydrant couplings through out the state; but did not recommend at this time any effort to change the various threads now used. Instead, it recommended most strongly that every fire department in the state be equipped with a sufficient number of standard adapter couplings to permit of ready mutual aid. The adapter coupling proposed has been designed under the direction of John C. Moran," chief of the Hartford fire department, who was named by the Fire Chiefs' Association a com mittee of one to assist the council's committee in this matter. The com mittee also has had the benefit of the advice of Horace B. Clark, chairman of the Board of Fire Commissioners of Hartford. The State Council of Defense de cided at yesterday's meeting to make a determined effort to have every town in the state which has a fire department provide itself with these strainottiemetaoinetoaietaoietaoin standard adapter couplings so as to make mutual aid possible at all times throughout Connecticut. The coun cil hs arranged to secure these coup lings at $5.75 each and towns are to be given an opportunity to buy them from the council at this rate. The council voted that its commit tee on Industrial survey be authorized in the name of the council to instruct various agencies of the council throughout the State as follows: "In such cases where authority is not at present vested in the chief or acting chief to ask or render assist ance in an emergency to obtain for him such authority. "To arrange with the local depart ments in all districts to place orders directly with the ' Connecticut State Council of Defense for a suitable num ber of hydrant and hose couplings." ASKS WILSON TO FORM LEAGUE OF ENTENTE NATIONS Paris, Feb. 19 Writing to Presi dent Wilson on behalf of the League for the Rights of Man, Ferdinand Buisson, a Radical Socialist deputy, asks that the President take the ini tiative for the immediate organiza tion of the nucleus of a society of nations. M. Buisson Urges the Presi dent to take up this subject with England, France and other Entente nations. ASK MERCY FOR NEGRO SOLDIERS Washington, Feb. 19 President Wilson was urged today by a com mittee from the New York branch of the National Association for the Ad vancement of Colored People to ex tend clemency to the five negro sol diers of the 24th United States infan try sentenced to be hanged for the part they played in the riots in Hous ton, Tex., in August last. A review of the cases of 41 other negro soldiers sentenced to life im prisonment as a result of the rioting was also requested. The Rev. F. A. Cullen, as spokesman, placed in the hands of the president a petition bearing thousands of signatures. Y. M. C. A. COMFORT FOR PORTUGUESE Paris, Feb. 19. The American army T. 31. C. A. is extending its activity to cover the Portuguese army in France. Myron A. Clark has been appointed to take charge. The field staff will be recruited in Paris. Rec reation huts similar to those in use by the T. M. C. A. on the American, French and Italian fronts will be erected scon. FINDS FELICE IS GUILTY OF DEATH George Felice is held criminally re sponsible by doroner J. J. Phelan for the death of Guiseppe Quattone of South Norwalk, who died February 11 from the effect of bullet wounds due to a shot fired by Felice in a quarrel. Felice has not been appre hended. Quattone, 25 years old, and Felice, about 18, quarreled over a relative of Quattone who had' been sliding on the ice near the home of Felice. There are some features which might indi cate self-defense, but although rela tives of Felice promised to produce him before the coroner yesterday he failed to appear. The finding has been sent to the prosecuting officers and attempt will be made to trace Felice and bring him before the courts. URGE MINTING OF 2-CENT COINS Washington, Feb. 19 -Recommendation that the treasury resume minting of two .cent coins has been made by the executive committee of the American Newspaper association, in session here. The new coin, it was pointed out, would make a con venient medium for purchasing pa pers, the price of which has generally advanced to two cents because of the increased price of paper. SENATOR WATSON CRITICISES WIDE POWER OF WILSON Washington, Feb. 19. Provision of the Overman bill giving President Wilson wide powers to reorganize the war branches of the government were denounced as "unconstitutional," and autocratic," by Senator Watson yes terday in the course of a speech in support of the senate draft of the ad ministration's railroad bill. "The Overman bill," declared Sena tor Watson, "confers, upon the presi dent unheard of powers, many of which to my mind are entirely unjus tifiable, but the most reprehensible feature of that measure in my judg ment is the one that provides that this autocratic authority shall con tinue for one year after the termina tion of the war. Why this provision? Why seek in that measure, as in the railroad bill, .to perpetuate power asked to prosecute the war into the days when there shall be no war? These are war powers. They are ask ed for war purposes. They are not constitutional, they are not in har mony with the spirit of our institu tions, they are irreconcilably opposed to eve.