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HDimrOLlS,'DEG. 12, 184C.
PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE. Fellow citizens of the Senate and House of Representatives: In resuming jour labors in the service of the peo- pie, u is a subject or congratulation that there has baen no period ir. our history when all the element- or national prosperity have been so fullv devclooed Since your last session, no afflicting dispensation has ieited our country : general good health has nre- aiitu, aounaance cas crowned the toil of the hus bandman, and labor in all its branches is receiving an ample reward, while education, science, and the arts are rapidly enlannrjjr the means of social hanni ncss. The progress of our country in her career of greatness, not oniy in me vast extension or our terri torial limits and the rapid increase of our population, but in resources and wealth, and in the happy condi tion of our people, is without example in the history of nations. As the wisdom, strength, and beneficence of our free institutions are unfolded, every day adds fresh motives to ccnteutment, and fresh incentives to patri otism. Our devout and sincere ?cknowledgments are due to the gracious Giver of all good, for the numberless blessings which our beloved country enjoys. It is a source of high satisfaction to know that the relations of the United States with all other nations, with a single exception, are of the most amicable character. Sincerely attached to the policy of peace, early adopted and steadily pursued by the government, x have anxiously desired to cultivate and cherish friendship and commerce with every fureign power. The spirits and habits of the American people are favorable to the maintenance of surh international harmony. In adhering to this wise policy, a prelim inary and paramount duty obviously consists in the protection of our national interests from encroach ment or sacrifice, and our national honor from reproach. These must be maintained at any hazard. They admit of no compromise or neglect, and rwjstbe 6crupnluus ly and constantly guarded. In tir vigilant vindica tion, collision and conflict witlrloreign pjwer may sometimes become unavoidable. Such has been our scrupulous adherence to the dictates of Justice, in all our foreign intercourse, that, though steadily and rapidly advancing in prosperity and power, we have given no just cause of complaint to any . nation, and Have enjoyed the blosings of peace for more than thirty years. From a policy so sacred to humanity, and so salutary in its effects upon ouF political system, we should never be induced voluntarily to deport. The existing war with Mexico was neither desired nor provoked by the United States. On the contrary, all honorable tffeans were resorted to to avert it. Af ter years of endurance of aggravated and unredressed wrongs ou our part, Mexico, in- violation of solemn treaty stipulations, and of every principle of justice recognized by civilized nations, commenced hostilities, and thus, by her own act, forced the war upon us. Long before the advance of our army to the left bank of the Rio Grande, we had ample cause of war against Mexico; and had the United States resorted to this extremity, we might. have appealed to the whole civil ized world for the justice of our cause. ,. I deem it my duty to present to you, on the present occasion, a condensed review of the injuries we had sustained, of the causes which led to the war, and of its progress since its commencement. This is ren dered the more necessary because of the misappre hensions which have to some extent prevailed as to its origin and true character. The war has been v represented as unjust and uunecessary, and as one of aggression on our part upon a weak and injured ene my. Such erroneous views, though entertained by but few, have been widely circulated not only at home, but have been spread throughout Mexico and the whole vvorld. A more effectual means could not have been devised to encourage the enemy and protract the war than to advocate aud adhere to their cause and thus give them 'aid and comfort. It is a source of national pride and exultation, that the great body of our people have thrown no euch ob stacles in the way of the government in prosecuting the war successfully, but have shown themselves to he eminently patriotic, and ready to vindicate their country's honor and interests at any sacrifice. The alacrity and promptness with which our volunteer forces rusheJ to the field on their country's call, prove hot only their patriotism, but their deep conviction that our cause is just. 4 ' The wrongs which we have suffered from Mexico almost ever since she became an independent power, and the patient endurance with which we have borne them, are without a parallel in the history cf modern civilized nations. There is reason to believe that if these wrongs had been resented and resisted in the first instance, the present war might have been avoid ee. Oue outrage, however, permitted to pass with impunity, almost necessarily encouraged the perpetra tion of another, until at last Mexico seemed to attrib ute to weakness and indecision on our part a forbear ance which was the offspring of magnanimity, and a sincere desire to preserve friendly relations with a sister republic Scarcely had Mexico achieved her independence, which the United States were the first among the na tions to acknowledge, when she commenced the system of insult and spoliation, which she has ever since pursued. Our citizens engaged in lawful commerce were imprisoned, their vessels seized, and our flag in sulted in her portal, If money was wanted, the law less seizure and confiscation of our merchant vessels ano their cargoes was a ready resource ; and if to ac complish their purpose it was necesaary to imprison the owners, captains, and crews, it was done. Ilulcr superseded rulers in Mexico in rapid succession, but still there was no change in this system of depreda tion! The Government of the United States made repeated, reclamations on behalf of its citizens, but these were answered by the perpetration of new out rages. Promises of redress made by Mexico in the most solemn forms were postponed or evaded. The files and records of the Department of State coütain conclusive proofs of numerous lawless acts perpetra ted upon the property and persons of our citizens by Tlfevico. and of wanton insults to our national flac. The interposition of our government to obtain redress was amn and again invoked, under circumstances which no cation ought to disregard. It was hoped that these outrages would cease, and that Mexico would bo restrained by the laws which regulate the conduct of civilized nations in their in tercourse with each other after the treaty of arnity, ivimmerce. and navigation, of the 5th of April, 1831, wis concluded between the two Republics; but this feope soon proved to be vain. The course of se.zure and confiscation of the property of our citizens; the violation of their persons and the insults to our flag pursued by Mexico previous to that time were scarce ly suspended .for eveu a brief period, although the treaty so clearly defines the rights and duties of the respective parties that it is impossible to misunder stand or