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THE FARMER: AUGUST 2, 191?
PRESIDENT WILSON ADDRESSES PEOPLE OF UNITED STATES IN DENUNCIATION OF MOB SPIRIT Particularly Specifies Lynchings, and Especially Those in Which Enemy Aliens Have Been Victims Says We must Show World Our Fight for Safety of Democracy Is Now a Sham Every Mob Makes Work of German Liars Easier. - Washington, July 26 President' Wilson today, in a personal statement, (addressed to His fellow countrymen, denouncing mob spirit and mob ac tion, called upon the nation to show the world that while it fights for democracy on foreign fields, it la not destroying democracy at home. The president referred not alone to mob action against those suspected of be ing enemy aliens or enemy sympa thizers; he denounced most emphati cally mob action of all sorts, especi ally lynchings, and while he did not refer specifically to lynchings of ne groes in the South, it is know that he included them in his characterization of mob spirit as "a blow at the heart of ordered law and humane Justice.!' It is known that the lynchings of neproes. as well as attacks upon those suspected of being enemies or sympa thisers, have been used by the Oer man propaganda throughout Central and South America as well as in Eu rope, to contend that the pretensions of the United States as a champion r.t democracy rre a sham. Deeply concerned by the situation, the president decided to address his fellow countrymen, and to declare that "every mob contributes to Ger man lies about 'he United States what her most gifted liars cannot improve upon by way of calumny." The president's statement in full, follows: "Mv Fellow Countrymen: "I take the liberty of addressing you upon a subject which so vitally affects the honor of the nation and the very character and integrity of our institutions that I trust you will think me justified in speaking very plainly about it. "I allude to the mob spirit which has recently here and there very fre qusntly shown its head among-!. u rot in any single region, but i.i many and widely separated parts of th country. There have been many lynchings, and every one of them has been a blow at the heart of ordered law ana humane Justice. No man who loves America, no man who r'al ly cares for her fame and honor and character, or whe is truly loyal to her institutions, can justify mob nctim while the court3 of Justice are open ana the governments of the states and the nation are reidy and able to do their duty. We are at this very moment fighting lawless passion. Germany "has outlawed herself irnon; the nations because sir; has disregard ed the sacred obligations of l,iw rind nas inaae lyncners cr her nrrr.is. lynchers emulate her disgraceful ex ample. I, for my part, am anxious to see every community in America rise above that level, with pride and a fix ea resolution which rj man or set of men can afford to despise. "We proudly claim to be the cham U. S. MEN FIND DEAD IN HEAPS Troops Discover 2,000 Bod ies in One Horseshoe Shaped Area. With the American Army on the Aisne-Marne Front, July 27 The American troops advancing along the Marne have discovered thousands of dead Germans who fell during the re treat before the heavy machine gun firo of the American.'. In one horse shoe shaped area the ground was cov ered with dead. The Americans bur led as many as was possible. It is es timated 2,000 Germans fell there. Farmers along the Marne report having seen the bodies of Germans floating down the stream. The mili tary authorities are planning some system by which they can clear the river of bodies. Three days after the Germans evac uated Chateau Thierry the Americans found a lone German in Mont St. Fere hiding in a cellar. The prisoner said he was tired of the war and was determined to secrete himself, not withstanding his lack of food, and later take a chance by surrendering to the Allies. He asserted the German soldiers were dissatisfied with the way affairs were going and that the general opin ion among them was that the Crown Prince was unablo to bring sufficient reinforcements or food supplies to aid the forces being attacked from the outh. The American soldiers watched with pleasure the prisoner appease his ap petite after his three days" fast. The German requested the Americans not to report his desertion, saying If they did an he ever got back to Germany ha would be shot. STAMFORD MAN DEAD IN FRANCE Stamford, July 27. A war depart ment message received by his pa rents today, Mr. and Mrs. Charles H, Crandall, announced the death in ac tion In France on July 15 of First EJeut. Robert F. Crandall of tha field artllery. Crandall had served an en listment In the Connecticut coast ar tillery. When the call came for men tor officer campa re responded, later received bis commission and was Among an early contingent to be sent broad. Three brothers are in ser .Tice. ROMANOFFS NOW SAFE IN SIBERIA London, July 97,-The family of ttlcholaa Romanoff, tha former Rus sian emperor, la safe In a Siberian monastery In Abaiafa, according ta a Central Naws ipatH from ArasUr.