-y theory of our- government, they are un-American on any other hypothesis. "Let us firmly resolve that with the proclamation of peace the president shall surrender all the past powers willingly conferred upon him by an aroused people because of the exigent necessities of war; that this nation shall return to the kind of republic founded by the revered fathers of the union." Senator Watson approved the pro vision in the railroad bill limiting gov ernment control over the railroads to 18 months after the war, but opposed the administration's original proposal to leave this period indefinite. In his opinion. Senator. Watson said, the war will mark a new era in rail road management, "I believe the old system of com petition is gone forever; that the Sherman anti-trust law, so far as it effects railroad combinations, will be repealed; that anti-pooling laws di rected at railroad operations will, in-sofar-as they affect the trnsportation systems of the country, be abrogated and a plan will be adopted which will give the government practical control of American railroads without the weakness and the inefficiency inci dent to government ownership." Adoption of the standard of com pensation provided in the bill also was urged by Senator Watson. COMPLAINING OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST STRIKERS Washington. Feb. 19 With strik ing carpenters in all affected districts returning to work today and William L. Hutcheson, president of the Broth erhood of Carpenters and Joiners, due here to take up the situation with government officials, complete settle ment of the recent trouble in eastern ship yards seemed assured. In effect President Wilson's intervention has terminated the eastern ship yard strike. New Tork, Feb. 19 Thirty-eight striking carpenters who sought today to return to work at the plant of the Downey Ship Building Co. on Staten Island, according to John Rice, na tional organizer of the United Broth erhood of Carpenters and Joiners were refused entrance to the yard un less they made new applications for their old jobs at a changed scale of wages. The men, who had been working at a flat rate of 60 cents an hour, refuse to sign up for 54 to 60 cents and left the plant. Their affidavits, Rice said, would be sent to, William L. Hutche son, president of the brotherhood, who is now in Washington preparing to go before the United States ship ping board in the hope of effecting an adjustment of the ship yard contro versy. WANTS $10,000 FROM CONN. CO. Edward Marshall, as administrator on the estate of Thomas Broadley, has filed suit in the Superior court against the Connecticut Co. for $10,000 dam ages for the death of Broadley. According to the complaint Broad ley, the evening of May 4, 1917, was crossing Stratford avenue near Kos suth street, and was struck by a trol ley car going east in that street. He died a short time later from his in juries. .Negligence in the operation of the trolley car is alleged. WAR COSTS U. S. $555 A SECOND Every ciock tick costs us over $555 in our first year's conduct of the war. This equal $33,333 1-3 a minute, $2,000,000 an hour, and about one billion and a half a month just for the United States alone. But we shall get some of it back, for we have been lending our allies at the rate of about thirteen million and a half dollars a day. EXPLOSION KILLS TWO. Hammond, Ind., Feb. 21 Two men were killed, qne is missing and 20 'were injured by an explosion " last night which wrecked the Republic Iron & Steel Co.'s plant in East Chi cago, four miles from here. Th! blast occurred in the tubular boilers and batteries in the structural iron mill. NOTED GRAIN EXPERT DJKAI Chicago, Feb. 16. Edward M. Hig gins, grain expert with an interna tional reputation, died at his home here last night of heart disease. He was 58 years old and a son of one of Chicago's first packers. While presi dent of the Armour Grain Co. he was credited with a prominent part in smashing the so-called Leiter wheat corner in 1898. In 1907 he resigned, saying his fortune of more than $1, 000.000 was sufficient for him, and made a trip around the world. After a year's retirement he resumed bus iness here as a grain broker. ITALIAN QUEEN LAUDS AMERICAN; RED CROSS WORK Genea, Italy, Feb. 16 (Corrwpond ence of the Associated Press Svom Queen llaM of Italy, the ahm-Ioui Red