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THE INDIANAPOLIS JOURNAL, SUNDAY. MAY 4, 1090.
10 THE STORY OF THE CENSUS Snperintendent Torter Tells How the Great Statistical Work Will Be Done. How the Country Will Be Divided Into Dis tricts, the Things the Enumerators Will Want to Know, and What It Will Cost, Copyright, 1S0O, by F. S. Jfrttur. ' If it rero possible for tho Superintendent of th Census to ascend in a balloon on the morning of Jrme 2 at a point eoniexvhere in the neighborhood of Cincinnati, "where tho renter of population "was located in 1SSQ. to a height that would enable him, with extended "vision, to survey the xast do main of ours, he could watch with in terest tho army of 40.000 enumerators, equipped with portfolios of schedules, ixxaxch forth on tho important errand to count tho population of the United States. Over hills and mountains, through valleys and along the tortuous course of rivers, on horseback through swamps, on foot along the dusty country roads, following the thousands of miles of coast, treading the pavements of crowded cities, elbowing their way into' every nook and corner of tho broad land where man finds a dwelling placo, census-takers go in search of the raw material, which when tabulated, becomes the foundation , of our representation in Congress and tha food for tha statistician's decennial statistical feast. It is a fascinating task, and curious, in deed, must, bo the experiences of some of these .agents .of tho Census Office. If the work is dons faithfully and the aggregate experience of the 40,000 enumerators could be written in amighty volume, it would give aa insight into every home. The lights and shades of human life would be brought into sharp contrast. The luxurious magniiicence of toe Fifth-avenue homes of millionaires, the poverty of the tenement houses, where human beings are born, live, eat, sleep and die in one room; the simplic ity of the old homesteads, whtre bo many sterlin a; men and women have received their eariy instruction and spent their boyhood and cirlhood; the privations of pioneer life; the discomforts of the negro cabins of the South: the barrenness of the miners' cot t a sres in the mining regions, and the nutaof those arho gain their livelihoods by fashing. And then the people thatthoseenumerators will meet! All sorts and conditions of men and women will answer the thirty questions on the population schedule, and, if the census-taker is only an observing man, how many queer and interesting experiences ha might relate. "Surely you have a big job," I hear my reader remark. Yes, it is a big job to take the census of a country with 5,000,000 of population, especially if it be taken on the scale required by the Congress of the L nited States. It takes lots of organization and a good deal of money. It must be done Tapidly and everything has to be in readi ness no that at the tap of the drum on the morning set for counting the peoplo every one is ready to do his share of the work. It phould be remembered that the Census Ofiice is not a permanent bureau of the gov ernment, but an impromptu branch of the Interior Department, organized under the direction of an officer called the Superin tendent of Census for the express purposeof doing this work. The superintendent of . the eleventh census began his work on tho rjoruing of April 17, having been appointed by the President of the United States, in accordance with the pro visions of an act of Congress, approved March 1. 1SSJ, for taking the eleventh and tmbsrquent censuses. On that day the Cen sus Otlice consisted of a superintendent, a clerk, one messenger boy, two desks, a ream of white paper, and a box or two of oflicial envelopes and sundry other sta tionery. To-day the Census Office employs 800 clerks, 500 special agents, and 175 super visors. Next June the census force will consist of 40,000 enumerators, 1,000. clerks. and probablv 1,000 special agents. Then it tt-HTiUiuaii.oeciino unui me lasi report as been printed, when the superintendent and the small forco then around him will fold their tents and silently pass away and become merely an infinitesimal part of the great population which they have enumer ated. "This is interesting and attractive, but bow is it all done?" "How do thev go about it!" "Where do yon begin!" these are some of the Questions I hear my young friends asking. Have patience, and you shall have the story from beginning to end. Take down a map of the United States and divide the several States into districts containing say about half a million popu lation each, according to the census of 1SS0. Of course, you will not be able to do this in States wnere the population is less than rco.000. So you will have to give all such States one supervisor, as the large expanse of territory in the majority of sueh cases more than makes np, so far as the work is concerned, for the lack of population. The census law allows 175 supervisors, who are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate in the same way as tho superintendent is appointed. The country having been thus "districted," as it is called, and the supervisors for the several districts appointed, the main office in Washington has a direct representative, as it were, in every section of country. As it devolves upon the Superintendent of the Census to divide the whole country into supervisors' districts, so, in turn, must the supervisor subdivide the district into what are called enumerators' districts, and sub mit that subdivision to the main office in "Washington, where it is approved by the geographer of the census and returned to the supervisor, who will then make the elections oft'euumcrators. The enumerator's district varies in size according to the character of the popula tion. Thus, in the thickly-populated quar ters of a large city, an enumerator can take a much greater number of names than he can in a sparsely populated district of one of the Western or Southern States. "While this woik of dividing the country into supervisor districts and then subdi viding thera into enumerator districts is going on, the largo force in Washington, under the direction of the superintendent, is preparing the schedules, blanks and cir culars to Do used by the enumerators. The principal schedule, of course, is the popula tion schedule, of which no less than 20,000, OOO will bo required. The paper alone for this single requisition would , fill about a hundred freight cars. The mere printing of this schedule,' with all the facilities of the Government Printing Office, will prob ably take sixty days. There are thirty questions on the population schedule, framed with a view of finding ont the inll Christian name of every person in the "United States: their surname; whether a Boldier. sailor or