mistake them. In less than seven years after the conclusion of that treaty, our grievances had be come so intolerable that, in the opinion of President Jackson, they should no longer be endured. In his message to Congress in February, 1S37, he presented them to the consideration of that body, and declared that Tho length of time some of the inju rf. been committed, the repeated and unavail- .limtiona for redres3, the wanton character of some of tho outrages upon the property and pert on of our citizens, upon the officers and flag of the Uni ted States, independent of recent insults to this gov ernment and people by the late extraordinary Mexi can minister, would justify m the eyes of all nations immediate war." In a spirit of kindness and for nnrp however, he recommended reprisals as a kr.Mpr mode of redress. He declared that war should not be used as a remedy "by just and generous mv fidin? in their strength for injuries commit ted, if it can be honorably avoided," and added, it nrrnrred to me that, considering tho present em barrassed condition of that country, we should act with hoth wisdom and moderation, by giving- to Mex ico one more opportunity to atone for the past, before tat redress into our own Hands, lo avoid ai misconception on the part of Mexico, as well as to protect our own national character from reproach, this opportunity should be given with the avowed design and lull preparation 10 iuiuuwwwwi", it ahmiia not be obtained on a repetition of the de mand for it. To this end I recommend that an act be riB1 authorizing reprisals, and the use of the nava force of tho United States, by the Executive, against Mexico, to enforce them in the event of a refusal by tH MeTiran government to come to an amicable ad justment of the matters in controversy between us, upon another demand thereof, made from on board rm nr our vessel v Committees of both Houses of Congress, to which Published every Thursday. this message of the President was referred, fullv sus tained his views of the character of the wrongs which we had suffered from Mexico, and recommended that another tJcmiud tor redress should be made before au-. thorizing war or reprisals. The Committee on For- j eign 1 Relations of the Senate, in their report, say : fllltl ol"-" '-u, uuuiu prompt lusuce oe. 1 Mn t m t i n - . a Z : l ' reiuseu uy me iuexicaii povernmcm, we may sp - 1 V- .1 - IT- . - " peal to all nations not only for the equity and mode- ratiun wuu which we snail nave acteu toward a sister: repuouc, dui lor me necessity wincii will then compel us to seek redress for our wronrrs. either bv actual war or by reprisals. The subject will then be pre sented before Congress, at the commencement of the next session, in a clear and distinct form ; and the committee cannot doubt but that such measures will be immediately adopted as may be necessary to vindi cate the honor of the country, and insure ample rep aration to our injured citizens." The Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives made a similar recommendation. In their report, they say that they "fully concur with the I resident that ample cause exists for taking redress into our own hands, and believe that we should be justified in the opinion of other nations for taking such a step. Uet they are willing to try the experi ment of another demand, made in the most solemn form, upon the justice of the Mexican government, betöre any further proceedings are adopted." No difference of opinion upon the subject is believ ed to have existed in Congress at that time. The Executive and Legislative departments concurred ; and -yet such has been our forbearance, and desire to preserve peace with Mexico, that the wrongs of which we then complained, and which rave rise to these solemn proceedings, not only remain unredressed to this day, but additional causes of complaint, of an aggravated character, have ever since been accumu lating. Shortly after these proceedings, a special messen ger was despatched to 3Iexico, to make a final de mand for redress ; and on the twentieth of July, 1S37, the demand was made. The reply of the Mexican government bears date on the twenty-ninth of the came month, and contains assurances of the '.'anxious wish" of the Mexican government "not to delay the moment of that final and equitable adjustment which is to terminate the existing difficulties between the two governments ;" that "nothing should be left un done w hich may contribute to the most speedy and equitable determination of the subjects which have so seriously engaged the attention of the American gov ernment ;" that the " Mexican government would adopt, as the only guides for its conduct, the plainest principles of public right, the sacred obligations irn poscd by international law, and the religious faith of treaties ;" and that "whatever reason and justice may dictate respecting each case will be done." The as- surance was lumicr given, mat me Qecisiou.,oi me Mexican government upon each cause of complaint, for whioh redress had been demanded, should be com municated to the government of the United States by the Mexican minister at Washington. These solemn assurances, in answer toour demand for redress, were disregarded. By making them, however. Mexico obtained further delay. 1'resident V&ti 13urcn, in his annual message to Congress of the fifth of December, 1S37, states, that "although the larger number" of our demands for redress, aud "ma ny ( of them aggravated cases of personal wrongs, have been now for years before the Mexican govern ment, and some of the causes of national complaint, and those of the most offensive character, admitted of immediate, simple, and satisfactory replies, it isrnly within a few days past that any specific communica tion in answer to our last demand, made five months ago, has been received from the Mexican minister;" and that "for not one of our public complaints has satisfaction been given or offered ; that but one of the cases of personal wrong has been favorably consider ed, and that but four cases of both descriptions, out of all those formally presented, and earnestly pressed, have aS yet been decided upon by the Mexican gov ernment." President V an Uuren, believing that it would be vain to make any further attempt to obtain redress by the ordinary means within the power of the Executive, communicated this opinion to Con gress, in the message referred to, in which he said, "On a careful and deliberate examination of the con tents," (of the correspondence with the Mexican go vernment,) 'and considering the spirit manifested by the Mexican government, it has become my painful duty to return the subject as it now stands, to Con gress, to whom it belongs, to decide upon the time, j the mode, and the measure of redress." Had the United States at that time adopted compulsory meas ures, and taken redress into their own hands, all our difficulties with Mexico would probably have been long since adjusted, and the existing war have been averted. Magnanimity and moderation on our part only had the effect to complicate these difficulties, and render an amicable settlement of them the rr.ore em barrassing. That such measures of redress under similar proocations, committed by any of the power ful nations of Europe, would