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Indiana State sentinel. [volume] (Indianapolis) 1841-1853, March 04, 1847, Image 2

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3nfttflüft fftätc SciüwcU
wi:i:kly fditios.
KTEBJAL VIGILAPCE If TUE fBICE OF llBEETT.
iiivroris, maucii 4. 117.
Our Tenu.
The Tallowing will hereafter be the permanent terms
of the Weekly Indiana iiialt Sentinel:
5-Pay meats to be nude always In advance.
One copy, one year, $2.01'
Three copies, one year, 0.( 0
Fire copies, one y ear, 8.01
Ten copies, one year, 15.0(!
Semi-Weekly.
(Published three times a week during the session.)
One copy, ;vgl.l)) Three copies, $10.10
Oue copy during the session, l.(K)
Thrre or more mnies. each 7.1
L.csal Advertisements.
The undersigned will not publish legal notices in
their respective paj'eVa without payment being made
therefor in advance.
JOHN D. DEFREES,
CI I A PM NS &. SPA NN.
To Correspondents.
O. P. C Danville. Yoara was receiveJ, bat too late for last week1
pipjt, the edition beinj exhausted by ma ccct.loo of about one
hundred and forty new tubtcriber on th two days preceding
the publication. The way that new tuUcriberi are "poa tag"
in, i tome. We will try and hare paper enough In future.
Our rtgulmr Uaue la now about UKW weekly. Oive us a many
more, and we ill show w hat we caa do. . .
07- On Saturday, one of our citizens called upon
us, and manifested unappeasable wrath iu conse
quence of the publication of a communication in the
paper of that day, relative to needy families in our
Community, and the alleged "want of action" on the
part of the almoners of our benevolent societies, C ur
wrathful citizen affirmed that the writer of the com
munication was a slanderer, and that so far from hi.
allegations being true, the lenevoleiit societies and
their agents had done all that their means and ability
had enabled them to do. We give him the benefit of
these counter statements as a measure of justice and
Dot of right ; fur his violent, uncharitable and un
christian demeanor towards us, would no doubt In the
opinion of the world, fully exonerate us from the duty
of this explanation, so far as he is concerned. Folly
and fanaticism alone could attach sinister motives to
us on account of the puliicat.bu of communications in
behalf of the poverty-stricken and the wretched; un
less it should be done plainly in the spirit of pharisa
ism, and that is a spirit which we believe even our
enemies do not impute to us. It would likely be more
profitable to flatter and fawn upon those who have the
power to bent fit or injure ; but this tee thall never do
so long as the manual labor of our own bands can
find us bread to cat.
03" Political extremes have met in Congress, and
should circumstances favor, will amalgamate. The
very state of things predicted and anticipated by cer
tain resolutions passed by this Democratic club of
Indianapolis, some three years ago, have occurred
and are occurring. Calhoun crowded on the event of
Texan annexation, without regard to consequences,
immediate or remote, and in defiance of them. He
labored with nearly as much zeal to give away all of
Oregon, but only succeeded iu getting rid of a part.
He now opposes the war with Mexico, brought on by
his policy and that of the miserable Tyler; and though
so fiercely determined for the immediate annexation of
To-.- .i . r i
1 exas as a. necetiirv outlet foe Mir nvn curnlna minn. !
i.rJ v. 1 i .' i . .l -j e
r, r r.i;r -T ... , i
Sn acre Ot t.alimrnm rr ur Rinnirt iinitn. lt. nr.
tended belief and fear that we have already too much
territory, and that any further immediate addition
would lead to the inevitable disruption of the Union,
unless, tm.Vjj indeed; the newly acquired territory
iv.ii ' - it e t .x, t. if u i.- v acut, ny ana iu the aovice ana consent oi me ocn-
ahall, to the extent of at least one half, be subjected i r ,
to the extension of negro slavery ! Not only this !a,e' f thc CCnfral offiCers rrr'd by such organe
lle has aliea ay began to ring the tocsin in favor ofttlon.w,' 6l'811 be discharged immediately upon the
Disunion, unless hi', policy, his interests, and Äj f the war w.th Mexico. Th e bill also provides
ambitious projects shall be held as superior to those of ! fT the aPiKjintmp,lt of ,hree Mtt adjutant gener
the nation. All this tallies precisely with the spirit i'1' B"d au,I'orize8 ,he Resident to accept the servi
of the resolutions to which we have referred. But ;"' thuU ,he 6tatC f ,he Sm,ce in Us I,inion
there is another singular circumstance, which those ! 'T'" f vo,u,!tcers novv in Mexico " mnl
resolutions perhaps did not anticipate, namely, a coa ,fter ll " tT r" K Kt "V volun,aril
lition, between Mr. Calhoun, not only with the bih-
tariff, anti-war federalists of the east, but alsc
. .' I . J .
tana, anti-war lecerahsts of the east, but also with !
the ultra, abolition fanntira ! nr if nnt .n..tlr!.-.n
n.:tK n, :j, . i . i ,
with the latter, a coincidence at least in attitude con-
t . . . t n - i
. w. w v uuiiiiUU
.u.;j,f i . i - '
the aid or such allies, antipodes to him m opinions '
..j cn.;mni. tit piu iu Li . . ,.:
and sentiments, Mr. Calhoun has been able to wield .
.k- ik.i rr .i. o 1
the "balance of power" in the Senate, and no small i
.f i.Ä, .. f it. . .i I
degree or influence of the same sort, in the country. !
ait tia ; txt .k- itt. r.i j i. . t
All this is hut the "beginning of the end ; " and it is a I
-f' . , r .v.: .. . ; i ..... .
vui iuu iuu instruciive to contemplate.
For the present we leave them to the reflection of our
readers. We shall be soon enough compelled, by the .
course of events, to revert to them. We have ouly
now to remark, that there is more wisdom in the net
ple than in politicians, and more safety too.