marine during the civil war. or widow of such person; the relation ship of the person to the head of the fam ily; whether they aro black or white, mu latto, quadroon, octoroon, Chinese, Jap anese or Indian: their sex: their age; whether single, married, widowed or di vorced; place of birth of the person; also, the place of birtaof father and mother in thoca&e of foreign born; number of years in tLo United States; whether naturalization papers have been taken out: profession, tradu or occupation; if engaged in tho gain ful occu patious, mouths unemployed during tho census year; if attending school, the number of months of such attendance; whether able to read and to write, and, if a person of foreign birth, whether able to ;eak Knclish. Also, for tho purposeof ascertaining the number who aro disabled from their ordinary employment by reason ofacuto disease or by reason of chronic lung disease or comminution, or from in juries, anch ns fractures, etc.; the name of disease and length of time afflicted; also, whether defective in mind, (tight, hearing or speech; or whether crippled, maimed or deformed; whether a prisouer, convict, hoineleiM i child or pauper. In addition to the population schedule, thn enumerator carries with hiui on bin rounds what isteroted a "special schedule.' These Hpetial schedules are prepared for the purpose of finding additional informa tion, which the law requires in case tho persons are veterans of the war; whether defective in mind, siirht, hearing or speech, or are prisoners, homeless children or pau per. Having noted the main facts, it then be come, if there are any such persons in the family as referred to above, the duty of the enumerator to fill out the special nchcd uie. tor which he is paid an additional compensation.' The last live questions on the population" ccnvuuiu rvl-ite to another important in quiry, which a recent law passed by Con gress demandsthe superintendent to maxc, and which is intended to ascertain how many persons in the United States own homes and their farms, and bow many rent their homes or aro tenant farmers. Aiso, to find out if these farms aro free from mortgage incumbrances, or, if mortgaged, the amount of the mortgage. The enumerator will not be called upon to ask the head of the family, or whoever may give him thu information when ho calls, the amount of the mortgage debt, but ho will simply take down the address of the person, and the information required by law will be subsequently ascertained by correspondence, circular aud by the aid of special agents, who will bo required to vilt the nouses ot sach persons who fail to give this information to the Census Office. It will thus bo seen that the population schedule ts ill require a great deal of care in filling out, and that the enumerator must not only be quick and accurate in his pen manship, but a man of intelligence and courtesy to ask all these questions in a manner that will not be offensive to the people and will elicit prompt and correct replies. After each day's work tho enum erator is required to fill out two postal cards, stating the exact number of persons enumerated during tho day. and forward these cards, one to the supervisor of his district and the other to tho Superintendent of Census at Washington. , In-this way an absolute check is kept on the work, and the Census Office is able to tell exactly how far the work is progressing. Tho law requires that tho population shall be all counted in fifteen days in cities and in thirty days in country districts. Having enumerated his district aud as sorted his special schedules, corrected, as far as possible, the main schedule, the enumerator must forward them to the su pervisor, who, after examining aud approv ing them, packs them in a large box and sends them to Washington. On receipt in Washington what is known asthe'rongh count" is made. That is a count which tnake? no classification, but sitnpty ascer tains tho number of persons enumerated on each schedule. Hence, as soon as all the schedules are received it will be possible to give a rough count of the population. Few who have never been inside of a census office have any idea of the labor necessary even to make a rough count, to say nothing of the classification of the pop ulation into all the different groups re quired by the census law. 13 y the various methods"heretofore employed the returns have either been gone over and over, tally ing ont first one set of facts and then an other set of facts, by making little tally .marks in squares or sheets of paper and then counting, and then aggregating these tallv marks; or else tho returns have been transcribed to cards by writing, and then these cards first sorted by hand according to oue scheme, and then counted, and then sorted according to another scheme aud counted, and so on nntil finally all the de sired data aro obtained. The eleventh census will be counted by the aid of electricity. At first this seems rather a startling statement, but if any one of my readers would only come to the Census Office and see the electrical counting and sorting machines now at work on some of the special data, the thing would be made clear to them at once. Now you will see that the enumerators have furnished the Census Office with quite a complete description of every person liv ing in the United States, but these records are not in a convenient form for counting or tabulating, w e, therefore, first prepare a card for each person on which we record the ditlerent facts regarding that person with a machine something liko a type writer, only that instead of printing letters or figures these machines punch round holes. If the giveu person was a male a hole was punched in one place, while if a female a nolo is punched in another place, the position of the ditlerent holes thus com pletely describing the person. In thi9 way the Census Office will have a card for every person in the United States. A card with a given number printed on it will represent yon, and the little holes punched in this card will tell how old you are, where you were born, where your father was born, where your mother was born, whether you could read, whether you could write, and so on. These cards will be about the size of postal cards, and if stacked in one pile would make a column over ten miles high, and will weigh fully 180 tons. The Census Office will have to know how many boys there are ten years old, how many eleven years, how many twelve years, and so on, ana tho same for the girls. Again it mnst know how many could read, how many conld write, how many were born in New York, how many in Pennsylvauia.and many other things. To obtain this infor mation from these punched record cards, we use the electrical tabulating machines. You see it would be impossible