have been promptly re sorted to by the United States, cannot be doubted. The national honor, and the preservation of the national character throughout the world, ae well as our own self-respect, and the protection due to our own citi zens, would have rendered such a resort indispensa ble. The history of no civilized nation in modern times has presented within so brief a period so many wanton attacks upon the houor of its flag, and upon the property and persons of its citizens, as had at that time been borne by the Upited States from the Mexi can authorities and people. But Mexico was a sister republic, on the North American continent, occupying a territory contiguous to our own, and was in a feeble and distracted condition ; and these considerations, it is presumed, induced Congress to forbear still longer. Instead of taking redress into our own hands, a new negotiation w as entered upon with fair promises on the part of Mexico, but with the real purpose, as the event has proved, of indefinitely postponing the renaration which we demanded and which was so justly due. This negotiation, after more than a year's delay, resulted in the convention of the 11th of April, 133U, "tor the adjustment ot claims or citi zens of the United States of America upon the gov ernment of the Mexican republic." The joint board f commissioners created by this convention to exam ine and decide upon these claims, was not organized until the month of August, la-lU, and, under the terms of the convention, they were to terminate their duties within eighteen months from that time, l our ot the eighteen months were consumed in preliminary dis cussions on frivolous and dilatory points raised by the Iexican commissioners; and it was not until the month of December, 1310, that they commenced the xanvnation of the claims of our citizens upon Mexi co. fourteen monuis oniy remained to examine anu .i i . . ,i decide upon these numerous and complicated cases In the month of February, 184"2,.the term of the commission expired, leaving many claims undisposed of for want of time. The claims which were allowed bv tbe board, and bv the umoire authorized by the convention to decide in case of disagreement between the Mexican and American commissioners, amounted to 2.02G.139 63. There were oendins before the umpire when the commission expired, additiona claims which fyad been examined and awarded by the American commissioners, and had not been allowed by the Mexican commissioners, amounting to (J'J0,G7 63, upon which he did not decideAallcjrinjr that his authority had ceased with the termination of the joint commission. . Eesides these claims, there were others of American citizens amounting to 3,330,873 Ql which had been submitted to the board, and upon which they had not time to decide before their fina adjournment The sum of two million twenty-six thousand one hundred and thirty-nine dollars and sixty-eight cents. which had been awarded to the claimants, was a liqui dated and ascertained debt due by Mexico, about which there could be no dispute, and which she was bound to pay according to the terms of the convention. Soon after the final awards for this amount had been made, the Mexican government asked, for a postpone ment of the time of making payment, alleging tnai it would be inconvenient to make tbe payment at the time stipulated. In the spirit of forbearing kindness towards a sister republic, which Mexico has so long abused.the United States promptly complied with her INDIANAPOLIS, DECEMBER 17, 184G. request. A second convention was accordingly con-' eluded between the two -rovernments on the thirtieth of January, 1313, which upon its face declares, that "this new arrangement is entered into for the accom- ' modaliun of Mexico." L'y the terms of this conven- tion, all the interest due on the awards which had l . J T C 1 . i . 1 uci-n maue in lavor 01 me claimants uuuer me couven- ., . .. - . ... iion oi me inn oi April, was to be paid to them on the 30th of April, 1S43, and "the principal oi the said awards, and the interest accrumi thereon," was stipulated to "be paid in five years, in declaration that their" political councction with tbe avowed purpose of forming a settlement in that vi equal instalments every three months." Notwith- Mexican nation has forever ended, and that the people cinitv. a suecial messenger wns depmtr-l.p.1 hv ti. Biaiiuing uiw wuiuKwu oj tu.vuu luiuai nit w itids uu iiuw cousiituie a iKLt, eovc.iLio, aim government ot tne'Uiiitcd ctates, with Instruction request of Mexico, nnd fjr the purpose of relieving J intjetendent kepublic, and are fully invested with from the Secretary of S:ate to warn them to desist her from embarrassment, the claimants have only re-, all the rights and attributes which properly belong to should thev he found tlifro "nr an nthor ntaoa nnrth ceived the interest due on the thirtieth of April, IS 13, and three of the twenty instalments. Although the payment of the sum thus liquidated, and confesssdly J due by Mexico to our citizetens as indemnity for ac know'iedged acts of outrage and wrong, was secured by treaty, the obligations of which arc ever held sa cred by all just nations, yet Mexico has violated this solemn engagement by failing and refusing to make the payment. The two instalments due in April and July, 1344, under t! peculiar circumstances connect ed with them, have been assumed by the UnitCcLStatcs and discharged to the claimants, but they are still due by Mexico. But this is not all of which we have just cause of complaint. To provide a remedy tor the claimants whac cases were not decided by the joint commission under the convention of April 11th, 1339, it was expressly stipulated by the sixth article of the convention of the 30th of January, 1913, that "a new convention shall be entered into for the settlement of all claims of the government and citizens of the Uni ted States against the republic of Mexico which were not finally decided by the late commission, which met in, the city of Washington, and of all claims of the Government and citizens of Mexico against the Uni ted States." .. .. In conformity with this stipulation, a third conven tion was concluded and signed at the city of Mexico on the20;h of Nov., 1813, by the plenipotentiaries of the two governments, by which, provision was made for ascertaining and paying these claims. In Janua ry, 1344, this convention was ratified by the. Senate of the United States, with two amendments, which were manifestly reasonable in their character. Upon a.reference lo the amendments proposed tc the govern ment of Mexico, the same evasions, difficulties, and delays were interposed which have so long marked the policy of that government towards the United States. It has not even yet decided whether it would or would riot accede to them, although the subject has been re peatedly pressed upon its consideration. Mexico has thus violated a second time the faith of treaties, by failing or refusing to carry into effect the sixth article of the convention of January, 1313. ' Such is the history of the wrongs which we have suffered and patiently endured from Mexico through a long scries of years. So far from affording reasona ble satisfaction for the injuries and insults we had borne, a