3
ftJWn ., , , F ,i i . i T . , . .
CCTJn account of the late hour at which it came
, , . , . ".u w voijiv.
to.hand, we had not opportunity to say a word of the
piece of poetry which appeared in our last, from Mrs.
Bolton, entitled "A scene in Ireland." We think it
amonr the very best of her praiseworthy efforts, and
, , . , . , ... , .
we have the satisfaction to know that it is much
mired by all whom we have heard express an opinion, legislation. A7. Louis Union.
Written, as the subject proves it must have been, on j fjT-Tlie system of log-rolling" above alluded to
the spur of the moment, it would alone be enough to j was the means by which Indiana, as well as other
indicate the genius of the writer, and prove ber title 'States, has been swindled and disgraced. If it were
io occupy a distinguished place among our best female ! practicable, every State . constitution should embody
poets. If we bave flattered her but little, and we some remedial provision ; and if no better could be
ire not much prone to that vice, we are not insensi- j found, every law, before taking effect, should be sua
ble to her true merits, and are quite certain that her milled to a vote of the people.
efforts will yet extort praise from pens more able than j '
our own.
. The following U the language of the Hon. Iteverdy !
Johnson, of Maryland, on the three millions bill, re
ferring to the unrighteousness of the Mexican war:
" Public virtue has given us great prosperity. Let
that virtue fail us--weaken the moral sense of the
nation indulge in unbridled lust of dominion and
s sure as there is a God who rewards virtue and
punishes vice, the curse of Lis judgment will be upon
US."
The man who thus prates of public virtue and pub
lic morals, is the same person who a few years ago
waa mobbed by the exasperated people of Baltimore,
who bad been enormously plundered by a Bank of
which Mr. Job son was the President. Wctider how
much he thought a,bdut the " curses of God" at that
time!
The Railroad Meetinq on Saturday last gave ood
.evidence of the favorable feeling of the people of
central Indiana towards that important object. It is
er7 generally believed that Illinois will yet cofne in
to its aid. At all events, her coarse should not in
fluence us in the least. We hares, lihenf -k. .-..
through our State, which will be read at the next mee
ting ; and we hope to see, then and there, a Urge
gathering".- Due notice will be given, and piinclualily
it desired.
T h National Road.- After the railroad meeting
lilt Saturday, we learn that a meeting was held rela
tiv to repairing? the National Road west or White
fiver. We have not seen the proceedings, but under
stand a resolution was passed recommending thecom-
inissiorrere to go on and repair the road at the best
ratejj and the County to be taxed for the safire.
CTh O-ld Fellows of New York are preparing
i itip, loaded with provisions fur tin relief of Ireland.
It might not be a bad arrangement if the Mexican
priesthood should exchange places with the American
clergy." Instead then of each class opposing, it
might make a show of patriotic ardor in favor of its
own government. S'ale SenlineJ.
With all proper respect f ;r our neighbor of the
Sentinel, we rrgret the insertion of such a paragraph
as tJie fcregoirg in his paper. Thr-t the great mars
of the American 4 clergy " are opposed to war, and to
this Mexican war especially, is an undoubted fact;
but it does nut prove that they take side with Mcxi-.-o.
It only shows that they have so far advanced in
civilization as to d.sapprove of wholesale and needless
inhumanity. ChrUl ia n Messe ngcr.
We hare no desire to do any injustice to the class
mentioned. We merely staled a fact, of which our
neighbor admits the truth. The j racticjü effects of
the course of the clergy, alluded to, must be inevita
ble and felf-evident, whatever may be the motives
which impels that course. To those tffects only did
we allude. That they tend to prolong the contest,
and consequently the " wholesale and needless inhu
manity " spoken of, we have not the shadow of a
doubt.
We should not have made the remark that wc did,
had not the attitude of the class in question, in many
instances, imperatively required it. So loi;g as they
confine themselves within their proper bounds, we
shall bo the last to quest iou the conduct of clergymen,
whether individually or ai a class. But when they
descend into the political forutn, they can claim no
immunity beyond that to which politicians arc entitled.
Our original remark was based cn the following,
whit u appeared some weeks ago in the Public Ledg
er: Aid ' and .Co.mfokt to tjie Exemv. Disgraceful
Proceed inn gs in Boston. The old spirit that prompt
ed some of our Eastern friends in the last war to burn
blue lights to apprise the enemy of the movements of
our navy is still actively alive in Boston. An exhi
bition of it was given on Monday night last at a pub
lic meeting held in Tremont Temple, called to take
into consideration the expediency of withdrawing the
U. S. troops from Mexico, ana of memorializing Con
gress to bring the war to a ppeedy termination. One
Dea. Samuel (ircely was appointed tluirman, and a
committee reported resolutions which viewed the
Mexican war with "deep sorrow and disgust." The
resolutions were spoken to by Rev. C. iJrooks, Rev.
Mr. Horton, Rev. Theodore Parker, Rev. Mr. Water
ston, Dea. Grant, Mr. C. F. Adams, Mr. Trask, and
others. The Eoston Tost gives the following account
of the proceed ifigs :
"Mr. Trask toik ocraion in hit remark to ry many
di-eouiteou things of the Massachusetts volunteeit, a few
uf whom were piesent, and itid he acorned and pitied iho
man who wit tae enoug'i to enlist iu this unholy war."
Mr. Jjmes C. Motse, tif company A voluuieers, admiohteif d
a seveie nlukr lo Mr. T., which was received by the audi-
ence with altercate clappirg uf bards and hisse ' Mr. Muise
concluded by saying Hut he was 'happy in bring the ol jt-ct
of the scorn and contempt of his calumniator, and he dobuted
Dot the whole of ibe volumeer coips coincided wih hi n in
opinion. Mr. C. F. Adams lo k the staod, and said the
mretm' was called by the eppuutn's of the war, and be
didn't know ly what authoiity the lights of the meetii g '
were invaded by the hired minions of the admimstiatiuu.