to make a ma chine which couldread writmgornrinting, but our little type-writers punch holes in stead, and such holes can easily be read by a machine. This is done as follows: The cards aro laid one by one in a machine some thing like a printing press, only, instead of type, little needles or points are brought against the cards so that where there is a hole in the card the little pointer goes through and tonches a drop of quicksilver below, which closes an electric circuit, or telegraphs to a little counter or register. These counters look very much like clocks, but instead of the works of a clock we have an electro-magnet so arranged that, when an electric circuit is closed through it, it moves tho hand ahead one point. As the cards are rapidly passed through tho machine, they first telegraph to one counter and then another, accord ing, for example, as they represent boys of girls; somo other counters will at the same time count how many could read aud how many could not, and so on; so you will see that this machine really does a number of things at the same time. When all the cards for a given district have thus been passed through the machine the results on the dials are written down and sent to the printer as part of tho census reports. At the same time, as the little registers record the ditlerent facts as above de scribed, the cards are divided into classes, for example, according to age, with the electrical sorting boxes. As each card telegraphs to the ditlerent counters, so also does it telegraph to electro-magnets of the sorting-boxes, so that first one lid aud then another is thrown open, according to the age of the person represented by the given card. The cards are simply thrown into whatever box is opened by the ma chine, so that when all have been run through the machine they are found as sorted according to age. The cards for each age period are then counted according to son! e other data, and this process is kept ud until all the required information is ob tained. ' In the actual counting and sorting, after the punching has been done, one of these electrical machines will count in fivo hours as many cards as could be counted by the old method in fifty-five hours, or equal to the work of one person for eight days, counting seven hours as a day's work. Surely this is a great saving of time and of expense, while at the same timo enabling the Census Office to tabulate many inter esting Tacts which may be found on the schedules, but which the great cost of tab ulating by hand has prevented heretofore. The next in importance to tho count of tho people come tho vital statistics and the statistics of the special classes, for after wo know the n timber of our population, its char acteristics, distribution, and parentage, tho question of its health and physical condition naturally comes up Jfor consideration. All facts relating to marriages, births and deaths, are obtained by tho enumerator, by calling upon something liko eighty thousand pbysicsans to aid in the work, and by copying the reports of the registers of births, deaths and marriages in States where these facts are gathered bv local of ficials. Closely connected with the vital statistics of the country is the subject of the statist ics of those classes of people who aro more or less disabled bv Dhraical and mnntnl in firmity, and therefore require constant spe cial care on the part of the State or special means for education. These classes include the insane, the idiotic, tho blind and the deaf. Tho work of tho Census Otlice, how ever, does not end here. It includes all sorts of special inquiries, such as statistics of education, church statistics, statistics showing the amount of pauperism aud cjime. These facts are all gathered largely by the aid of correspondence, and by the employment by special agents who ar con versant with topics of this kind, and who, l3 reason of their experience, know exact ly how to prepare lists and bring in the in formation to the Census Office. , ' How many readers would be able to an swer the question if pnt to them ofl'-band, ."How many minor civil divisions in tho United States, such as cities, towns, town ships, counties, school districts.' etc.. have the power to ralso taxes aud incur debt!'' Do not answer all at once. A.good many thousand," I hear some one say. There are no les than 150,000 such minor divisions of tho country. Surely it is important to know the total amount of money raised by taxation -for local purposes and the total nmonntof debt which has been iLcnrred by all these taxinir and debt-creating powers. Jn order to do this the Census Office must deal separately and individually witu tne Infill nffirpra nnrl functionaries Of these myriad local divisions. Over 150 clerks are at this moment engaged on tnis oraucii oi the census work alone, and within a few months it is hoped that a statement of what may be called the local finances of the country mat is, a presenwmon oi iuo uuu- gets of all these places may uo given io the country. Yon whn are farmers will, perhaps, won der how the Census Office is able tofciveyou once in ten years the total number of acres devoted to raising ot wneat, oi corn, oi oats, of what not; the number of cattle, horses and sheep that browse in the fields and meadows; the number of hogs that sleeep, grunt and squeal in tho back-yards, and all other facts relating to agriculture. This information is collected by the enum erator on a special schedule, and afterward tabulated by experts in the Census Office, who know all about farms and farming. And, also, by the aid of special agents, the important facts in relation to the manu facturing industries are gathered and brought to the great emporium of facts and figures at Washington. In all im portant cities the schedule of manufactures is withdrawn from the regular enumer ator, and is placed in tne hands of special agents, or rather special enumer ators, whose duty it is to - call at evcrv factorv. or workshop and mill with the view to finding out the full particulars relating to tho number era ployed, wages paid, the amount and value of pre duct produced, the capital invested, and such other information as is required. So, in most other industries, experts have to be appointed in nearly every important industry, who are conversant with what may be called the technology of tho subject. Some of the moro important inquiries are those relating to the chemical industry; clay and pottery products; stone and glass; cotton goods; iron and steel; mixed tex tiles: newspaper ana periodical press; ship building; wool and worsted; silkgoodsand electrical apparatus and supplies. The special inquiries of the Census Office do not end here. The value of our mineral industries has grown during the century