great aggravation of them consists in the fact, that w hile the United States, anxious to preserve a good uuderstanding. with Mexico, have been con stantly, but vainly, employed in seeking redress for past wrongs, new outrages were constantly occrring which have continued to increase our cause of com plaint, and to swell the amount of. our demands. While the citizens of the Unite;! States were conduct ing a lawful commerce with Mexico, under the guar anty of a treaty of " amity, commerce, and naviga tion," many of them have suffered all the injuries which would have resulted from open war. This treaty, instead of affording protection to our citizens, has been the mcaus of inviting them into the ports of Mexico that they might be, as they hava.been in nu merous instances, plundered of their property and deprived of their personal liberty, if they dare insist oh their rights. Had the unlawful seizures of Ameri can property, and the violation of personal liberty of our citizens, to say nothing of the insults to our llag which have occurred in the ports of Mexico, taken place on the high seas, they would themselves long eince have constituted a state of actual war between the:two countries. . i . In so lon Buffering Mexico to violate her most sol emn treaty obligations, plunder our citizens of their property, and lmprism their persons without affording them any redress, we have failed to perform one of the first and highest duties which, every government owes to its citizens ; and the consequence has been. that many of them have been reduced from a state of affluence to bankruptcy. The proud name of Ameri can citizen, which .ought to protect all . who bear it from insult and injury throughout the world, has af- jrded no such protection to our citizens in Mexico. We Jiad ample casse of war against Mexico long be fore the breaking out of hostilities. But even then we fotbore to take redress into our own hands, until Mexico herself became the aggressor by invading our soil in hostile array and shedding the blood of our citizens. Such are the crave causes of complaint on the part of the United States against Mexico causes w hich existed Ion before the annexation of Texas to the American Union: and yet, animated by the love of peace, and a magnanimous moderation, we did not adopt those .measures of redress which, under such circumstances, are the justified resort of injured na tions. The annexation of Texas to the United States con stituted no just cause of offence to Mexico. The pre text that it did so, is wholly inconsistent, and lrre- concileable with well authenticated .facts connected with tho revolution by which Texas became independ ent of Mexico. That this may be the more manifest, it may be proper to advert to the causes and to the history of the principal events of that revolution. Texas constituted a portion of the ancient proince of Louisiana, ceded to the United States by France in tho vear 13'. 3. In the year 181U, the United btates. by the Florida treaty, ceded to Spain all that part of Louisiana within the present limits ot lexas; ana Mexico, by the revolution which separated her fiom Spain, and rendered her an independent nation, suc ceeded to the rights of the mother country over this territory. In the year 1321, Mexico established a federal constitution, under which the .Mexican republic was composed of a number ot sovereign States, con federated together in a federal Union similar to our own. Each of those States had its ow n Executive, Legislature, and Judiciary, and for all, except federal purposes, was as independent of the general govern ment, and that oi thcotlicr states, as is rennsyivania or Virginia under our Lonsuiuuun. icaas uuu ou huilla united and formed one of these Mexican States. The State Constitution which they adopted, and which was onnroved by the Mexican confederacy, asserted that they were free and independent of tho other Mexican United States, and of every other power and dominion whatsoever;" and proclaimed the great principle of human liberty, that " the sovereignty of trie elates resiues origmauy anu cssenuauy jii me general mass of the individuals who compose it.'! To the government under this constitution, as well as to that under the federal constitution, the people of Texas owed allegiance. Emigrants from foreign countries, including tn United States, were invited by the colonization laws of the State and ot the lederai government to se;uc in Texa. Advantageous terms were offered to induce them to leave their own country and become Mexican citizens,.-..This invitation was accepted by many of our citizens in the full faith that in their new home thev would be governed by laws enacted by represent atives elected by themselves, and that their lives, lib erty and property would be protected by conatitutiona guaranties similar to those which existed in the repub lie they had left. Under a rrovernmcnt thus organized thr.y continued until the year 1835, when a military revolution broke out in the city ot Mexico, wnicti cn tirely subverted the. .federal and State constitutions and placed a military dictator at the head ot the gov ernment. By a sweeping decree of a Congress subservient to the will of the dictator, the several State Constitutions were abolished, and the States themselves converted into mere departments of the Central Government The people of Texas were unwilling to submit to this usurpation, resistance to such tyranny became high duty. , Texas was fully absolved from the allegi ance of the Central Government of Mexico from tb j5 ..:rC..rjß moment that crovrrnment lad abolished her State Con stitution. nt in it nlnr nSt ;tnfnl n nrtiitrarv n, .1 despotic Central Government. Such were the Drinein-ilranr of the Tpm The people of Texas at once determined upon resist- ' ance, and flew to arms. In the midst of these impor- - . a . - . . . . - I tant ana exciting events, however. Uiev did not omit to place their liberties upon a secure and permanent . . . ..." . J foundation. They elected members to a Convention. whom the month of March. 133G. suu-nl a formal independent nations." is." They also adopted for their , al republican Constitution. About ! la Anna, then the dictator of Mex- government a liberal the same time Santa ico, tavaded Texas with a numerous army, for the purpose of subduing her people, and enforcing obedi ence to his arbitrary and despotic government. On the twenty-first of April, 1S3G, he was met by the Texan citazcn-soldiers, and oi that day was achieved by them the memorable victory of San Jacinto, by which they conquered their independence. Consider ing the numbers engaged on the respective sides, his tory does not record a more brilliant achievement. Santa Anna himself was among the captives. In the month of May, 133Ö, Santa Anna acknowl-' edged, by a treaty w ith the Texan authorities, in the most solemn form, " the full, entire, and perfect inde pendence of the republic of Texas." It is true he was then a prisoner of war, but it is equally true that he had failed to re-conquer Texas, and had met with signal defeat; that his authority had not been revok ed, and that by virtue of this treaty he obtained his personal release. By it hostilities were suspended, and the army which had invaded