A gentleman lit the hall, named Paikman, inteirupted nun by
laying he was afraid of fiee discussion od the subject, and
inisted upon the volunteers exercising the right of defend
ing themselves againt such gros attacks. The lesotutiuns
were Uid on the table to t e taken up at the adjourned meet
ing to be held at Faneuil Hall tn Tuutsday etching, and the
meeting adjourned."
We expect to hear that the meeting on Thursday
night will pass a resolution of thanks to anta Anna,
and approving of hin intention to set murderous bands
of highwaymen and banditti upon the scattered rem
nants of the American army afier be has "torn it to
pieces."
(rThe President's special message to Congress,
which we puuiisi: in another coiuuin, seems to i;ave
'
i u i i:. l : .i ..t ... i
brought the ilignffiid Senate at:d House to a sense of
the necessity of attending tj the public interests ccm
roittcd to their charge. On the ICth, a bill was re
ported in the Senate for the organization of the ten regi
ments recently authorized into brigades and division?;
and also providing for the appointment by the Tresi-
ec"c lu ,MS l,lu UiC wor "u w wt',u"
them into rrmrnnicB. lattal.rm. nnd rorrirrfoit nrW
. . ... , . , . '
j existing military regulation, anu appoint ou.ccrs ior
. j, . T . .
eucii cumpaiuts, uattujionp, ar.a regiments, j rovision
, , e . . . . . -
is also made tor hllin vacancies in the rcnksnr.d if
officers of the volunteer corps now in the fie d. That
, P ., , . i .. . , 4 . .
part of the late mefsage ef the President relating to
, ... - . p
an increase of revenue by the inpcsition of a duty on
. , , J , . .
tca nd coßce and a reduction in the price of the
... . . - , 1 .
public lands, was rtftired lo the Committee on
L.
Finance.
Gov. Siiuxk, of Pennsylvania, has vetoed several
bills recently passed by the Legislature of that State
''s '"sour for so doing are clearly and succinctly
'?iyen' ?nd wc find t,iat feome of lhe bil,s have bocn
J? l' bü' 50lten,uP th
rolling system. v e like to see a public officer walk
boldly up to duty in this matter, and contribule
n i 1 . . i i t .
ajj Us power to destroy such pernicious legislation.
j Although the several subjects embraced in the bill
! may le well enough, if passed separately, yet the
j y8te,n of classing together those which are incongru-
ous'' "u-h.1 to be repudiated- Let every proposition
. stand on Us own merits or fall. Such a course will
ad-'remcJv anV eerious ev.u row-lnrr out 0r ..;..,
öPKirvG.- jfvnaay, iviarcu i, his openea on us in
a perfect bluster real winter weather snow and ice.
That respectable personage, the oldest inhabitant,"
admits this to have been one of the hardest winters
in every respect, ever experienced here. What with
cold weather and floods, we are in a Yankee " fix ;"
but with July in the perspective, and a little excite
ment in the way of telling plain truths, we are not
likely to freeze bad." We regret to eay that the
prospect for good crops this year, so far as a judgment
can now.be formed, are rather gloomy.
More Curiosities. We have had presented -to us
several fine curiosities of late, among which are a
Mexican fur pound h llow shot, of brass or bell
metal, similar to the one thit killed the lamented
Ringjold. Al, a copper grape shot. One of our
citizens, w!io last summer fjr.itad one of a company
and left for the copper mines of Lake Superior, lately
re'urned, bringing- with him a bowlder of the copper
ore, weighing upwards of 63 pound. It is almost
pure copper, and is well worthy an examination. Call
and see it
IIoerible!A correspondent of the Cincinnati
Chronicle states that Mrs. Thos. McElfresh.of Brown
county, O., in a fit of insanity, recently cut the throats
of three of her cbilderen, killing outright the two
youngest and cutting a most horrible gash in the
neck of her eldest, a daughter of some seventeen
years of age; not, however, sufficient to cause her
death. After killing ber two youngest, she dragged
the bodies to the well, some ten or twelve feet from
the kitchen, and endeavored to throw them into it,
but froto debility was not able. The' bodies were
found where the mother had left them, by the unhappy
father and his friend, who waa at work with him in
the biro, some eijhty -rods diatintr-
Mr. Calhoun' Anti-War Speech.
We present the following synopsis of the speech of.
Mr. Calhoun, made is the Senate on the 8th of Feb- (
ruary, as furnished by the Washington correspondent j
of the N. Y. Joarnal of Commerce. It presents a J
fair view of the positions assumed by the Southern
leader :
Mr. Calbocx said :
Never, since he baJ been on the stage of action, bad the
country Ixen placed in so critical a situation as at this
moment. NVe were involved in an onerou war, and in a j
dangerous domestic question, boih of which deserved our
liehberate consideration. The questions involved in this ,
sutject were many. He should confine himself chit fly to J
t- ia.i - . . . i '
one. now suaii me war i dcsi conuucieu, so as to oung
it to a satii-factory conclusion t or rather, what lathe mode
for obtaining the ol jecta for which the war was made 1
There were two ways -or e to path on and conquer Mexi
co, and the other to take a defensive position in the terri
tory now in our military occupation. He was in fvor,
after much deliberation, of choosing the latter mode a
defensive position. This would, in bis opinion, give os
every ot jeect for which lbs war was declared, if be rightly
conceived its ol jccL He would eiy, if be rightly under
stood it, for to this day, it was not clear to him what was
the object of the war. From the President's Message he
was U-d to believe that the objects were threefold: to repel
invasion; to secure the Rio Grande as a boundary; and
t'i force the payment of the claims of onr citizens. Both
th Executive and Legislativ branches of the Government
assumed that the Kio Grande was our rightful boundary.