from a few million dollars annually to an aggregate of nearly 000.000,000. A special agent of the census, with his note-book in bis hand, may be found sitting at home with a farmer ciphering out his crop reports; in the counting-house of the manufacturer figuring on the annual pro duction of iron and steel or the number of yards of cloth, and in the mining camp as certaining the tons of ore or coal brought up from the bosom of the earth; along our river courses: at fishing points on the lakes and the coast, interviewing the fishermen in relation to their catch of fish.' In this short article it would bo impos sible to give even a cursory idea of the in numerable methods employed by the Cen sus Office experts or "sharps," as they are now called, in gathering the varied facts for their numerous reports. The main thing after such inquiries are taken out of the hands of the enumerator, is to prepare correct lists of all the establishments in case of manufacturing; of all mines, in that of mining; of all the fishing villages and fishing ports, in sueh inquiries relating to fish and fisheries. By doing this and em ploying trained experts in handling these returns, more satisfactory results can be obtained than by committing the matter wholly to the enumerator. The work of the Census Office does not even end here, though I am afraid that tho mere catalogue is getting wearisome. Elaborate statistics are being prepared in relation to iuternal transportation, by rail and by water, and likewise important data relating to the telegraph, telephone, ex press and insurance business of the country. Even the poor Indian must be investi gated. What boy is not interested in the Indian! though 1 fear, as a rule, boys are not 60 much interested in tho social condi tion of the Indian as they are in stories of his adventures andcontlicts with the white man. The Census Office will not go into these facts, though no doubt the large body of special agents, whose duty it will be to visit all the reservations and sections of country where the Indians still roam, would be able to tell some interesting and startling stories when they return. But for stories of adventure no census inquiry should be more prolific than that with ref erence to the population, wealth and re sources of Alaska. ' Even this wild terri tory has been divided into seven census districts, and seven special agents havo been appointed to collect all tho data pos sible relating to this desolate and distant region, which is likely, ere long, to be come an important source of wealth to tho country. Here you have in a nutshell the story of the census. It is possible in the hurry, and I assure you tho Superintendent of the Cen sus is a very busy man nowadays, that I have omitted something. The ramifications are so vast, extending, as they do. into every section of the country, that it is difficult to dispose of the subject in a two-column ar ticle for a newspaper. The youth of the country certainly ought to be interested in theso decennial inventories, which are made only at an enormous expense to the government, and by the employment, prac tically, of all the statistical ability attain able for the purpose. The present census will probably cost in the neighborhood of $10,000,000. and when it is completed it will mark another decade in the material prog ress of the country. Beforo another cen sus year rolls around the readers of this article will be men and women, interested in the political and social future of the Re public, and. perhaps, more appreciative of the results which a census furnishes than they are this year. Robert P. Pouter. When the Farmer Will Re Prosperous. C. Wood DavH, In the May Forum. Our domestic consumption will absorb tho entire product of cerea!s,.potatoes and hay, within fivo years from January, 1S00. and thereafter agricultural exports will .consist almost wholly of tobacco, cotton and animal products, the volume of which will shrink as constantly, if not in the same degree, as home consumption increases. To most people it would probably appear quite absurd even to suggest that much within ten years it will be found necessary to im port larce quautities of wheat to feed tho ever-increasing population; but such will bo the logical sequence of the necessity of employing wheat-fields in the growth of other 6taple crops, and of the virtual ex haustion of the raw material from which farms are developed. Does not the evidence show that before this decade is half spent all the products of the farm will be required at good prices, that lands will appreciate greatly in value. and that the American farmer will enter upon an era of prosperity tho unlimited continuance ot wnicn is assured by the ex haustion of the arable areas. Good Indians Found at Last. Minneapolis Tribune. . This pleasant little item is from theLv- man Journal, published in the Sioux reser- Amf T 1 - vatiou. ine journal acKnowicuges a friendly call from the great Sioux chiefs Drifting uoose aud Bad Hand this week. Theso gentlemen greet n to the land of their fathers and extend best wishes for the success of the paper and say they will do what they can to extend its circulation anions their people." Who says wo cannot learn something from the noble red man? Bad Hand andprif ting Gooso might have scalped the editor and tomahawked the devil for printing a short allowance of sporting news or devoting too much space io ine xariu uu giass ucaus iui uiey uiun C. They cave the wnito man a lesson in polite ness by promising to hustle for subscribers. aud then joined him in a little fire water at the nearest saloon. How She Caught Him. Philadelphia Times. "Are yon Mr. Smith?'' the girl asked, as he nervously stood at the door; "because if von are Mr. Jones, or Mr. .Brown, or Mr. White, or Mr Green, or any of the other gentlemen sho7s not at home; but if you re Mr. bnntli she is at home." "I am Mr. Smith," he answered, and his face could navu given the sun a thousand points and beaten it for brightness. "To think," he said to himself, as ho waited in the parlor, "that she has chosen me out of so many dovoted admirers. How she must lovo me! ' .Mid that night sho told her mother in confidence that the many-lovers racket bad worked beautifully, and that Augustus had proposed. She Didn't Like to Bother Him. Babyhood. Initio Fannift W. not onitn nx rrar nlrl had been taught to pray when she had been, naughty. One day sho said she asked God" tn Tiinlfn hor cnntl tir1 iftwlid it rirrht nwnr and that lie always did it when sho asked him. Her mother said: "Why don't yon ak ' him to make you goon an tne inner ' and sno replied: "Oh, I had rather be bad some than to be ooinering tne .Lord so mucn. THANKS FOR A PBETT Y GIRL She Removed Her Hat in the Theater, and Was Given a Pnblic