Texas under his command returned jn pursuance cf this arrangement, unmolested, to Mexico. From the day that the battle, of San Jacinto was fought until the present hour, Mexico has never pos sessed power to rc-conquenTexas. In the language of the Secretary of State of the United States, in a despatch to our Minister to Mexico, under date of the eighth of July, 1342, Mexico may have chosen to consif er, and may still choose to consider, Texas as having been at all times since 1935, and as still con tinuing, a rebellious province.; but tli world has been obliged to take a very different view of the matter. From the time of the battle of San Jacinto, in April, 1S36, to the present moment, Texas has exhibited the same external signs of national independence as Mexico herself, und with quite as much stability of government. Practically free and independent,' ac knowledged as a political sovereignty by the principal Towers of the world, no hostile foot finding rest within her territory for six or seven years, and Mexi co herself refraining for all that period from any fur ther attempt to re-establish her uwn authority over that territory, it cannot but be surprising to find Mr. de Bocanegra " (the Secretary of Foreign Affairs of 'Mexico,) " complaining that for that whole period citizens of the United States, or its government, have been favoring the rebels of Texas, and supplying them with vessels, ammunition, and money, as if the war for the reduction of the province of Texas had been constantly prosecuted by Mexico, and her success prevented by these influences from abroad." In the same despatch the Secretary of State affirms that " since 1337 the United States have regarded Texas as an independent sovereignty, as much as Mexico ; and that trade and commerce wih citizeus of a gov ernment at war with Mexico cannot, on that account, be regarded as an intercourse by w hich assistance and succor are given to Mexican rebels. The w hole of Mr. Bocanegra's remarks ruu in the same direction aa if the independence of Texas had not been, acknowledged. It has been acknowledged it was acknowledged in against the rctnon- etrance and protest cf Mexico ; and most of the acts of any importance, of which Mr. de Bocanegra com plains, flow necessarily from that recognition. He speaks of Texas as still being 'an integral part of the territory of the Mexican republic,' but he cannot but understand that the United States do not so regard it. The real complaint of Mexico, therefore, is, in substance, neither more nor less than a complaint against the recognition of Texan independence. It may be thought rather late to repeat that complaint, and not quite just to confine it to the Uuited States, to the exemption of England, France, and Belgium, unless . the United Slates, having .been the first to acknowledge the independence of Mexico herself, are to be blamed for setting an example for the re cognition of that of Texas." And he added, that " the constitution, public treaties, and the laws oblige the President to regard Texas as an independent State, and its territory as, no part of the territory of Mexico." Texas had been an independent State.with an organized government, defying the power of Mex ico to overthrow or reconquer her for more than ten years before Mexico commenced the present- war against the Uuited States. Texas had given such evidence to the world of her ability to maintain her separate existence as an independent nation, that she had been formally recognized as such not only by the United States, but by several of tire principal powers of Europe. These powers had entered into treaties of amity, commerce, and navigation with her. Ihcy md received and accredited her ministers and other diplomatic agents at their respective courts, and they ad commissioned ministers and diplomatic agents on their, part to the government of Texas. If Mexico, . i . t . 1 1 . , , . . : I. : l : . noiwunstanaing au uns, anu ner uiier inaoiiuy io subdue or reconquer Texas, still stubbornly refused to recognize her as an independent nation, she was none the less so on that account. Mexico herself lad been recognized as an independent nation by the United States, and by other powers, many years be fore Spain, of which, before her revolution, she had been 'i colony, would ajree to reco-rnize her as such; and yet Mexico was at that time, in the estimation of the civilized world, and in fact, none the less an inde pendent power, because Spain still claimed her as a colony. . . . ... If Spam had continued until the present period to assert that Mexico was one of her colonies in rebel- ion against her, this would not have made her so, or changed the fact of her independent existence. Tex as, at the same period of her annexation lo the United States, bore the same relation to Mexico that Mexico lad borne to Spain for many years before Spain ac- knowlcdeged her independence, with this imoriant difference that, before the annexation of Texas to the United States was consummated, Mexico herself, by a formal act of her government, had acknowledged the independence of lexas as a nation. It is true, that in the act of recognition she prescribed a condi tion which she had no power or authority to impose, that lexas should not annex herself to any other power; but this could not detract in any degree from the recognition which Mexico then mad of her actual independence. Upon this, plain statement of facts, it is absurd for Mexico to allene, as a pretext for com mencuig hostilities against the United States, that Texas is still a part ot her territory But there are those who, conceding all this to be true, assume the ground that the true western boun dary of Texas is tho Neuces, instead of the Rio Grande; and that therefore, in marching our army to the east bank of the latter river, we passed the lexan line, and invaded the territory of Mexico. A simple statement of facts, known to exist, will conclusively refute Euch an assumption. Texas, as ceded to the United States by France, in 1SU3, has been always claimed as extending west to the Rio Grande, or Itio Bravo. This fact is established by the authority of our most eminent statesmen, at , a period w hen the question was as well if not better understood than it is at present During Mr. Jefferson's administration, Messrs. Monroe and Finckney, who. had been sent on a special mission to Madrid, charged, among other things, with the adjustment of .boundary between the two countries, in a note addressed Ac the Spanish Minister of Foreign Affairs, under date of the 28th of January, 180ä, assert that the boundaries of, Loui siana, as ceded to the United States by France " are the river Ferdido on the east, and the river Bravo on the west ; " and they add, ' that tbe facts and princi ples which justify this conclusion, are so satisfactory to our government as to. convince it that the United States have not a better right to the island of New nj - Tff r . oiuniG I:::::ninbcr 2G.. j Orleans, under the cession referred to. than tliev have th dni. .-;.-..;.. . r . :. 