Bring in the war, as the President alleged, it was pressed
with a view to the aujitroenl of claims, as well as for the
other two ol jecis, which ha approved of, because, when
in war, all sul jects in dispute should be prosecuted to
adjustment. Two oljects wer already. We had repelled
ibe invasion by two brilliant victories ; we bad secured
our boundary by taking possession of a line along the
Siena Madre mountains to the Gulf of California. Whe
ther we shculd take a defensiv line, embracing all this
territory, he could not undertake to say without further
information. We should, by all means, avoid the appear
ance of taking possession f any part of the territory, as
resulting from conquest. The only design ooght to be to
take a line that would secure as from invasion, and give
us ample indemnity, not for the expenses of the war,
but for the claims of our citizens.
He held that we ought to be just and liberal to
Mexico, not only as a neighbor and sister republic, and
emulous of copying our institutions, but because our true
policy was not to weaken or oppress her. Her fate was
mysteriously connected with our own. Her capability to
sustain herself was necessary even to our own strength
and profperi y. He wis not prepared to say what li
ought to be taken; it ahould be, in a military point of
view, eminently coercive; and it should be one that would
ultimately be taken as the boundary between the two
countries, and one that could be defended in an economi
cal manner.
He would, however, suggest a line, which, ss it appear
ed to him, would meet all theae considerations. He pro
posed a line, beginning at the mouth of the Riq Grande
and running up to the Passo del None, and extending
west along the southern boundary of New Mexico, to the
Gulf of California. This coincided with the views of the
Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, even in
case of a continuance of a compulsory line. This line
was easily tu be defended, by one post at the mouth of the
Rio Grande, another at Camargo, and another at Passo
del Norte. Four regiments, as military men informed
him, would be ample for the protection of this line. The
country between the Passo del Norte and the Gulf of
California requires no defence. It was in the bands of
Indiana. A few vessels in the Gulf of California, a post.
with one regiment, would be adequate to the protection of
that end of the hue.
This territory was sparsely settled. Thst wss an ad
vantage. We wanted fjr our expanJiog population, soon
to be eighty millions, an uninhabited country. This terri
tory was of no value to Mexico it was a source of annoy
ance to her its population waa stationary, and waa only
one hundred thousand. The Meiicana could not even
protect it from the Indians. This line bad the advantage
that it would aecure a permanent peace with Mexico.
Our roving population would spread over this territory.
If we made no provision for our increasing population,
they would encroach upon Mexico, and involve us in
another war. He would not take the line permanently,
but subject to negotiation, whenever Mexico should be
resdy to enter into a treaty ; and we should give her libe
ral compensation for any territory ceded to us.
He would take possession of the principal ports of
Mexico, and establish L us torn Houses, and collect mode
rate rate of duly, say ten per cent He had consulted
well informed persons aa to the cost, and found that two
and a half millions of dollars would be the expense of
their possession, which now might be collected from the
commerce of these porta, with great ben r fit to Mexico, to
us, and to the world. It may be, he said, that Mexico would
bold out. He thought not. It would be a turning point
in her policy. Now, every nerve was strained to ojpose
us. but, as soon as this course was adopted, she woulJ
see that her institutions and national independence were
safe, and she would soon make peace.
What were the objections to continuing an offensive
wsrt The vast expense; the uncertainty of success ; the
! hazard of national reputation. To conquer peace was to
f'"rg me war. It took two pjrties to make peace
1 The defensive course he proposod would gain every ot i-ct
cf the war Cvcrv oHect that could be gained by what
was called " vigorous war." It would aecure us in the
possession of the boundary we contended for, and give us
every desirable security for the indemnities due to our citi
ze s.
Suppose we could now march to the city of Mexico,
and there dictate a peace wou'd it be worth the cost 1 It
would cost thirty millions of dollars and the lives of fif
teen thousand of our countrymen. Would any one say
that the whole country of California and New Mexico
was worth the sacrifice 1 This supposed that we succeed
ed in the campaign, buccess would srive us no more tbsn
we already have possession of a bcandary and ample
indemnity.
But this was only the shell of the duestion a rugged
snd often barren country, full of ruinoua defiles, was to be
overcome.
First, we were to take possession of Vera Cruz the
home of the yellow fever the most fatal climate on the
earth, i be fever prevails there eight months in the year
By the middle of March, the plare will be fatal to oar
troops. We may have force sufficient to take Vera Cruz,
but shall we be able to send an army thence to the city of
Mexico I w not, we must have a third campaign for the
ohj -ct. Before that Mexico would become better armed and
prepared. We aball have, in the meantime, a severe
guerilla war. Let me tell you that, by the next cam
paign, the spirit of volunteering will be over. You
must raise a hundred thousand men for the next campaign.
If tho men can be got, how can yon get the money.
Your Treasury Notes will be exhausted. You must bor
row money, and impose internal taxes. The States were,
many of tbem, burdened with debt and taxation already.
Congress was averr-4 to direct taxation. Bat agsin, the
country does not harmoniously sustain the war. A vast
portion of the people half of our whole population
believed the war to be avoidable, and would not sustain it
with zeal.
But a deeper qaestion arose. To whose benefit should
the territorial acquisitions enure t If the Northern States
are so speedily brought to a unanimous purpose, what must
be the feelings of the Slaveholding States! who saw that
they were to be entirely excluded. While this radical
difference existed, would there be unanimity and zeal in
Iprooecuting the war T
But, if this difficulty were surmounted, what certainty
was there that we ahould succeed in conquering Mexico t
in bringing the war to a close 1 We ahould bave the
same sort of war that France has in Algeria, and the Rus
sians in Circaaaia. How many campaigns have the French
had in Algeria ! (16.) We should be obliged to carry on
the war for tea or twenty campaigns. VVhal, after a!,
would we effect that we cannot get by a defensive line !
If we conquered Mexico, what shoulJ we do with it 1
What should we do with her seven millions of people !