Testimonial. How Mabel Jenness Struggled and Finally Be came a Platform Talker Carmencita's Pop ularityA Blow at the Blue-Bloods. Special to the Indianapolis Journst New York, May 3. A stately and hand some example of the well-bred young lady attended a theatrical first night, last week, and occupied, with' ber escort, seats in the third row of the orchestra. She was so fair to look upon that a large share of the audience watched her as she went down the aisle and settled gracefully in her chair. It was then observed, with much interest, that she raised her arms and de tached from her head the fashionable hat that became her so well. Her hair was bright golden, and under the radiant lights it fairly flashed in "its beauty. The old gentleman sitting behind her settled back comfortably in his chair, and congratu lated himself that he had been placed behind such a . thoughtful creature, for now, could he not only 6ee the stage but a splendid head of hair as well? Presently two orthree young women in. the immediate vicinity quietly removed their hats, having noted the admiration that the originator of the scheme had ex cited. From this the movement spread un til the hatless feminine heads were discov earble all over the theater, even to tho rear rows of the circle. Between the acts a paper began to circulate about among tho peoplo occupying the orchestra. Each gentleman. as he received it, read something mat nad been written on it, and then smilingly signed his name, after which he passed it to his immediate neighbor. In a few mo ments the paper camo back to the old gen tleman that had started it on its travels. Bending forward, he politely addressed the golden-haired girl, handing t7 her, at tho samo time, the paper. She read it, aud, as she did so, a deep blush and a smile crept over her face The paper was a vote of thanks, signod by thirty or more of the male spectators. Its text was as follows: Wa K nilA.innAil rA trt AmfatO our respectful admiration for a most beau tiful and considerate young lady, name not knowu. who, by removing her hat from her bright golden bead has set the fashion for others, thereby rendering it possible for a delighted audience to witness the details of a stage performance." The pretty girl cast a radiant smile over her shoulder at the old gentleman babind. and, folding the paper, tucked it into tho front of her dress, by the side of a bunch of pansies. And everybody was very happy. Beauty is a source of nonsense and hum bug, as well as admiration. For instance, there is Mabel Jenness. Nature inado her handsomo, and now, taking advantage of that fact, she is telling other women that they may look as well as she does. Of course, she takes pains to get good pay for her impossible advice. She serves as-a lecturer and a model at once, and her listen ers aro often foolish enough to believe that by going through with a lot of physical ex ertion and mental discipline they may change their visages from ugliness to love liness. Miss Jenness is making a comfort able fortune out of this illusion. It has be come fashionable to hear her. I don-1 know that she is to bo blamed , particularly for taking her beauty to that sort of a market for sale. Besides, I can tell some thing to her credit. Probably not one woman in the audiences that throng to bear this apostle of beauty aud culture is aware that the inmates of a poor-house were her first hearers. At the age of eight een Miss Jenness was a timid, retiring creature, and half an invalid, as she suf fered intensely at times from a nervous disorder that, puzzled the physicians and cost her many i weary days and jsleepless nights. Under her timidity, however, was a determined spirit, else she might have been always an invalid. As it was. she en tered the Boston School of Oratory, hoping to find partial relief at least from her suf fering by the help of tho required physical exercise anu ine nosorpuon oi ner mmu in something .outside of her pain. But it was not an easy task that she had undertaken. Tho daily ora torical drills " before- the class were a terriblo ordeal for her timid nature. and practice at home was no less painful. Her famous sister,' Mrs. Jenness-MUIer. bad been a graduate of the school, and at this time was in the front rank of platform speakers. Miss Jenness found it impossi ble to practice before tier witn any credit or profit to hrrself, her sensitive fear of ridicule making her awkward and con strained in the extreme. For a while 6he treated the birds and squirrels of her lovely suburban home with daily specimens of her skill, but she needed to look into attentive human eyes to gain confidence in herself. . livery, attempt before, her sister re sulted in failure. Dr. Emerson, president of the school, strongly advised against these trials, knowing what unsparing criti cism Miss Jenness would sutler from her brilliant sister, and supplemented this ad vice by a startling suggestiou. It was that she should give tho inmates of the poor house a weekly reading. Nothing better 1 A. f 1 . ? f A. At I snows ine quaiuy oi ner spirit man ner un hesitating compliance with this advice. The unfortunates iu the unwelcome retreat mentioned were transported with the eight of a beautiful girl. in elegant attire, standing before them for their entertainment, and they feasted their eves, at least, while srenis from the poets fell from her youthful lips. Whether tho poets were glorified in their minds, or their minds glorified by the poets, is not known, but in their uncritical and sympa- il f r meuc presence juss jenness gaincu a mod icum of confidence in her powers. At: the end of the course she was improved in health and. was graduated with honor. Miss Jenness now faces her fashionable audiences with a quiet, unassuming grace. having become so much of an artist in her chosen work that tho art itself is concealed. But, my dear aspiring girls, do not run to the poor-houso for distinction, for you are i a not ail miss j ennesses, yon Know. A curious case of unforeseen and fortu nate fashionablene?s is that of Carmencita. A I spectacular play was produced at a Broadway theater last summer. The ballet was good enough as to rank and file, but woefully lacking in solo dancers. Instead of paying the high salary necessary to im port a new and really first-rate danseuse, a much cheaper investment had been made in a young apanisn woman, wno was unique in posturing, whirling and writh ing, but sho was no adept, in her art It was hoped that the singularity of her per formance would make of her an acceptable substitute for the costlier conventional article. But it did not turn out so. This woman was Carmencita. After a spell of idleness, she accepted a job at Koster & Bial's beer garden. Of course, I didn't see her there, for