1 :. u : . ,J , scribed." February, IS 19, by which this territory was ccdd to Spain, the United States averted and in,ini,;nPH - i hir torr tnr 1 r;.,t ti.;. t- ...... . .w lAltlll. Ill the month of June. 1319 during Mr M onroes administration. lnlonnation having been received, that a number of foreign adventurers had landed nt (lalvp tnn with I ho of the Rio Bravo, and within the territory claimed by tbe United States." He was instructed, should they be found in the country north of that river, to make known to them "tbe surprise with which the Presi dent lias seen possession thus taken, without authority from the Uuited Slates, of a place within their territo rial limits, and upon which no lawful settlement can be made without their sanction." He was instructed to call upon them to "avow under what national au thority they profess to act," aud to give them due warning "that the place is within the United States, who will suffer no permanent settlement to be made there, under any authority other than their own." As late as the eighth of July lSlti, the Secretary of State of the Uuited States, in a note addressed to our minister in Mexico, maintains that, by the Florida treaty of 1?10, the territory as far west as the Rio Grande was confirmed to Spain. In that note he states that, "by the-treaty of the twentv-secoud of Feb., 1S19, between the U. S. and Spainthe Sabine was adopted as the line of boundary between the two powers. Up to that period, no considerable coloniza tion had been effected in Texas; but the territory be tween the. Sabine and the Rio Grande being conürmed to Spain by the treaty, applications were made to that power for grants of land, and such gTants, or permis sions of settlement, were in fact made by the Spanish authorities in favor of citizens of the United States proposing to emigrate to Texas in numerou families, before the declaration of independence by Mexico. The Texas which was ceded to Spain by the Floiidj ticaty of 1819, embraced all the couutry now claimed t-jr the State of Texas between the Neuces and the Rio Glinde. The republic of Texas always cUimeJ this livrr as her western boundary, and in her lieaty trude with Santa Anna in May, 1836, be recognized it as such. Dy the constitution which Texas adopted in March, 1S36, scoaloiul and itpreseautive districts were organized exttndiug west uf the Neuci i. Tt-e Confess ol Texas, on the nineteenth of December, 1S36, passed An act to define the boundaries tf the republic of Texas," in which they decUied ihe llio GranJe (turn it mouth to its source to be their boundaiy. and by ihe said act they extended their "civil and political juiisJiciijn" over me ciuntiy up to that boundary. During a pciiod of moie lhau nine yens, which intervened between the aduotion of her constitution and her annexation as one of (he States of our Union, Texas assertvd and exeicieJ many acts of sov ereignly amd J-iiisdiction over the teititory aud inhabitants west of Ihe Neuces. She otjnizeJ and defined the lixits of couutiies exteuJiog to the Uio Grande. She established couits of justice and ex'ended her judicial system over the teiritoiy. She established a custom-house, and collected dutic, and alo post offices and post roads in it. She e taUikhed a laud office, 'and issued numetous grants for laud, wMiiu its limits. A Senator and a ltepresculativa residing in it were elected to the Congress of the republic, and t-etved as such before the act f annexation took place, la both the Congress and Convention of Texas, which ?are their assent to the terms of annexation to the United States, pioKtd by our Congress, weie representatives reidmz west of the Neuce, who took pait in the act of annexation itself. This was t'.ie Texas which, by the act of our Congress of the twenty-ninth of December, 1S45, was admitted as one of the States of our Union. That the Cormess of the United States understood the State of Texas which they ad nitted into the Union to extend beyond the Neuces is dp rent fiom the fact, that on the tl.irt) -first of December. 1815. only two days after the act of admission, they passed a la " to establish a collection district in the Slate of Texas," ly wmcn iney cieated a port ot delivery at Corpus Christi, situ ated west of the Neuces, and being tbe same point at which the Texas custoai-boue, under Ihe laws of that republic, had been located, and dneclcd that a surveyor to collect the revenue should be appointed for that poit ty the Tresident, by and with the advice and consent nf the Senate. A surveyor was accordingly nominated and con Iii med by the Senate, and has been ever since in the performance of bis duties. All these acts of the republic of Texas, and of our Congress, preceded the oiders for the advance of our army to the east bank of the Rio Giaude. Subsequently, Congiess passed an act "establishing certain post routes extending west of the Nu eces. The country west ofthat river now constitutes a pait of one of the Congressional districts of Texas, and is represented in me House ol Kepresentatircs. i he Mnatur front that State wrierhoscD by a legislature iu which the country west of that river was repiesented. In view of all these fct, it is difficult te conceive upon what ground it can be maintained, th.t' in occupying tbe country west of the Neuces with our army, with a view solely to its security and defence, we invaded the terri tory of Mexico. 15 ut it would have been still more difficult to justify the execulive. whoe duty it is to see that the laws be faithfully executed, if in the face of these proceeding, both of Ihe Longres of Texas and the United States, he had assumed the responsibility of yielding up the territory west of the Nue- ccs'to Mexico, or of refusing to defend or piotect this tciritory and its inhabitants, including Corpus Christi, as well as Ihe lemainder of Texas, agaiust the thieatened Mexican lura- siou. .... , But Mexico berstlf has! never placed the war which she has waged npon the ground that our army occupied the intermedi ate territory between the Neuces and the Rio Grande. Her refuted pretensions that Trxas was not an independent State, but a rebellious province, was obstinately persevered in : and her avowed purpose in commencing a war with the United States was to reconquer Texas, and to lestoie iVt-xicai authoiity over tbe whole territory, not to the Neuces only, bat to the Sabine. In view of the proclaimed menaces of Mexico io this eflect, I deemed it my duty, as a measure of precaution snd defence, to order our army to occupy a posi tion on our frontier as a military post from which our troor s could best resist and tcpei any attempted invasion which Afexico might make. Our army bad occupied a position at Corpus Chiisti, west of the Neuce, as eaily as August, 1S43, without cotnplaxitfrom any quarter. Had the Neuces been regarded as the true west ern boundary pf Texas, that boundary had been passed by our a i my many months before it advanced to Ihe ea-tcrn bank informed Coneress. that unon the invitation of both the i Congress and Convention of Ttxas, I had deemed.it propel to j older a strong squadron to the coasts ol Mexico, and to con- rentijte au efficient military foice on the western frontier of j Texas, to protect and defend the inhabitants against the men-; aced invasion of Afexico. In tr.at message 1 infoimed Con- gress lhatthe moment the terms of nnex.tion offered by the United Mates were accepted by Texas, jhe latter became 1 me unitca siaes were accepica oy lexas.tne lauer oecame j so far a putcf our own country as to make it our duty to t afioid euch protection and defence; and that for that purpose our squadron had been ordered t-J the Gulf, and our army lo ' "lake i position between Ihe Nueces and Ihe Del Noite."or Rio Grande, and "to repel any invasion of the Texan tcirito- note, our naval lorce wss pro-npny wtinaiawn raaa es.