If we incorporated Mexico into the United States it would
destroy our own institutions ; if we held Mexico ts a con
quered province, it would be equally destructive to us.
Hence it was that he bad said that our fate was mysteri
ously connected with that of Mexico. The war was rashly
begun. If it should be determined to pursue it ofTitnsive
ly, those who did it would rue it to lha last day of their
lives.
He should vote against the amendment of the 8enator
from Michigan, (Mr. Cass.) Whether he ahould vol for
the amendment of Mr. Berrien, or for the bill itself, would
depend on future development!.
ß"The Federalists are in extacica at the recent
speech of Tom Corwin, in the Senate. The rum and
substance of the speech waa simply this. He took
the bold ground that lhe tear was an unjust tear that
the soil upon which the first bloc-1 was spilled t Mex
ican and not American soil and to http him God, as
long as hs had the power to vote against men or money
to prosecute this rar, he would not role for a single
man or a single dollar, until it could be shown that
the soil between the Nueces and the Rio Grande was
American soil. This is quite equal to the ravings
of the' Louisville Journal and Win. L. Garrison the
Abolitionist.
Congress.
Feb. 18. Sienale. .1 bill was passed to p-event
the distress which has occurred through the crowding
of emigrant vessels. It requires an allowance of
fourteen superficial square feet to each passenger
two children 3 years of age, or under, to be counted
as one passenger and further limits the number of
passengers which any vessel may carry, to 2 for every
5 tons admeasurement.
A resolution to purchase 10,000 copies of a late
edition of the Constitution for the use of the Senate,
was adopted.
The naval appropriation bill was taken up. The
amendment authorizing, the appointment of a "Pyro
technist," with thc rank and pay of a Lieut. Com
manding, (lrw; was agreed to.
An additional clerk in the bureau of provisions and
clothing was authorized at a salary of $1,0C0.
borne progress was made in the naval appropria
tion bill, and the three million bill war then taken up.
Mr. LuliT, ol cxjuili Carolina, having the floor.
iUr. B. said that this war had brought up questions
which were surrounded with difficulties and embarrass
ments, and to bis mind, present gloomy foreboding.
He wished that he could look to peace for relief. But
in all the propositions which had been brought for
ward to secure a speedy and honorable peace, he
could see no relief. Teace would bring with it an
abiding strife, more fearful than war, if the declara
tions from high sources were to be carried out. lie
had no favor to ak of the President, and no particu
lar hostility to him, but he could not agree wilh those
who prorouiced the tear unjust.
The President, he said, had been placid in difficult
circumstances, in taking possession of Texas; for no
matter what portion of it had been annexed, the
taking possession would have been resisted br Mexi
co. Though the President might be particularly re
sponsible for the existence of the war. Congress bad
placed the sword in his hand, and it waa useless, now
to go back to the causes in which the war originated.
He preferred a peace voluntarily proffered to Mexico,
tu a peace extorted from her. The latter would only
last so long as Mexico possessed not the power to
break it, and she would never forget her degradation.
He was in favor of making the appropriation, and
thought it would have been a wise policy to grant the
two millions at the last session. In regard to the
question of slavery, he believed if the designs of the
Worth were permuted, they would end in disastrous
w i a 4 .
consequences. He would preier acquiring no terri
tory if it is to be acquired at the expense of the
Union.
Gen. Houston of Texas indicated his design to
speak on Friday, and Mr. Simmons of R. I., obtained
the fior.
In the House, by a singular act of legislative chi
canery, me liiver and Harbor lim. ot last session,
and which was vetoed, was moved as an amendment
to a bill to continue public works in the Territory
of Wisconsin. No conclusion was come to in the
matter.
Feb. 19. Senale. Mr. Cilley presented resolu
tions of the New Hampshire Legislature, in favor of
the adoption of measures for the extinction of slavery
in the District of Columbia ; its exclusion from Ore
gon, and all other territories which may hereafter
come into the Union, etc.
After the presentation of petitions, Mr. Calhoun
submitted thc following resolutions :
Resolved, That the territories of the United Slates be
long to the several States composing this Union, and are
held by them as their joint and common pewperly.
Rtsolted, That Congress, as the joint agent and repre
sentative of the State of this Union, has no right to make
any law, or do any act whatever, that shall directly, or
by its effects, make any discrimination between the States
of this Union, by which any of them shall be deprived
of its full and equal right in any territory of the United
States, acquired or to be acquired.
Resolved. That the enactment of any law which ahould
directly, or by its effects, deprive the citizens of any of
me states oi tins Union Irom emigrating with tlieir pro
perty into any of the territories of the United Statea will
make such discrimination, and would, therefore, be a
violation of the constitution, and the rights of the States
from which such citizens emigrated, and in derogation of
mat pnrioci equality wnicn belongs to them aa members
of this Uli ion, and would lend directly to subvert the
Union itself.
Resolved, That, as a fundamental principle in our creed,
that a people in forming a constitution have the uncondi
tional rieht to form and adopt the government which
they may think best calculated to secure their liberty,
prosperity arid happiness; and that in conformity there
to, no other condition is imposed by the federal constitu
tion on State in order to be admitted into this Union,
except that its constitution shall be republican ; and
that the imposition of any other by Congress would
not only be in violation of the constitution, but in direct
conflict with the principle on which our political system
rests.
Mr. Calhoun prefaced the introduction of his reso
lutions by a speech of some length, in which he
pointed out the humiliating position in which the
South would be placed should the declaration that no
more slave States shall come into the Union, and no
territory be annexed to it unless slavery be prohibited
tuerein, ne persisted in oy the .North.