that is not a ladies' resort. After her appearance at the Broadwav theater, I next witnessed her poses ana gyrations in the parlor of a Murray Hill mansion. It was the hostess's exploit at a reception to give to her guests, instead of entertainment by a vocalist or elocutionist. a dance by this Spanish creature whose skirts reached to her ankles, and whose terpsichorean feats were altogether modest. That sho camo direct from an alcoholic and disreputable warden gave extra zest to the exhibition, then the Sun took the notion toexploit her in several columnsof drscrin- tion and pictures, tho World and Herald each gave similar space to her. and she be came a transitory fad. Koster & Bial have a contract with her and sho cannot break it. if. indeed, she wishes to, for her work there seems to render her more fashionable in the eyes of her polite spectators. Three or four times a w,cek eince her sudden voguo began die goes to tho residence of Rome wealthy family and gets S100 for a half an hour of exertion. If sho "ever, ever, over goes back to Spain," as the song in "The Gondoliers" pnts it. she will be much richer than she could ever have dreamed of becoming by means of her visit to America. Beauty is 6kin deep.and the xnannfactnr- l.crs of face powders have made many and costly experiments in their search after a preparation which will serve to niakA vis ible the blue veins sometimes seen beneath skins of certain texture. These are iustly considered a great mark of beauty, and that a face powder having tho powder to bring them out in delicate txacery of a faint, almost imperceptible blue, would have an extensive sale, goes with saying. Bat the operation is not so simple as might be imagined. The skin is first treated with a paste, said to have been invented by a monk, at the command of Pope Leo X, who had very beautiful hands, and was very desirous of having the blue veins show plainly. Of courso, that is fol-de-roL After an application of this "magic paste," the powder must be used. The effect is startling. The only drawback to this invention is that it enables the most ordinary parvenu, the merest upstart who may not know the name of her grandfather to pose as a "blue-blooded" scion of aristocracy, and nnclove a hand which might have graced the arm of a duchess, or even a princess. It behooves tho so-called "refined woman," the real "gentlewoman," to cast abcut for some other distinctive mark by which she may still hold fast, to her perogatives. It would seem that the "blue-veined" hand, cheek or brow is no longer the sign of noble blood. Anybody may now exhibit her "blue veins" while she measures oil' a yard of ribbon for you. The private shooting gallery for tho fami ly is naturally a sequence of the interest taken by many rich women in the use of shotgun and rifle. About the first one known in this city was fitted np by a belle of our own and Washington society, who appropriated a generous portion of her pin- money for that purpose. A ball in the paternal mansion remote from the street and the living rooms is made an attractive retreat to lovers of sport On the walls are hung engravings of the goddess Diana in her many representations as patroness of the chase, and alternating . with these are . trophies of the beautiful owner's skill in the huut, the most notable being a bear skin with claws tip- pod with gold. In the interim between the winter festivities and the summer hegira to beach and mountain freauent parties of sporting aoves ore gamerea in mis ftauery. It is considered an especial mark of favor by the young lady's male friends to bo In vited to these parties, an impression she is careful not to lessen by too frequent hos pitality. Once inside this gallery the doves are transformed into Dianas of the most correct form. Attired in tunics loosely confined by a girdle or cestns, and short of skirt, neat stockings and feet in buskins, there they are, a dazzling company Diana and her nymphsespecially when tne fancy takes them to sling bow and arrows at the back, well out of the way, and crown their foreheads with a silver crescent- It is impossible to record the scores made on these occasions, although they, as well as the work of a certain invisible marksman with bow and arrow, are worthy of men tion. The owner of this eallery. moreover.. is a true sportswoman. During the summer flitting she turns from all fashionable re sorts and buries herself in the woods with a small party of congenial spirits, where, well chaperoned and equipped, she revels in tho manly sport of shooting at living targets. Her skill in small game is seldom excelled her coolness at all times, never. Sho picks off a squirrel from the tree-tops by sending a bullet through his head, but she takes no further interest in her game when it is done, turning quickly away as if some womanly tenderness contended with her passion for sport. Her admirers, how ever, are led to believe by her coldness that sheMs too thoroughly a follower of Diana to entertain a passion of a tenderer nature. This hunter-girl's greatest exploit was achieved a season ago. iter parry bad had a morning of exciting sport, the game-bags were filled, and the hunters were resting deep in the woods after a luncheon, had been served by their servants. All were silent, enjoying the deep repose that follows successful sport. when a crackling oi dead orancnes near hand was first upon her nfie. hers was the first shot. A bear dropped dead in its tracks with her bullet in its brain. His skin it is that holds the post of honor in her shooting-gallery. Our Diana, however, is, like Alexander, sighing for more worlds to conquer, for how can she hope to exceed this feat, and who is ever woolly contented on the lonely pinnacle of success! . A young Frenchman of title has been noticeably ardent in his devotion to a girl who is a shining beanty mark in society, and gossip has had it that the engagement of the pair would soon be made public. The young lady had confided to her chum that her admirer was the sweetest man in the whole world, and among his many virtues he possessed the one that she de manded most in a man he was generous to a fault. Knowing that she was fond of flowers, he sent to her each day a wealth of the most expensive ones to be found. When roses wero most expensive he inundated her with them, and converted her boudoir into a fragrant bower of rare and beautiful plants. One afternoon tho chum was calling, and as tho two sat tocether in the blossoming room, the Frenchman's floral offering was brought in by a servant lhe delighted girl sprang for tho basket and buried her happy face in its soft sweetness. "Isn't he a dear?" cried she to her fnend. E lucking a regal rose and pinning it to her reast after bestowing upon it a rapturous kiss. . Just then sho discovered a note tucked snuzlv anions the flowers, and. with a blush and an apology, she clutched it and tore open tne envelope. A9 sue reaa, ner face grew grave and pale, and her hands trembled violently. "Oh, what has happened. Aiicer7 cried herfriena. springing forward and putting her arm about tho suffering girl's waist Alice looked with wild eyes at the note. and then thrust it into the hand of her friend. "Read," she gasped. lhe note was certainly painfully disillus ionising. It wasas follows: "Will you not try to make the young man who sends you these flowers pav me his bill? He has given me nothing for all the baskets I have sent since many months ago. lhe bill is very Jarge. and 1 am much in nocd of monev. When I ask him he says go to the devil. 