-' ly which miht be attempted by the Jlexicau foices." j Cruz. A minister wss immediately appointed, and depart- It was deemed ptopcr tJ isue this oider, because soon af-j eJ to Mexico. Every thing bore a promisirg aspect for" ter the President uf Texas, in Apiil, IStö, had i-sued hi ,pfejy nj peaceful adjustment of all our difficulties.' At proclamation convening the Cong. ess of tint Republic, for ,hJ Jite of Mnoa, mMft 0 Congress in December the pu.pose ot 'rt" hV 2 .'fnM' ' I'. "0 doubt wa, entertained that he Wotf!J be received tion pioposed by the United States, the government of Mex- ; " .... , . .. , . , ico made serious threats of invading the Tex.n lerrito.y. ' J e Mexican governrnrn; and the hope wss cbeinbed These threats became more imposing as it became mote ap- ttt " causes of misunderstanding bctweeti the two 'coan parent, in the progiess of the question, that the people of ( tries woulJ be 'speedily removed. In the confident hpp Texas would decide in favor of accepting the terms of an- , that such woul.l be the result of this mission, I inf rrr)ed nexation j and, finally, they had assumed such a formidable ' Congress that I f rebore at tbit ti ne to recommend su'.h. character, as induced both ihe Congress and Convention of 0teror measures ofredrees for the wrong and injuri- wt - Texas to request that a military fo.ee .should be sent by the j. A ,Jfl), ... it oe,lJ base been jnvfcee to wak United SUH. ...to her terntory for the purpose of Pot.ng ; nrgo-ra-ion t een inali'uted." T my surprise and defending her against the thieatened invasion, li would " . . " . ' r have been a vi .la.ion of good faitf. towards the people of nd regret, the Mex.rai government, ihough Jalemnlj Texas lo have tefusrd to alfdid the aid which they detired ptedged lo do s uin the arrival or our Minister in Mex aainst a threatened invasion, to which Ihey had been expo- ; ico, refused t receive and accredit bim. W'sien be reach-? sed by their fiee determination to annex themselvts to our . Union, in compliance with the overture maJe to them by the j lint resolution of our Congress. Accordingly a portion of the army was ordered to advance into Texas. Corpus Chirsti wa the position selected by Gen. Taylor. He eneamed at that place in Augui, 184Ö, Mrch, la'46, when it moved westward, and on the twenty. ; eighth of that month reached tbe east bank of the Uio! Giande opposite lo ilatamora. This movement was made in pursuance of orden from the War Depaitment, issued on ; the thiiteenth or January, 1816. B fore these orders were i issued the despatch or our mlH.-ter in m "'- Ik fl. .n rvl that lrlifs I rtl Ina 1 .11 ts FT1 ITI "f1 f Ol .lIHllPfl. ' and tne aimy remained in inai piuun uiu uc eicvmm j advüin The r.bfd T not be VuceTred; and a.Vo the A , spatchofour consut residing in the. city of Afexico the former beaiing date on tne scventeentn, ana me utter on me eighteenth of December, 1345, copies of both of whicb c- companied my mcssago lo Congress of the 11th of May last were received at the Depaitn.eut of. State. These com. munications rendered It b.ghly probable, if not j'r certain, that our minister won d not be leceivcd by the gov- ernment of General Herren. It was ..so well known that but little hone could be entertained of a different result from ... . ...a Gen. Parades In case the revolutionary movere ent- hich be was ptosecuting should piove successful, as was highly pro bable. The partisans of Parades, as our minister, in the de spatch referred to, states, -breathed the fiercest hostility against tbe United States, denounced the proposed negotia tion as treason, and opeoly called upon the troops and upon the people to put down tbe government of Herrera by force. Tbe te-cooquest of Texas, and war with the United State, th,.i.n,.t . Tk... ... ih. .im.t.nre . i were isting, when it wis deemed proper to. order tbe atmy under (be commird iT Grceral Taylor to adrare; td the wct'ei ffoutir r of Tcxn, ao4 ccuj j a positiuu no m nor tie !Ua Graude. .. . The apprehension of a conlr rn!j!ed Mexira'n inva sion have been ine fally justified by lh etrnt. Ttia rieterminaliuti'of Mexico to ruch into lit (ilitics uith l Ho United States wa afterward mar.iA t-d from ilia wtuf tenor of the note of the .Mcxicau .Mmiur ol Koieia Affair to our Minister, bearing date of the 12Ji March; lS-lü. l'aradea lud then revolutionized the rovernnient. and hi minister, after rife-rung lo the resolution for the ,nncxa,ionof Teia5'whith Lt,eo M" h ur CongicMin March, 1645, proceed to declare that M a fact uch a till, or to speak greater exavlneaa, so nolubo T1! "surPt10". "e' imperiou nere.- aity that Mexico, fur her own honor, should repel it with i proper firm ties and dignity. The Supreme Guverrimeiit bad beforehand declared that tt would look upon f ucll tfa ' art as a casus belli; and, a a conequence of ihi det!r. alion, negotiation nx, by it very nature, at an emöf and 'war wa the only r.-ource of the Meiicati g'urrniiiclil!" -;' It appears alo, that on the 4lh or April fuMowing, (General I'arrdes, through hi uuuiater of h r iued or ders to the Mexican general in command on the TeiH frontier to "attack" our army ,4by every means which war permit."- To this Ct-neial 1'aradts had been pledgt cd to -the'army and people of Mexico during the military revolution which had brought him into power. On the Itfihol April, lä4ü, General I'aredft addressed a letter to the cotnninnder on tint frontier, in hicli he rtitft'-'J lo Iii in "at the prevent date 1 'buppose you at the head of that valiant army, either fighting already, or preparing for the operations of a campaign ; and " upuitypu already on the theatre of operations, and Willi at the forces aembled, it is indefpeiiaublc that hostilities be commenced, yourself taking the iniltulhe against tbe enemy The movement of uur army to the Rio Grande wet made by the commanding general under positive orders to abstain from all ngresvive arts towards Mexico, or Mexican citizens, and to regxrd the relations between the two countries as peaceful, unless Mexico should 4ear war, or com in it aits of hostility indicative 'Ot'm tat ot war; and these orders he htitidully executed. Whilst occupying ais position on the east bunk of ihe Uio Grande, within the limits of Texas, then recently admit ted as one of the States of our Union, the cGiniuonding General of the Mexican forces, w lio in pursuance of the orders of 'bis government, had collected a large army ou the opposite shore of the Uio Grande, crossed ihe rierj invaded our territory, and commenced hostilities by at tacking our forces. ' ' Thus, lifter all the injuries which we had rectired tni" borne from Mexico, aud after she had insultingly re jected a minister se-tit to litr on a mission of peace, and whom she bad solemnly agreed lo receive, Jhe contaminated her long couse of outrage agniiiat our country