He concluded as follows:
S;r, here let me say a word as to the compromise
line, I have always considered it as a great error
highly injurious to the South, because it surrendered
for mere temporary purposes, those high principles of
the constitution upon which I think we ought to stand
I am against any compromise line. Yet I would
have been willing to have continued the compromise
line. One of the resolutions in the House, to that
effect, was offered at my suggestion, I said to a friend
there, Mr. Burt, Let us not be disturbers of this
Union. As obhorent to my feelings as is that com
promise line, let it be adhered to in good faith; and
if the other portions of our Union are willing to
stand by it, let us not refuse to stand by it. It has
kept peace for some time, and in the circumstances.
perhaps it would be better to keep peace as it is."
Hut, sir, it was voted down by an overwhelming ma
jority. It wa renewed by a gentleman from a non-
slaveholding State, and again voted down by an over
whelming majority.
Well, I see my way in the constitution. I cannot
in the compromise. A compromise is but an act of
Congress. It may be overruled at any time. It
gives us no security. Eut tho constitution is stable.
It is a rock. On it I can stand. It is a principle on
which we can meet our friends from the non-elave-holding
States. It is firm ground, on which they can
better stand in opposition lo fanaticism, than on the
shitting sands of compromise.
Let us be done with compromise. Let us go back
upon the constitution.
Well, sir, what if the decision of this body shall
deny to us this high constitutional right, which in my
opinion is as clear as any in the instrument itself
thc more denned and fcUble, indeed, because deduced
from the entire body of the instrument, and the nature
of the subject to which it relates I What then!
That is a question which I will not undertake to de
cide. It is a question for our constituents the slave
holding States. A solemn and a great question, Mr.
President. And if the decision should be adverse at
this time, I trust and do believe they will take under
solemn consideration what they ought to do.
I give no advice. It would be hazardous and dan
gerous for me to do so. But I mar epeak as an indi
vidual member of that section of the Union. There
I drew my first breath. There are all my hopes. I
am a plantcr-a cotton planter. I am a southern
man, and a slaveholder a kind and merciful one, I
trust and none the worse for being a slaveholder. I
say, for one, I would rather meet any extremity upon
earth than give up one inch of our equality one
inch of what belongs to us as members of this great
republic! What! acknowledge inferiority! The
surrender of life is nothing to sinking down into ac
knowledged inferiority !
I have examined this subject largely widely. I
think I see the future, if we du not stand up now;
and in my humble opinion, the condition of Ireland is
merciful and happy the condition of Ilindostan is
peace and happiness the condition of Jamaica is
prosperous and happy, to what the southern States
will be if now they yield !
Mr. President, I desire that the resolutions which I
now send to the table be read. I move that the reso
lutions be printed. I shall move thai they be taken
up to-morrow ; and I do trust that tho Senate w ill
give them early attention, and an early vote upon the
subject.
Here the honorable senator returned his seat.
Mr. Benton then rose and eaid: Mr. President, we
have some business to transact. I da nnt intend to
avoid business for a string of abstractions.
Mr. Calhoun. The senator anva lm ran nnt take UD
abstractions. The constitution is an abstraction.
Propriety is an abstraction. All the great rales or
life are abstractions. Th Ttarlsmtinn f Trulonrn-
dcrrce was made on an abstraction; and when I bear
a man declare that he is against abstract truth in a
case of this kind, I am prepared lo know what his
course will be ! I certainly supposed that the senator
from Missouri, the representative of a lavebolding
Slate, would have supported these resolutions. 1
moved them in good faith, under a solemn conviction
of what was due to those whom I represent; and due
the whole south and the whole Union. I have as
little desire as any senator to obstruct public busiuess.
All I want is a decision, and a decision before the
three million bill is decided. If the senator from
.Missouri wants to-morrow morning, very well. The
resolutions can be taken up on Monday.
Mr Rr-ntnn. I will nnrsne nw own course when
the time comes. I know what are abstractions, and .
what are not. I know what business is, and what is
not. I am lor going on with the business ot the
cawelor.. .nt TtrT kI.hII m.t rntu f r nhtraetion I
years ahead, to the exclusion of business. He says
he calculated on my course. He is mistaken. He
knows verv well, from my whole course in public '
life, that I never would leave busincs to take up fire
brands to set thc world on fire.
Mr. Calhoun. The Senator docs not at all compre
hend me.
Mr. Benton. I am from the right place. I am on
the side of my country and the Union.
The resolutions were then ordered to be printed.
The naval appropriation bill was then taken up.
and after the adoption of sundry other amendments, it
was passed.
The three million bill was then taken up, and Mr.
Houeton addressed the Senate in a speech of much
interest. After defending the editor of the Union,
and condemning the course of the Senate towards
him, he entered into a review of the origin of the
war, and declared that having annexed Texas while
she was at war with Mexico and Mexico having de
clared to us that he would consider the annexation as
a declaration of war we were at war with Mexico
the moment annexation took place.
At the conclusion of Gen. Houston's speech, Mr.
Simmons obtained the floor for to-morrow.
The bill from the House for the relief f.f the heirs
of Daniel D. Tompkins, was taken up and passed.
and then the Senate went into the consideration of
Executive business.
House. Mr. McClernind, by leave, presented a
memorial of the Jackson monument committee, pray
ing that certain unserviceable brass cannon, captured
by Gen. Andrew Jackson, at Pensacola, may be de
livered to said committee, to be used in the construc
tion of the statue of Gen. Jackson, and moved that
leave be given him to that effect. The motion pre
vailedyeas 115, nays 4J. The resolution was ac
cordingly introduced, read twice'aud passed.
The House in committee of the whole, Mr. Foote
in the chair, then took up the private calendar. After
the committee roee, the bills for the relief of the heirs
of Daniel D. Tompkins and John Faul Jones, were
read a third time and passed. The bill for the relief
of the heirs of Marshal de Rochambeau was rejected.
A great number of private bills from the Senate,
and bills not of general interest, were read a second
time and referred.
Feb. 20. Senate. The Senate took up and for
some time considered the bill authorizing an increase
of Generals in the army.