- dam. This town i on tha Irtish rive um la aot4 plat at pilgrimage, This report seems ta didspose ot the ruowr that Lifdn4 Puts Alexis, it ha former ineelers' ss, te4 4iad at pTxmw following tM e4tj pions of democracy. If we really are, indeed and in truth, let us see to It that we do not discredit our own. I say plainly that every American who takes part in the action of a mob or gives any sort of countenance is no true son of this great democracy, but its betrayer, and does more to dis credit her by that single disloyalty to her standards of law and right, than the words of her statesmen or the sacrifices of her heroic boya in the trenches can do to make suffer ing peoples believe her to be their saviour. How shall wo commend democracy to the acceptance of other peoples, if wo disgrace our own by proving that it is, after all, no pro tection to the weak? Every mob contributes to German lies about the United States, what her most gifted liars cannot improve upon by the way of calumny. They can at least say that such things cannot happen in Germany, except in times of revolu tion when law, is swept away! "I therefore very earnestly and sol emnly beg that the governors of all the states, the law officers of eery community, and, above all, the me and women of every community in the United States, all who revere America and wish to keep her name without Main or reproach, will co operate not passively merely, but actively and watchfully to make an end of this disgraceful1 evil. It can net li-e where the community does not countenance it. "I nave called upon the nation to put its great energy into this war and it ,,has responded responded with a spirit and a genius for action that hS thrilled the world. I now call upon it, upon its men and worn en everywhere, to see to it that its laws are kept inviolate, its fame un tarnished. - Let us show our utter contempt for the things that have made this war hideous among th wars of history by showing how those who love liberty and right and justice and are willing to lay down their lives for them upon foreign fields stand ready also to illustrate to all mankind, their loyalty to all things at home which they wish to see es tablished everywhere as a blessing and protection to the peoples who have never known the privilege of liberty and self government. "I can never accept any man as a champion of liberty either for our selves or for the world, who does not reverence and obey the laws of our own beloved land, whose laws wo ourselves have made. He has adopted the standards of the enemies of his country, whom he affects to despise. "WOODROW WILSON." LJUILLi...L .. iimi.il II lllliPP ARTIST NICOLL DIES ATNORWALK National Academician De voted His Career Chiefly to Picturing the Sea. Norwalk, Conn.. July 26 James Craig Nicoll, a well known artist, who was one of the founders of the Amer ican Watercolor Society and for years served as its president, died here yes terday. Mr. Nicoll was in his "1st year. Mr. Nicoll a brilliant draughtsman and colprlst, who devoted most of his art to seascapes in watercolor and oils, was a National Academician who had spent the greater part of his busy life as a resident of Manhattan. He was born here, Nov. 22, 1847, and In his early days was a student in the Quackenbos School. Mr. Nicoll, like so many other painters of wide reputation, was the product of no art school, either here or abroad. For two years he painted in the studio of M. F. de Hass and worked outdoors with Van Elter., Do Hass, Kruseman and other artiBts, but as an associate artist rather than as a pupil. During his long life devoted to painting and etching the sea he made extensive trips in search of subjects, his travels ranging along the Atlantic coast from Canada to Flori da. j The National Academy made Mr. Mcoll an Acadomician in 18S5. Throughout a great many years there were few exhibitions of Importance in America in which Mr, Nicoll was not represented either in oils, water colors or etchings and sometimes In all these mediums. Also he exhib ited in Paris and at tha Paris Exposi tion won a gold medal. Gold medals wera also awarded to him for his work exhibited at the ex position at New Orleans and he was among the prize winners on various occasions at picture exhibitions it Boston Philadelphia, New York and other American cities. Following his par: in the founding of the American Waiercolor Society, Mr, Nicoll for ten years