Cross committee for Genoa, hes received a telegram expressing her appreciation and that of King Em manuel for its "high and beneficent work" in opening a canteen and re freshments place in the railroad sta tion at Genoa. The Genoa commit tee war organized early in November, erected a chalet in the station yard and served as many as 600 refugees in a single night, during the height of the Teutonic invasion. Now that the influx of refugees has decreased, the scope of the canteen work has been expanded to include Italian, British and French soldiers passing through. The new work was formally inaug urated this week in the presence- of municipal and army authorities. Paul : Grosjean, manager . of the Genoa branch of a New Tork bank and chairman of the local committee, spoke in behalf of the whole Red Cross organization in Italy. A Bel gian, he has enthusiastically under taken the American work. "The small nations, overwhelmed by the barbarian, have stronger faith than ever," he said. "This is an ex ample to us. To these little nations have come in aid the great nations in an outpouring of high idealism of justice.- The American Red Cross represents the spirit of humanity that animates the entire American people. It has given immediate aid to unfortunates forced to abandon their homes. It works throughout Italy in harmony with the country's institutions. It intensifies the bonds of solidarity and sympathy between the two countries. Out of the awful struggle a good has come. Nations understand each other, draw nearer together, and strengthen their friendly relations. The American Red Cross and the Italian Red Cross will work together in a holy mission of giving comfort and aid." Consul-General David T. Wilber expressed America's appreciation of cordial collabiration shown by citi zens of Genoft, The mayor of Genoa responded warmly for the eivi'!in authorities and General Garione the military. "American, Italian and Red Cross flags were flying, and the station w. s thronged with a cheering crowd." WAR INCREASES SWEDISH TRADE Stockholm, Feb. 18 The opening of the new year finds the Swedish State Bank reflecting the wartime pros perity of Swedish trade. Net profits for the year are 2,600,000, againsc fl, 600, 000 a year ago. The expansion of Swedish trade is shown by the fact that during 1917 over 1,200 new stock companies were formed with an ag gregate capital of 115,000,006. FLYER BURNED IN FLAMING PLANE Dallas. Tex., Feb. 19 Victor L. Dennis, flying cadet at Love field, was probably fatally burned today when his aeroplane burst into flames while he was attempting to make a landing. Dennis' home is in Detroit. COMSTOCK, FRUIT GROWER, DEAD South Norwalk, Feb. 18 George Christopher Comstoek, well known throughout Connecticut and New England as a fruit grower, died at the Norwalk hospital yesterday at the age of 70., He conducted the Rosedale fruit farm in Broad River, where he made his home. GENERAL SIBLEY DEAD. Rockford, 111., Feb. IS Brig. Gen. F. W. Sibley, for many years a lead ing officer who took part in the early Indian campaigns and later in the Spanish war, is dead at the base hos pital in Camp Grant. Death was caus ed by pernicious anaemia. DEPORTED DESCENDANT OF BEETHOVEN DEAD. Copenhagen, Feb. 18 The death in an Austrian field hospital of Karl Ju lius Maria von Beethoven, a descen dant of the famous composer of that name, is announced. Deported from England in 1915, he was drawn into the Austrian army and sent to the front. He was 46 years old. WHO WROTE THEIR NATIONAL ANTHEM? The authorship of the British na tional anthem furnishes one of those evergreen subjects of dispute which delight the soul of individuals whose joy it is to write letters to the press, observes a British newspaper. Probably there will also be con flicting evidences of the question, but the common opinion now is that Hen ry Carey, who died in October, 1743, was the author. At any rate, Carey sang the song as his own composition at a dinner party in Cornhill, while shortly after wards he approached a publisher with the manuscript. It was not at once accepted, and seems to have been first sung in pub- -lie in 1745 two years after Carey's death. BRIEF NEWS NOTES Viscount Ishii, head of the recent. Japanese Mission to the United States, has been appointed Japanese Am bassador at Washington. BsAwrt B. Van Coriiwndi. nr-m ber of the Van CortlandC famT." one of the original colonial families of New Amsterdam killed himseif at his home at Mount Kisco, N. Y. Hayner Feld, a private in the 108th Field Artillery at Spartanburg. S. C. was fatally wounded by a civilian at the outskirts of the city. Arthur Woods, former police com missioner of New York, has been ap pointed to take charge of an Ameri can propaganda in foreign coun tries. '