Before any definite action was had on the bill, it
was, on motion, laid over, and the Senate proceeded
to a further consideration of the three million bill.
Mr. Simmons resumed the speech which he com
menced some days ag. and spoke at length, in part
on thc merits of the bill, and in part in reply to the
speech of Mr. Calhoun on presenting his resolutions
yesterday.
He sent up to the Secretary's desk and had read,
some of the doctrines of the late Geo. Mason, of
Virginia, one of the framers of the constitution,
against the institution of slavery, and then commented
on the same. As for the complaint of the gentleman
from South Carolina, that the free States were out
numbering the others, and that the equality of former
days which was guarantied to the slave-holding States
was not now observed, he could not for the life
of h'jii see the justice or propriety of it ! When the
compact was formed between the old thirteen Slates,
together with Vermont, which fought out the revolu
tion on her own hook, which made fourteen in all
eight were non-slave holding and six were slave hold
ing States. The free States then had a majority in
the Senate, a majority in the House of Kepresenta
fives, and a majority in the Electoral College ! This
was the Union which South Carolina joined.
How stood the case now! Including Delaware,
which was a slaveholding State, there were fifteen
States in the Union on that side of the question, rep
resented in that chamber, and but thirteen non-slave-
holding states with Senators in that body. The scna
tors from the two new Statea, Iowa and Wisconsin,
would make the parties equal. Was there any thing
in this that ought to alarm the gentleman from South
Carolina, and cause him to call upon the South to
arrest tremendous outnumbering of the free over the
slave Slates 1
As to the emigration of citizens of Iave States to
new territories, taking their slaves with them and
keeping them there as slaves, nothing of the kind
was allowed at the time the Constitution was framed,
and why the complaint that it should not now be al
lowed !
Mr. Calhoun replied with spirit, and re-asserted his
doctrines.
Mr. Simmons rejoined with equal spirit, and the
scene became highly interesting.
Finally Mr. Soule obtained the floor, when the Sen
ate adjourned.
House. Several bills from the Senate were taken
up and passed -among which was the one for dispo
sing of the mineral lands on the 6horcs and islands of
Lake Superior. The House added an amendment.
The House then went into committee of thc whole.
(Mr. Cobb in the Chair) and took up the River and
Harbor bill, reduced from the bill of last session to
about 500,000 in amount. After considering the
same for some time, the committee rose and reported
the bill, and the House passed it by a vote of 89 to
7'
Blessige from the President.
The following Message was sent to Congress on
the 13th February, 1947 :
Tb the Senate and Ilnise of Representatives of the
United Stales :
Congress, by the act of the ldth of May last, de
clared that, "by the act of the republic of Mexico, a
state of war existed between that government and the
United States ;" and "for the purpose of enabling the
government of the United States to prosecute said war
to a speedy and successful termination, authority
was vested in the President to employ the "naval and
military forces of the United States."
It has been my unalterable purpose, since the com
mencement of hostilities by Mexico, and the declara
tion of the existence of the war by Congress, to prose
cute the war in which the country war unavoidably
involved with the utmost energy, with a view to its
"speedy and successful termination" by an honorable
peace.
Accordingly, all the operations of our naval and
military forces bave been directed with this view.
While the sword has been held in ono hand, and our
military movements pressed forward into the euemy's
country, and its coast invested by our navy, the ten-
4 a V a
der oi an honorable peace nas ocen consianuy pre
sented to Mexico in the other.
Hitherto, the overtures of peace which have been
made by this government have not been accepted by
Mexico. With a view to avoid a protracted war,
which hesitency and delay on our part would be so
well calculated to produce, I informed you, in my an
nual message of the 8th of December last, that the
war would "continue to be prosecuted with vigor as
the best means of securing peace, and recommended
lo your earlv and favorable consideration the measures
proposed by the Secretary of War, in his report ac
companying that message.
In my message of the 4th of January last, these
and other measures, deemed to be essential to the
speedy and successful termination of the war, and
the attainment of a just and honorable peace, were
recommended to your early and favorable considera
tion. The worst state of things which could exist in a
war with such a rower as Mexico, would be a course
of indecision and inactivity on our part. Beins charg
ed by thc constitution and the laws with the conduct
of the war, I have availed myself of all the means at
my command lo prosecute it with energy and vigor.
The act "to raise for a limited time an additionai
military force, and for other purpose," and which au
thorize the raising of ten additional regiments to the
renkr army, to serve during the war, and to be dis
banded at its termination, which was presented to me
on the lltb inst-, and approved, on that day, will con-
stitute an important part of our military force.- These
regiments will be raised and moved to the seat of war
with tho least practicable delay.
It will be perceived that this act makes no provision
for the organizing into brigades and divisions of the
increased force which it authorizes, nor for the ap
pointment of general officers to command it. It will
be proper that authority be given by law to make
such organization, and to appoint, by and with the ad
vice and consent of the Senate, such number of major
1 it" J lln aii-ivnrv of
tu it. .a ...
the service may demand. The number of officers- of
these irrades now in eriee are not more than are re-
quired for thc respective commands; out luriner leg-
islative action during your present session will, in my
judgment, be required, and to which It is my amy
respectfully to invite your attention.
Should the war. contrary to my earnest desire.be
protracted to the close of the term of service or the
volunteers now in Mexico, who engaged for twelve
months, an additional volunteer force win prooaniy
become necessary to supply their place. Mauy of the
volunteers now serving in Mexico, it is not douoted.
would cheerfully engage, at the conclusion of their
nrpent term, to serve durin the war. Tbey would
constitute a more efficient force than could be speedily
obtained by accepting the services of any new corps
who might offer their services. They would have the
advantage of the experience and discipline of a year's
service,"and will have become accustomed to the cli
mate, and be in less danger than new levies of e uf
fering from the diseases of the country. I recommend
therefore, that authority be given to accept the servi
ces of such of the volunteers now in Mexico as the
state of the public service may require and who mar
at the termination of the present term, voluntarily en
gage to serve during the war with Mexico, and that
provision be made for commissioning officers. Should
this measure receive the favorable consideration of
Congress, it is recommended that a bounty be granted
to them upon their voluntarily extending their term
of service. This would not only be due to these gal
lant men, but it would be economy to the government ;
because, if discharged at the end of the twelve months
the government would be bound to incur a heavy ex
pense in bringing them back to their homes, and in
sending to tbe seat of war new corps of fresh troops
to supply their place.