acted as its secretary and later beaame its presi dent. He was ejaeted a member of the Artists Fund Bocity in 1874 and for a time alsa was president of the fund. At the Chisago Exposition ef 1893 Mr. Nicoll was secretary of the International Jury el Awards en Paintings. He was a life raemset ef the Na tional Academy of Design and a mem ber of all the leading art societies of New York, in several ef which he at various times held offiee. His Man hattan studio was at 51 West Tenth street. lUDiri'LIil) DIUfT ME; Jfew Britain, July SS. For making dissoeurteeus reraarUs etmaeraing ti draft eefltiogflKt teat aff isae yesafr day tor f!sras Bevsss Siichae Mas-sfeistfci--, ftizseaif pf fiifuy a?. was eent eneed tjs jajj fas jRoktfcs n the police W4ay a a. tecfeaUal ft&rg H SSa?fr ett Events big with the fate of nations have marked the fourth year of the war which now comes to a close. It has been a twelve months of alter nate hope and concern for the Pow ers of the Entente Alliance. It was on July 28, 1914, that Aus tria declared war on Serbia, beginning the great struggle. During the past twelve months there have been occur rences that in some aspects have been of even greater Import In their Influ ence upon the world than those in the prscedlng period. Russia's collapse, the Italian defeat last Autumn, the stupendous drives of the Germans against the Allied armies, and the wonderful defensive operations that have again and again checked the enemy when success for him seemed near at hand have held the world breathless. But, transcending the significance any event in the actual theatres of the war, America's full participation in the conflict, involving the transportation overseas of more than a million men to engage in it must remain for all time the great outstanding feature of the fourth year of the struggle. It Is upon America that the Entente is relying for the men and resources to turn the tide. A year ago the number of American troops going to Europe had not begun to assume large proportions. A few regulars and some National Guards men had been sent to France, but most of the big military training camps were still being built and the men selected as the first contingent to be called to the colors were still in citizens' clothes. Until the first day of August of 1917 the total number of American soldiers taken overeas was 26,967. Soon after that date the movement of troops was accellerated. Thousands were despatched across the Atlantic, during the winter months, but it was not until the great German offensive was started late in March of 1918 that the movement began to assume really noteworthy proportions. The figures for the months from Aug. 1, 1917 to July 1, 1918. follow: August, 18.323; September, 32,523; October, 38,259; November, 23,016; December, 48,840; January, 46,776; February, 48,027; March, S3. 811; April, 117,212; May, 244,345; June, 276.382. On July 1, 1918, there were 14,644 American marines in France, bringing the total number of American troops In that country and Italy up to 1,019,- 115. During the recent fighting In France the work of the American sol diers has compared favorably with that of other fighting men in the world. They have held sectors here and there along the front. They are in Alsace and northward in the Lor raine sector. The famous St. Mlhiel sector Is held by Americans, who are posted also on the line along the heights of the Meuse. East of Rheims they took part in the fighting during the last phase of the German offenr sive, while in the Chateau-Thierry sector they held their line in a vital region against the utmost fusy of the Teutonic onslaught. North of Cha teau Thierry, Americans helped to stop the drive of the Germans in the early days of June; and in the Somme sector, at Cantigny and Grivesnes they have given proof of their soldiery qualities. The Allies have been called upon to face two great offensives during the past year. The first of these came last October in Italy and the second, in France, began on March 21. The German drives in France, while sepa rated by periods of from a few days to several weeks, have been consid ered as different phases of the same offensive. The abortive Austrian at tack against Italy In June also is looked upon as merely another attack against the western front and not as a distinct military operation. But these offensives perhaps never would have been begun had it not been for the collapse of Russia dur ing the winter. German and Austrian troops, released from the Russian front, were taken to France and Italy to swell the masses of men hurled against the Allies in the Western theatre of operations. As long as Russia remained in the fight she held great numbers of Teutonic troops in the East, and her withdrawal from the war exercised a fundamental in fiuence on the course of its develop ment. Situation a Year Ago. The year opened with the fortunes of war apparently favoring the En tente. The British had forced back the Germans to the famous Hinden bure lino. The French had establish ed themselves firmly along the Cham in des Dames, north ef the Aisne, The ecnoes of Verdun were still ringing the knell of German hepes in that sector of the battle area, The Italians wero holding ther lines along the Isonzo, The rejuvenated Russian 'regiment of July First" had carried the war far into the Austrian defenses in Bukowina and Galieia, Through August and September. 