by com mencing an offensive war and shedding the blood of our citizens our own "soli. The United States never attempted to acquiro Texas by conquest. On the contrary, at an early p-t!d aUtf the people of Texas had achieved their independence, they sought to be annexed to tli United States. At a general election in epleiitbt-r, Jfc3C, thev derided uilH great unanimity in fivor of "annexation;' and in Not em ber following, the Congress ol the republic authorised the appointment of a minister lo bear their request lo this government. This government, however, hating remained neutral between Texas and Mexico during the. war between them, and considering it due to the honor of our country, and our fair Time among the nations of the earth, that we should not nt this early period consent to annexation, nor until tl should .be manifest to the . whole world that 'the re-conquest ol Texas by Mexico was impossible, refused to accede to the overtures mad a by Texas. On the 12ih of Apiil, lft44, and after niore than seven years had elapsed since Texas had establish ed her independence, a treaty was concluded for the an nexation ol that republic tu tli United Slates, which was rejected by the Senate; Finally, on the In'of March, lcMS, Congress passed a joint resolution for nnexing her lo the United States, upon certain preliminary conditions s to which iie.r n.-serit whs required. The solemnities which characterized the deliberations and conduct of govern' tnent and people of Texas, on the deeply interesting questions presented by these resolutions, aie known to the world. The Congress, the Exe utive, and tbe peo ple of Texas, in a convention elected for that, purpose, accepted with great unanimity the proposed terms of an' nexalion ; and thus consummated on her part the great act of restoring to our federal Union a vast territory which had been called Spaiu by the Florida treaty more than a quarter oi century belore.' -t After the jnnt resolution for t lie annexation of Tex to the Unitwd States had been passed by our Congress, th Mexican Minister at Washingtou addressed a note to ihe Secretary of State, bearing date on the sixth of March, 1845, protesting ttgainst it as an act of aggression, the most unjust which can be found recorded in lite annale of modern history ; namely, that of despoiling a friendly nation, like Mexico, ot a considerable portion of her ter ritory ;" and protesting against the resolution of annexa tion, as being an act whereby the province of Texas, an ... . integral portion of the Mexican " territory, is added and admitted into the American Union;" and he aniiotine-rHl llml, aa a consequence, bia uiiiMion to the United Sliftea ' " hud terminated, arid demanded bis passports, which were granted. It was upon the absurd pretext, made by Mex ico, (she indebted for lier independence to a successful ...--""' revolution,) that the republic of Texas still continui"fcrr'i be, notwithstanding all that had passed, a province of . Mexico, that this step was taken by t!ic Mexican minis.- . ter.. Every honorable effort hnt been made by me to avoid the war which followed, but all have proved vain. Aft our attempts to preserve peace have been met by insult and resistance on the part ot Mexico. My ctfurts to this -end commenced in the note ol the Secretary ol Slate of the tenth of March, lg43, in answer to that of the Mexi- " can Minister VhiVi4 declining lure-open discussion which had already been exhausted, and 'provirg ngain what was known to tbe whole world, that Texas had long since achieved her independence, ihe Secretary of State expressed the regret of this government that Mexi-..,...- co should have taken offence at the resolution of annex ation passed by Congress, and gave assurance thulr fu'r "most strenuous efforts shall be devoted v -the amicable' adjustment of every cause of complaint between tbe two governments, and to the cultivation or the kindest and muM frifcnflly relations between the frister republics." -" - " That I have acted in the spirit of this assurance, will appear from the events which have since occurred. Not withstanding Mexico had abruptly terminated all dipto maiic intercouse with the Uuited States, and ought, there- fore, to have been the first to ask for its resumption, yet, waiving all ceremony, I embraced the first lavorable op- ' portunity "to ascertain from tbe Mexican government whether they would receive an envoy from the Untied Stales intrusted with full power to adjust all tbe ques tions in dispute between the two governments." Inf September, 1S45, 1 believed the propitious moment for such an overture had arrived. Texas, by the enthusiastic and almost unanimous will of her people, had pronounced in favor of annexation. Mexico herself had agreed to acknowledge Ihe independence of Texas, subject to a condition, it is true, which he had no right to impose and no power to enlorce. The last lingering hope tf Mexico, if .-lie still could have retained any, that Texar :v,,u" c'cr. "e'-u",c V,IC "Lr I"""-f ,,a.' '77k ,, . ".. , iu u"'ui unuc " -"? " was, therefore, tnstrocled ey the Secretary of Slate' on tbe 15th of September, 1 845, lo make the inquiry of the Mex-' lean government. Theimuiry was msde, and on the 15ttf 0f October, 1 845. the Minister of Foreign affairs of the JJcxican go f . 1 our nV . Mexican irovernment. ! . nola tdJred to our consul rab!e response, requesting, at the tjme umejthn force might be withdrawn from Vera Citiz while' negotiations snou'd bepcndi g. Upon tne recej)!:or ol tCtf ti Vera Cruz.' on the 30th f Noveniber,- 1S15, he TotJ that the aspect of sUiirs had undergone an unhappy rhanje. The government of General Herrers, who Was at that lim Pres:dent of that republic, was tottering to its fall. General Parades, a military leader had manifested Li determination t overthrow the government of Herreraky- a military revolution; and one of the principal means which he employed lo i fleet his purpose, and rendr lhe government of llcrreia odious to the army end people efj MfXjc0 wa( ,y louilly condemning its deterrmtration tc reccive , n,inj8,er of peace from the United States, allege ing ,h., it was the iutction of Herrera. b, a treaty wilß " O J J the Cni ed States 0 dismember the territory of Mexico, by ceding ewsy the department of Texss. The govern ( mem 01 ncyeia is ueuevru 10 di umi wsn uisposcu 1 pacific adjustment of existing difficulties; but probably ( ,l,rmed for its own security, and in order to waid off the . of lhe iolu tion led .ly Parades, violated its solemn- j .greemen and refusei lo receive or sjrcr.aKt.wM minister ; , ,.,. 7. v. w- t , ,. . 1 i 1 4 -j! : J I,hoof.-- -"'-? h ba.;hero inverted wtrh : luH Pwer 10 Jurt tl! questions' in 'wp0U between thev ta . . A .t, r I -..t I Cm it, two governments. .Among the invclous pretexts lotJbia refusal, the principal one was, that our minuter had nof gone upon a special mission, confined to the question of Texas alone, leaving all the outr ge upon , our flag an our citizens unredressed. 'The Mexican government-well-knew tbst both our national honor and the protection dua to our cill ens imperatively required that tbe two questions of boundary and indemnity should be treated of tog e ther as naturally and hWaubly blended, and thej ouhl tr