By the act of the thirteenth of May last, the Presi
dent was authorized to accept the services of volun
teers, "in companies, baltall iona, squadrons, and
regiments," but no provision was made for filling up
vacancies which might occur by death, or discharge
from the service, on account of sickness or other
casualties. In consequence of this omission, many
of the corps now in tscrvice have been much reduced
in numbers. Nor was any provision made for fillin
vacancies of regimental or company officers who
might die or resign. Information has been received
at the War Department of the resignation of mora
than one hundred of these officer?. They were appoint
ed by the State authorities, and no information baa
been received, except in a few instances, that their
places have been filled ; the efficiency of tbe service
has been impaired from this cause. To remedy these
defects, I recommend that authority be given to accept
the services of individual volunteers, to fill up tbe
places of auch as may die, or become unfit fur the
service and be discharged ; and tbat provision be also
made for filling the places of regimental and company
officers who may die or resign. By such provisions,
the volunteer corps may be constantly kept full, or
may approximate the maximum number authorized
and called into the service in the first instance.
While it is deemed to be our true policy to prose
cute the war in the manner indicated, and thus make
the enemy feel Us pressure and its evils, I shall be at
all times ready, with thc authority conferred on me by
the constitution, and with all the means which may be
placed at my command by Congress, to conclude a
just and honorable peace.
Of equal importance with an energetic and vigorous
prosecution of the war are the means required to de
fray its expenses, and to uphold and maintain the
public credit.
In my annual message of the 8ih December last, I
submitted fur the consideration of Congress the pro
priety of imposing, as a war measure, revenue duties
.n coma f th artir1f9 tinw embraced in the free list.
The principal articles now exempt from duty, from
which any considerable revenue could be derived, arc
tea and coffee. A moderate revenue duty on these
articles, it is estimated would produce annually an
amount exceeding two and a half millions of dollars.
Though in a period of peace, when ample means
could be derived from duties on other articles for the
support of the government, it may have been deemed
proper not to resort to a duty on these articles ; yet,
when the country is engaged in a foreign war, and
all our resources are demanded to meet the unavoida
ble increased expenditures in niaintaing our armies
in the field, no sound reason is pcrcehed why we
should not avail ourselves of the revenues which may
be derived from this source. The objections which
have heretofore existed to the imposition of these
duties were applicable to a Btate of peace, when they
were not needed. We are now, however, engaged in
a foreign war. We need money to prosecute it, and
to maintain the public honor and credit. It cannot be
doubted that the patriotic people of the United States
would cheerfully, and without complaint, submit to
the payment of this additional duty, or any other that
may be necessary to maintain the bone r of the coun
try, provide for the unavoidable expenses of tbe gov
ernment, and to uphold the public credit. It is recom
mended that any duties which may be imposed on
these articles be limited in their duration to the period
of the war.
An additional annual revenue, it is estimated, of
between half a million and a million of dollars would
be derived from the graduation and reduction of the
price of such of the public lands as have been long
offered in the market at the premium price establish
ed by the existing laws, and have remained unsold.
And, in addition to other reasons commendiug the
measure to favorable consideration, it is recommended
as a financial measure. The duty suggested on tea
and coffee, and the graduation and reduction of th
price of the public lands, would secure an additional
annual revenue to the treasury cf not less than three
millions of dollars, and would thereby prevent the
necessity of incurring a public debt annually to that
amount, the interest on which must be paid semi
annually, and ultimately the debt itself, by a tax on
the people.
It is a sound policy, and one that has long been ap
proved by the government and people of the United
Slates, never to resort to loans unless in cases of
great public emergency, and then only for tbe ssnalk
est amount which the public necessities will permit.
The increased revenues which the measures now
recommended would produce, would moreover, enable
the government to negotiate a roan, for any additional
sum which may be found I be needed, with mors
facility, and of cheaper rates than can be done with
out them.
Under the injunction of the constitution which,
makes it my duty "from time to time to give to Con
gress information of the state of the Union, and to
recommend to their consideration such measures as
shall be judged 'neceFPary and expedient," I respect
fully and earnestly invite the action of Congress on
the measures herein presented for their consideration.
The public good, as well as a sense of my responsi
bility to our common constituents, in my judgment
imperiously demand that I should present them for
your enlightened consideration, and invoke favorable
action upon them before the close of your present
session. JAMES K. POLK.
Washington, Feb. 13, 1347.
Steamboat Accidents. A few daya since th
steamboat John Metcalf, in descending the Ohio river
opposite Aurora, ran into the bank and immediately
sunk. The cabin floated off. and five or six persona
were lost.
The steamboat Medora burst ber boilers at Port
Hudson, recently. Three or faur persona were killed,,
and several severely scalded.
03" Judge Dewey and his friends rtiU keep up
their lamentations because Gov. Whitcomb didn't see
fit to keep a life cflictr. Groan on, whiggies ; it will
feel a good dea! better after it is done aching.
U. S. Cibcvit Coukt. f La.1 Ob Fridav evening
Francis D. Newconib was Iroujht in guiltv by tU
jury upon the sixth indictment against bim for forge
ry, committed wnile Purveyor ueneral ot the btate.
iV. 0 Pie. Ft ft. 11.
A large cotton factory has just been built at liar
Per'a Ferry.
Predicted,
This is the "ruin "Whig pclticiaci

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