1017, there came rumors that Russia was exhausted by the war, and quiet settled down along the lines from the gates ef the Carpathians to the Bal tie, Stories were heard of fraterniza tion of German and Russan troops but assurances came from Petrograd that Russia would stand true to her allies, Fail Offensive in Italy. The German and Austrian High Commands had nq illusions as to further Russian belligerenc;;. There eame to the Allies reports that the Central Empires were taking the pick of their force from the Russian front and concentrating them for a drive against some part of the line in ths western theatre. Then came intima tions that the blew was aimed against Italy. Ths stersn broke at Caporetto on Oct. 6 and almost immediately tbe wheia Italian line was thrown into disorder. Pounng through the passes. where in some instances disaffected Italian troops held positions, the Ger mans ana Austrian maae progress which frem the first was alarming." By wiss gsneiaisnip, ;ae iiauaa line was withdrawn from the Isonso. It naus ed at the TagUameoto and then re- Piave, almost within sight of the domes of Venice. Here the Italian army reformed its columns, consoli dated its positions by withdrawing from the Rhaetlan mountains to the Aslago plateau and, assisted by the French reinforcements brought to that battlefront, stood at bay. Russian Collapse. Events in the meanwhile had been moving swiftly in Russia. On Novem ber 1, while the offensive against Italy was under way, Alexander F. Keren sky, then the Russian premier, an nounced that Russia was worn out by the war and that the Allies must shoulder the burden thenceforward. Seven days later Kerensky was de posed by the Bolsheviki. . The fall and flight of Kerensky was the signal for Germany and Austria to enter into peace negotiations with Russia. On November 30 the Bolsheviki an nounced that, Russal was out of the war and proposed that all the Allies Join in the negotiations for an armis tice. Russian and German representa tives met at Brest Litovsk on Decem ber 22, and terms of peace were ex changed. No progress was made with the negotiations and the conference was broken up on January 11. In the meantime, a new republic had sprung from the side of Russia. It was Ukraine, a territory extending alone the Rumanian and Galician frontier from the Black Sea north ward to Cholm, in ancient Poland. With this republic, the Ctnarl Em pires made peace late In January. The failure of the Bolshevik au thorities to reach any agreement with the Germans resulted in the renewal of hostilities on February 18, and the German armies moved forward once more. Brest-Litovsk Treaty. This brought about a renewal of the Deace negotiations, and at Brest Litovsk the Bolsheviki were given to understand that Germany would re cognize the kingdom of Poland,- the republic of Ukraine, the independence of Finland, and the separate govern mental status of Lithuania, Esthonia, Turkey, as an ally of the Central Powers, was given a great area to the east of the Black Sea, including the regions of Batum, Kars and Erivan. With the announcement of the final signing of the treaty between the Bol sheviki and Germany, the Allies gave up hope that Russia would remain in the conflict, and at once they began to strength their lines against the coming of the great German often sive by which Berlin and "Vienna hoped to force the Entente nations to make peace. Romania Capitulates. With the greater part of her. terri tory occupied by the Germans, Aus trians and Bulgarians, with her gov ernment driven from Bucharest to Jassy and with the Russian Bolshevi ki openly hostile toward her, Rumania found herself in a critical situation. Rumanian troops during February and March advanced into Bessarabia, a part of the new Republic of Ukraine, but they were hemmed in by the en emy forces and obliged to withdraw. At last, on May 6, Rumania, signed a treaty of peace with , the 'Central Powers. By this treaty Rumania lost the province of Dobrudja, on the south side of the Danube, which she had received after the Balkan war, and agreed to a rectification