1 cannot 6ell him any more after this, and I write toyou hopingyou may have influence to make him pay nis debt. lhe frenchman went home a few davs ago. and Alice's chum has almost succeeded in making the disappointed girl believo that she would never have been happy married to a man of his deceptive methods. Clara. Belle. Copyright, 1890.1 George Washington Coat Buttons. May Century. In connection with the conch buttons shown in an accompanying illustration, the storv is told of General Washington that one day. while walking alone in the streets of Philadelphia, he was accosted by a poor Italian, who, ignorant of the personality addressed, continued to follow and impor- which he carried in a basket on his arm. and which he persisted were the only things that he had in the world to dispose of. "But. my good man." remonstrated Gen. Washington, "what would I do with your couch shellsT I have no nse for them." "Ob. yes, you have." came the ready re joinder. "You might have them made into buttons for your coat'1 Smiling at his prompt reply. Washington not only pur chased the shells, but, the better to further the advice, took them at once to his tailor, and, directing them to be riveted, ordered a brown velvet coat, that their especial usefulness might be straightway demon strated. The Meanneas of Anonymity. Archdeacon Farrar. In tho May Forum. It is no infrequent event to see anony mous remarks and criticisms so uuworthv. and dictated by motives so transparently base, that we may be sure they would not have been written if their authors had not been sheltered by anonymity from open shame. Anonymity, which to a good man makes no ditierence, becomes a strong temptation to a bad or common-place man. Just as dastards who have been paid to do it. shoot down their victims from behind a hedge, so base writers are rendered morn nnscrupulous by concealment. Good and noble men nave, to my Knowledge, gone through life with the angnisli ot a hidden and rankling wound, inflicted by those who would hardly have dared to do it bad their names and their real insigniiicance been Known. "Written tor the outlay JournxL -Dew Drops. " I. To a rose, with dew bespangled, Pparkllng in the mormnir son. Spoke a fairy, "Whence this splendor;- Where hast all these riches wont Are tnee diamonds bat to deck thee. Is thy beauteous dress too plaint 7 Thou ambitious, charming flower, Thou requirest no such gain. II. "When the flowers all are slurnVring, Awakes a rose, but yet alone, - Waiting, sighing for its lover While the stars from heaven snons. Lovo expressing, soft and gentle, Longing the flower speaks: Truant Dew, where hast thou lingered! Bend to me thy welcome checks. Bee. my sisters all are sleeping, Wrapt In blissful dreams at last; I, alone, for thee am waking. Come, oh come, 'ere night has past And the dew the rose embraces Lovingly as a cooing dove. Bees, entreats the beauteous Cower For a token ot their love. . And the rose's lips of purple. Blushing to his prayers, yield. Cupid, as of yore, has conquered ileart, and heart together scaled. Willingly her head has fallen On his bosom, free from care, Hours fleo as if but moments While they oft their love declare. As the day is fast approaching, Now the lovers say adieu. And unseen, on clouds departing, Soaring upward, flees the dew. And the gems so brightly gleaming On the rose so glowing, fair. Are but tears that shed at parting. Love's devotion thus declare. Otto Stschhan. Written for the Sunday Journal. , To My Children, Dear Children, all, pood night; And to-morrow, when 1 greet youv It will be, Good Morning; for the sight Of your dear faces must renew, Each day, tho blessed Joy Which is the Mother's due. But some sweet morning light Will glow, I know, on you alone. Shall I, then, miss your faces bright! Will then the Mother life be donet In those fair realms afar, Where Love is Sun! You will miss the watchful care. Grown troublesome, perhaps, with use of years, That often sees In happiness a snare. And sometimes welcomes even tears. But I shall then, beyoud the weeping and the fearing. s Be only wiser in the seeing. s. r. l. Written for the Sunday JourssL Ueyond the Gate; Beyond the gate, through meadows rare, Alone I go to breathe tho air " Ot stillness; when the sunsets burn, If, faring thus, I ne'er return, You need not question, wait or care. Thus much, I cannot live and bear The secret angidsh of despair, And none will try ray woe to learn Beyond the gate. Before I go, my grief to ehare. My trembling llmrers fain would dare Pluck this one little lent of fern That withers in the brokf n nrn. To bring old scenes, wheu wandering there, Beyond the gate. Alonzo Leora Rice. a m The I'ilgriin. "A Wandering Echo of Forgotten Song.- I travel In wayworn shoon, My doublet is torn and sere; But hark that note From you wood-bird's throat 0 the spring, the spring is here! 1 fare in a rusty coat. My scrip gapes wide for cheer; Yet though I lack gold My heart is bold, 0 the spring, the spring Is here! 1 dine on a moldy crust With wine from the brooklet near; But mouarchs ye Come envy me; . O the spring, the spring is here! I've nought but this staff and scrip, , Thus, Fortune, no frown I fear; Though tho road be long in my heart is a song, O the spring, the spring is here! -Joseph Lewis French, in Overland Monthly. What the Times Need. God give us men! A time like this demands Strong minds, great hearts, true faith and ready naiias; Men whom the lust of office does not kill; Men whom the spoils of omce cannot bun Men who possess opinions and a will; Men who have honor; men who will not lie; Men who can stand before a aemagogue . And damn his treacherous flatteries without winking. Tall men, sun-crowned, who live above the fog In publio duty and in private thinking: For, while the .rabble with their thumb-worn creeds. Their large professions and their little deeds. Mingle in scinsa stnie, io: Jt reeaom weeps. Wrong rules the land, and waiting Justice sleeps. J. O. Holland, IKS. i ' - An Old-Time