of her west ern frontier. Economic concessions also were made under pressure from the Teutonic Alliance. Petce Tentativcs. The period between December 1, 1917 and March 1, 1918, may be called the period of peace tentatives. It is true that before the end of tho sum mer Pope Benedict made an appeal to the warring nations to enter Into peace negotiations, the baBls for pour parlers being the restoration of Bel glum and Serbia and the return to Germany of her lost colonies. This appeal, made on August 13, was an swered by President Wilson on Au gust 29, when the President announc ed that the German government as constituted could not be believed and that the United States was ready to enter Into negotiations when the Ger man people showed they desired peace and when they spoke through any au thority whieh would be representative of them. The German answer to the Pope's appeal reaehed the Vatican on Sep tember 21, It expressed hope that further warfare eould be averted through the good efflees of the Pope,' but declined to enter into any engage ment to meet what the Allies had de clared to be their minimum war aims. German Peace Offer ' German efforts to secure a peaee which would .leave to Germany all the fruits of her vietory gained through Russia's collapse, and with Belgium and large portions of Franee to be used as pawns at the council table, be gan with the address ef Count Czer nin, then Austrian foreign minister, at Brest-Litovsbj on December 6. The keynote pf the address was general peace without annexations and indem nities. (Jn January 6, President Wilson, ad dressing Congress, said that the Unit ed States must know for whom the German rulers were speaking. The address was a complement to an ad dress made en January 5, by David Lloyd George- tne British Premier. To these addresses reply was, made by Imperial Chaneellor von Hertling of Germany, and Count Czernin. The latter was paeifie and conciliatory jn tone, while the former, alluding to "the good German sword," showed he was speaking for the militarists of the Germanic powers. "Four Principles" Enunciated To these rep-Mes there was rejoin der by President Wilson, who, on Feb ruary 11, again assessing pongress, laid down what have, come to be known as the "Four Principles'; upon which peacQ an oe cased. Briefly, these principles were: Final settlement roust be based od essential justice. Peoples' and provinces are not to be bartered about Uke chattels. f"' Eiry territorial settleineif mst be for the benefit and in the Interest of the populations concerned. All well-defined national aspirations shall be met with the utmost satisfac tion, consistent with the future peace. Pope Benedict, In a pastoral letter issued at Easter, made another appeal for concord among the peoples of the world, but it brought forth no tangi ble results. At .the Pope's behest. prayers for peace were offered In Catholic churches throughout the world on St. Peter's day, June 28. In April there came revelations from Paris that Emperor Charles of Aus tria had written letters to Prince Six tus of Bourbon, a relative. In these communicatons the Austrian monarch conceded the claim of France to Alsace and Lorraine and hinted that peace overtures would be welcomed. As the result of this. Count Czernin, the Austrian Foreign Minister' was re moved from office. ' The most recent addresses on the subject of peace havo been delivered in the German Reichstag, one by Dr. Richard von Kuehlmann, the foreign Minister; and the other by Imperial Chancellor von Hertling. The for mer's sensational admission that the sword by itself could not bring peace resulted in his resignation, and von Hertling's address voiced the sentl ment that as long as the Allies were intent upon "destroying Germany" the war must go on. The Enemy Offensives. Last winter it became known that the Germans were massing forces on the Western front. Reports came that large units were training behind the lines and that new and more ter rible engines of war than had been known before were to be used in Ger man effort to break the Allied lines, crush their armies and force them to make peace. The drive was well ad- vertsed and even the place where it was to be launched was known with comparative certainty. On the morning of March 21, the Germans began their attack from the vicinity of Arras, on the north, to La Fere, on the south, and centering their heaviest columns against the British forces, under General Gough, at St Quentin. Staggering before the impact of the blow, the British army fell back rap idly. For eight days the Germans poured through the old Allied line in an effort to crush the British and drive a wedge between them and the French, who were holding the lines to the south. Then came a period of reaction and the Germans came to a stop. They had driven ahead for thirty-five miles along a front extend ing more than fifty miles before they were halted. Hardly had their legions been held before Amiens than a new offensive was begun in Flanders, on April 2. It swept the British back through Ar mentieres, but did not break their lines. The British wth the French who were rushed up to the front, stop ped the Germans after they had reach ed the hills southwest of Ypres. There on April 9, the Germans suffered a terrible defeat that halted their of fensive in that quarter. Foch in Supreme Command. In the midst of the drive in the sec tor toward Amiens, the Allied Nations took a vitally important step. They named General Ferdinand Foch, hero of the first battle of the Marne. gen eralissimo of the Allied Forces on the western front, which includes all the line In Italy as well as in France. Ev en the Murman coast, in northern Russia, has been held to be under his command. After a period of quiet, the Germans attacked once more, this time on the Aisne river, and In seven days they reached hte Marne at Chateau Thier ry, making a penetration of about 28 miles. At the Marne they were check ed and the impetus of the blow was broken. With hardly a day's pause for reor ganization of their forces, the German again attacked, choosing the sector between Montdldier and Noyon, on the southern side of the salient driven in to the Allied line during the March of fensive, aB the stage of their onslaught. This offensive ran for five days and was stopped north of Compiegne after losses which were described as un precedented had been Inflicted upon the Germans, From June 14 until July 15 the Ger mans were engaged in shifting their foreoa and then they again struck. This time the line ef; attack was from Chateau Thierry eastward, around to the north of Rheims and then, down the Vesda river to Prunay and from that village eastward to Massiges. This attaok at the elose of the year de veloped into one ef the most ambitious of the German strokes, German forces er-ossed the Marne ever a Wide front, but were unable to make ground against American troops near Chateau Thierry and couid not advance rapidly farther east. They did, however, forge ahead en the north side of the Marne and between that stream and tha meun tain of RJisims. it appeared for a time as if they might reaeh Eperriay. Then Gen. Foeh struck a counter blew, whieh still is in progress, American and French troops attacked the Germans between Fontenoy, on the Aisne west ef Seissens, and Bel lean, pn the Clignon, northwest of Chateau TruBrry. 6a sudden and powerful was the blow that the Ger mans fell back tapidly until their re serves could be hurried up. The rapid advance of the Allies, however, tq menaced the German forces farther south that pn July 19 the enemey began a. Retreat across the Marne. On Sunday, July 21. the FrencA and Americans en tered Chateau Thierry and pressed pn after the retiring Germans. Since that time the Allies, have gained slowly but steadily. There ace Indi cations that a German retreat from the salient is now under way-. v Italians Stand Firm. fin June 16. the Austrians began a drive against Ital. It was a failure. The Austrians crossed the Piave, but pp the west bank met with, sucb, stub bbrq resistance 'fiat progress was ta: possible. Slowly the Austrians were driven back toward the riKe,r and then the. Piave, swollen by " rains "ifl tg mQunia4nacomplgted the Wertn?QW-f Austria's hopes. After suffering ter-' rible losses the Austrians retreated to the eastern bank of the Piave from the Montello plateau to the Adriatic. Minor Operations. Among the year's operations of comparatively lesser importance were the British drives in Palestine and Mesopotamia; the Turkish advance In the Caucasus; the French and Italian offensive in Albania; and the fight ing in the German African colonies Jerusalem was captured by the Brit ish on December 10, an4 shortly after ward the fall of Jericho was announc ed. Since the taking of Jericho the British forces in Palestine have not been active on the offensive General Maude led the British troops into Bagdad on March 11, and shortly afterward died from cholera. His forces pushed further up the Ti gris until the intense heat of summer terminated operations. The Turks after the collapse of Rus sia ,took advantage of the demoralized condition of the Russian forces to ad vance through the Caucasus and ob tain possession of the regions subse quently ceded, them by the treaty of Brest-Litovsk. The French and Italian drive in Al bania began on July 6, and is still in progress. During the year British forces In Af rica drove German forces before them in German East Africa and in German