Lyric. Tell me not sweet, I am unkind That from the nunnery Of thy chaste breast and quiet mind . - To war and arms I flee. True, a sew mistress now I chase, The lirst foe in the lield; And with a stronger faith embrace A sword, a horse, a shield. Yet this inconstancy is such As you, too, shall adore; I could not love thee, dear, so much, Loved I not honor more! Richard Lovelace. Til Not Confer with Sorrow." I'll not coufcr with Sorrow Till to-morrow; But Joy shall have her wry This very day. No, eglantine and cresses For her tresses! Let Care, the beggar, wait Outside the gate. i Tears if yon will but after Mirth and laughter; Then, folded hands oa breast And endlesa rest. T. B. Aldrich, la the Independent. My Pumps and L ' From off ray closet's topmost shelf You've tumbled down in needless haste. With memories of ray payer self Which pipe and books have quite effaced. Though wax still clings about your toes, My mind in looking backward Halts: Ami though I strive and strain, it throws ' No light upon my final waltz. Quite vanished is your pristine shine Identical the circumstance! For sadly tarniahed hat prown mine, And I've forgotten how to dance. ' Meredith Jficfcolson, in Light Sweet "Weather. Now blow the daffodils on slender stalks, Small, keen, quick flames that leap up in the mold And run alone the dripping garden walks; Swallows come whirring back to chimneys old. Blown by the wind, the pear tree's flakes of mow Lie heaped in the thick eraases of the lane; And all the sweetness of the Long Ago Sounds In that song the thrush sends through the rain. Llzette Reese. Juit a Sober Fancy. ' Wise are the ideal-breakers, yes. But this is manifest: Philosophy gives restlessness, Religion gives you rest. Merchant Traveler. But There Seldom la. Kantaa City Tinea. Prince llisuiarck eays that the antagonism between employed and employer is the re sult of a natural law a law so natural that the time will never come when both will be satistied. The Prince has nearly nil the truth, but not all. When both sides of the labor controversy feel that substantial justice is done there will be only a mild an tagonism. It is unjust employers and un reasonable employed which make clashes. Certainly there can be no such a thing as substantial justice. First Lesaon In Genesis. Washington star. In a undaytchool class in the neighbor hood of Meridian Height the teach? r last Sunday asked who was the lirst man. 'Adam replied the small boy. "And who was the lirst woman!" she asked a little girL Tho child benitated for a minute, then her face brightened. "Madam," she sung oat. and tho preacher .hadn't the heart to correct her. . BUSINESS DIRECTORY. ATTTTTCQ- u CO ., Manufactc Allilil OBepalrera otCll&UULAll, w Manufacturer ana" CliOSS- CUT. 11ANI1. and all otw SAWS netting. Emrr Wheals anfl rm Buppue. IlilDoia arreoL one aau&ra utnth UIUOnSWDOD, r O A "T7"0 BELTING and iSA IV '11 Eiu:ii WHEELS. KJMX. II M Specialties oi W. B. Barry Saw fc Supply Co. SMITH'S DYE WORKS 57 NORTH PENNSYLVANIA 8T. Gents clotldng cleaned, dyed and repaired. Ladles' dre sses cleaned and dyed. HOWARD'S1 " Steam Carpet Cleaning Worts, Corner St, Clair and CanaL OTTELXPIIONX 616. t llctaicl Hai-vesliog Machina to. Manufacturer cf BINDERS, READERS AND MOWERS. Headauarters Tor Indiana, 107 & 109 E. Waah'a St., Indiana polInd. J. 11. IlLYVVOOD, Manager. T. H., DAVIDSON", DENTIST. A set of the Terr best Teeth, oa Rubber, for S3 and lo. Teeth wltnent platea, or crown and bridge wcrr, specialty. Vitalized Air ivdminuired. OKFlCEl!4a liast Washington street, erioaita New Tork Stor. Nordyko fc Marmon Co. Eatab. 185L FOUNDERS nd MACHINISTS Mill And El orator Build era, Tndlanapoli. Ind. Boiler Mills. MCI jreaLiin?. Belting, XtolUnz-cloth. Grain, ck aning 2d ach? ntrr. M iddiln e a-punfiera. Portable MUln. etc etc Take atieet cars tor atockyaxda. CUT FLOWERS. ' BERTEBMAXN BROS, 37-43 Massaehaaetta avenu e, one.halt aiuare aorta east of Denlson UoteL Op m until 8 p. xa. INDIANAPOLIS STOVE CO. If annfaeUirers of STOVES AND UOLLOW.W1BIL 83and 7 tioath Men'.Ua street. HARDIN & CHURCH, M&nof actarers c nnd and Machine BRICK MOLDS, No. 3 Vine street, Indianapolis, Ind. PEN S I QN S New Laws. New Rulings. Every soldier or sol- dier's widow should end to the Old Established Claim Agency of 1. IL FITZGEKALD and cet hit 12-pape pamphlet on War Claim. Mailed free, No. 63a East Market st. 1 IL FITZGEKALD. ' GEO. J. MAYER, Seals, Stencils, Stamps, ISto. 15 8outh Meridian stroct. Indiana poUs. Ind. Bend for catalogue. la: Tatr4' U r..at LUMBER, SHINGLES, ETC. HENRY COBURtf. dealer in all kind of Bund ing Material, 8a h, Doora, lillnds and Fr&mea. Ye- ranoa worn a specialty. PLANI NO-MILL, asd YABD Kentucky arena and Mlsaiaslppi street. IACE (MAINS CLEANED, ail New Rnisa, BRILL'S DYE.WOBKS, SO Maasaehnaetta avenue and 05 North Illinois u LUMBER. E. H. ELDRIDGE & CO., Shingles, Sash. Doors and Blinds. OOIL ALABAMA AND MARYLAND 8TS. CLEAVE LAN D FENCE WIItB TIGHTENER AND AUTOMATIC TENSION OOVERNOik Adapted to wood po a. Bares wlm, time and worry. Btud for circulars. CLEAVE LAND FENCE CO- Manufacturers Farm. Catua tfrj. Railroad and Lawn Fencing. 20, 21 and 22 Bid. die street, Indianapolia, Ind. fiA? " 'It 5u z- (tiicffy J. R. EYAN & CO., Commission Merchants, Wholesale Dealers In drain. Flour, Feed, liar, etc., Cii and 64 East Maryland et. LEO. LAN DO, SCIENTIFIC OPTICIAN. Sictaifs and Ere-01a.c fittM to all sights. Perfect nt guaranteed, or money refunded. Prencrip tlonji a specialty. At 6- East Market street, opposite Re I'inapoli! District Telegraph Co., Ko. 15 S. Meridian St. GTTelepbone 123. M ewenger Boy. Package delivery. Night-watch aratexn. F1re-ra.!l system. Electric supplle. Bell. PorjrlaT- Alarms. Electric r lighting. FlxaMngtube. We ccarantee cmr elea triral worfc. Electrical r 4- lairinc promptly and aat J i&l&cLorlly done. HIGHEST AWARD OF A COLD MCOAL AT THE PARIS EXPOSITION WAS 3CCUREO BY THE REUIKGTO: STANDARD TYPEWRITER Which has beon for FIFTEEN YEARS Tho STANDARD "ind Hn embraces Lpib-.tho latest ana highest achievements of Inventive skill. wickqff, wm-i mm, 34 EAST MARKET ST., INDIANAPOLIS. IND. BICYCLES A large stock, from $33 to $135. Fecc-nd.handW1ietUti.ken lnexctanra iV'y We lo all kind of RnrAIBIXCk ..NAMELIXQ and NlCKEV-l'LATINU. A full lino of 8itfild:uc' ilase-bull good. Send fur C'ATaloo. Agents wanted in very towm. HAY & WILLITS, 113 V. Washington st.. Indianapolis, (Op.oaUe biatehoua.; ADAMANT WALL PLASTER. The new, elieapest and bet Wall riter kn-n V the trade. Manufactory at 103 We Maryland t- l.XDIANlv ACAJ4AST i'UA3IlCK CO. McGILLIARD & DARK, Oldest and Largest Fire Insurance General Am7 in Indianapoil. onice Thora Ul'Xit. bi Aiu Eajl il.ar.ut auwaw 'f 7 ST" , - 1 K' :' C M HXV f t f - X X K "V.. 11 . ' 1 Tl - EH I