Southwest Africa and finally compel led them to disperse or surrender. This took from Germany the last of the vast colonial possessions held by her when the war began. Submarine Warfare. The past year has been marked by a gradual decline of submarine sink ings as compared with the number of ships being built by the Entente al lies. The operations of the British and American destroyers have spread terror among the "wasps of the sea," while a great mine field completed in May by the British navy converted virtually the whole North Sea into an area closed against U-boat activities. The harbors of Zeebrugge and Os- tend, from which German submarines had been operated against Entente shipping, were either sealed entirely or made virtually valueless as subma rine bases by daring naval and air raids by the British in May. U-Boats In American Waters. German submarines visited Ameri can waters in June and sank at least ten ships, the field of the U-boat ope rations being from the North New Jer sey coast south to the Virginia Capes and easterly half way to the Bermu das. The only United States transport lost while carrying troops to Europe was the Tuscania, which was torpe doed off the north coast of Ireland on February 5 with a loss of 212 men. Hospital Ships Sunk. During the year eleven hospital ships have been sunk by submarines. the latest and most flagrant case of this violation ot tne lieneva conven tion being the destruction of the Brit ish steamer Llandovery Castle, car rying Canadian nurses and doctors. This took place on June 27, only 24 of the 258 persons on board being res cued. The total shipping reported sunk since August 1, 1917, is more than 4, 250,000 tons. Against this destruction of shipping the Allies have combined their ship building capacity. The actual num ber of tons of shipping launched and put into service has not been pub lished. Official announcements have been made in the recent past, however, to the effect that more ships are being built than are being sunk. On July 4, ninety vessels were launched at American shipyards. Losses In Battle The year's fighting has enta.iled great losses for most of the belliger ents. During the drive into Italy last October and November the Teutonic Armies claimed the capture of more than 180,000 Italians. In the Ger man offensives in France this year about 190,000 French, British, Ameri can and Portuguese were reported to have been taken prisoners. Added to these losses are the ca sualties in killed and wounded. No definite figures have been issued by Germany and Austria but it has been re'ported on what appears to be good authority that in the fighting from March 21 till June 24 the Germans lost more than 600,000 men. The French and British losses were considerably smaller, as the Allies were fighting from entrenched positions. Financial Aspects. The United States has floated three great Liberty Loans. The proceeds of these loans have aggregated $10, 788,642,900, The total cost to the United States, according to latest available figures, is $13,800,000,000. Since the the nation entered the war It has extended credits to the Allies ag gregating $6,091,590,000, The total cost of the war to Eng land up to December 15, 1917, was plaeed at 6,242,000,000, while French votes of eredit are somewhat smaller. At latest reports the total of the Ger man war loans approximated $31,000, 000,000, Internal Disorders, There have been numerous reports of disorders in countries engaged in the war. Riots and bloodshed have been reported from Germany and Aus tria many times during the past spring and cummer and there is little doubt that the Slavio races of Austria are seething with discontent Ireland came to the center of the stage in this connection early in May, when a pro-German plot was detected but nipped in the bud, with the arrest of seventy-eight leaders of the Sinn Fein, Recently disaffection was reported against the British in South Africa, but it has apparently been stamped out. One Monarch Died. Buring the year one ruler ef a bel ligerent country died. The death of the Sultan of Turkey was announced in June, subsequent reports intimat ing he had been murdered. Assistance fox Bussa. Since the collapse of Russia the Al lied nations have jought to ftnd a way to assist the pele who being exploited by the Germans. French landed pn (he Murman or Kola penin British and American f orces have been sula, on the north. They have net actively intervened, however, teing there only to protect Allied property which hda been landed at the port of Kola before Russia withdrew from the Entente, finance. In Siberia there is a well-defined an-ti-Bolsheviki movement whic has been built ip around, Czecha-Slovak prisoners' pf war W-ho, armed them ! selves and inflicted defeats on the Bol sheviki. A new government has beer set up there under General BoTvath, president of the Chinese Eastern rail road. "Japanese, British and Ameri can marines have been In the eltjr ot Vladlvostock for months, Neutrals. Countries which are not engaged in the war have suffered during the 11 months. Switzerland and Holland, being adjacent to Germany, have been threatened by the Central Powers, a number of times in matters relative to economic concessions. Holland especially, has been beset with diffi culties, and at present the Allies arc protesting against her exporting sup plies to Germany. Norway has signed an agreement with the United States by which com mercial relations may be carried on. " Sweden has been dealing openly with Germany and has been threatened with a virtual boycott by Great Brit ain. Both nations have lost severelj through the depredations of German submarines. . Denmark is in a serious plight aloe and it has been reported that there ii great suffering among the people oi that country. New BilMgerents. ; Three new countries have declare war on Germany during the year. They are Costa Rica, Quatemala' and Hay ti. The Argentine, although near a break because of the machinations ol von Luxburg, the German ambass'doi at Buenos Ayres, has taken no step in that direction. Mexico has remained neutral. GERMANS LEARN MANY AMERICANS OPPOSING THEN Deserters on Lorraine Front Disclose That Fact Is Known in Sections. With the American Army . in France, Friday, July 26 (By the As sociated Press) German soldiers who have deserted into the American lines on the Lorraine front have made dis closures indicating that news of the great American effort is slowly filter ing into some sections of the German army, despite the official effort to be little American participation in the war. One prisoner said he had heard there were only 300,000 Americans in France. Others, however, declared they knew the figure totalled'900,000, the majority of whom were brought to France "for other purposes." From the deserters it was learned also that the three landwehr groups in Germany had been eexamined care fully for fresh material to throw onto the western front. On their own initiative the desert ers have enabled the Americans to establish not only the exact makeup of the enemy opposite them, but to keep track of the shifts on the other side. WIFE DIVORCES F. X.JUSHMAN Movie Star Must Also Pay $4,000 a Year to Support Children. Baltimore, July 27. Mrs. Josephine F. Bushman received an absolute di vorce yesterday from Francis X. Bushman, the motion picture star, $10,000 alimony with interest at 5 per cent., the custody of their five chil dren, an allowance of $4,000 a year for them until they marry, become of age or leave her; $3,000 attorneys' fees and court costs, and Bushman Is required to pay for the education and medical care of the children. Judge Allen McLane ordered $10,000 of the alimony paid immediately, $10,- 000 within eight months, $10,000 within 14 months and the remainder within 20 months. Interest is to be paid monthly, The handing down of the decree fol lowed the filing of two suite for di vorce by Mrs. Bushman, one asking for a partial separation and the last for an absolute divorce. She charged cruelty and neglect, told of being sep arated many months from her hus band and declared that on a certain, day her husband registered at a New YorkToad house with a woman other than hersejf as Mr. and Mrs. Bush man, Bushman is allowed to select tha schools to which the children shall be sent provided thejf are not "remote from the home of their mother. As each child marriea, comes of ae, or leaves its mother its share of the $4,000 a year shall be reduced to $700, When this applies to all the children the sum for their maintenance ceases. RITISH CRUISER IARM0VA SUNK; DESTROYER LOST London, July 27 The British &r-. mored cruiser Marmora was torpor doed and sunk by a German subma rine on Tuesday, according to an aa nouncement made by the British A4 miralty last night. Ten members f the crew ef the vessel are missing, and it is presumed they were killed. The Admiralty also anneunees that a British torpedo boa! destroyer ran ashore on Wednesday and later sank, Thirteen of her crew are missing, and it is presumed they were drowned. ivaval records contain no cruiser named Marmora, and it is possible that the vessel sunk was the Peninsu lar & Oriental Steam Navigation Co, steamer Marmora of 19,600 "tons, She was built at Belfast in 1963, wa.g a -feet long, and had a beam of 60 feet, JAPAN WILL GIVE HEU IN SIBERIA London, July 2-6 It is, a-nntjuflcad, officially here h,at Japan, has, gadded, to accept the Anjericaq yrflposal assist the Czecho-Slevak armies la 'Siberia.