Newspaper Page Text
THE INDIANAPOLIS JOURNAL. SUNDAY AUGUST 11. 10O1.
normal level of the lake will o " TT, feet
aKva the foa. At Ob'.-po the canal will
leave the Cliacre ihfr. an! thence to
l'araiso. a distance of 0.2-". miles, will be
excavated to a depth of between twenty
eight and thirty f. et. and a uniform wMth
ou the bottom nf liv.ii fc-t. At M. ration?,
a distance of about ?." r.-.iles from l'araiso.
the canal reaches th" sm lev 1 again, aiul
thence t. it termination .it the Isla de
Nans will, a- I li ivo said, be maintained at
the nein t!J-l-:v l nf the T-y of Panama.
The chief ch-tarles whl h oppoy the
completion of the canal arf the Cub-bra bill
an.l the Chagres river. The Cubbra attains
an elevation of about TO' f.et. an l Is the
highest jx.int on tho line of th canal. To
piH into execution Ie T,ey.cps's original
idea of a tide-level canal a sort of Uos
!;,, rus It wi'il'l 1" rr. sary to excavate
a channel directly through this bill and
at least 0 t fo t deep. Thi- if manifestly an
i.ndertaklr g of normo'is liMtculty. and was
early recognized s such. Hut since the
canal cannot .to to the water, the only al
ternative I.- to bring the water to the anal
by mean;; of locks. At present the Cule
bra. rx( -a vat lor..' have leen carried down
IS I feet, and it is proposed to continue to a
level sixty-eight f-et a bo, e the mean level
c: the Atlantic. l)e I-s'p belkved the
Culebr.i to consist of rok so reb-lliou in
texture an to render the task of cutting
through It one of very great difficulty.
However, the engineers penetrated the sur
face rock, beneath which they encountered
a stratum of roft material which
threatened to cave and fill the excavations
almost as rapidly as they were opened.
This was the dilemma with which the -now
company was confronted at Culebra when
It renewed the operations on the isthmus
In 14. Manifestly, the first thins to do
v as to ascertain r. w deep the .oft stratum
extended. To this end a series of Zantic
experiments were pet on foot, a cunette was
run through the hill along the axis of tho
canal, borings were sunk, and over 2,o),ViO
cubic yards of experimental excavations
were made. From this it appeared that be
neath tho friable deposit existed a great
bed of an indurated argillaceous schist,
changing into compact rock, in which there
was absolutely no danger of caving, and
In which thw work is now beir.er prosecuted
with perfect safety and at a commendable
rate of speed. The consistency of tho schist
Is so variable, however, that the engineers
are even now unable to estimate exactly
tho rate at which the excavations can be
continued; they have, therefore, devised
supplemental rlans. by which it will be
possible to establish the summit-level at
ninety-seven feet above the rea level
Fhould It be found that th work cannot
bo carried on as expeditiously as now ap
pears probable; or at thirty-two feet If
greater dispatch Is attainable. In the form
er case It will be necessary to add one lock
on either slope to those contemplated In the
present plan; In the latter, one, and per
haps two. of the present locks can be dis
TAMING THE CHAGRES.
The necessity to keep the summit level
I'jpplled with a suitable depth of water has
plven rise to a series of problems which
can only be stated in connection with the
steps taken to regulate the floods in the
Charres. The Chagres Is ordinarily a
placid little stream seventy or eighty miles
lonff, rising thirty miles northeast of the
city of Panama and flowing Into the At
lantic six or seven miles southwest of
Colon. But. like all tropical streams, it is
liable In the wet season to sudden freshets
caused by torrential rains, and after a
ctorra has been known to rise five, ten, and
even fifteen ftet in a single night. Mani
festly, any such fluctuation In the level of
the canal in any portion of Its length would
prov exceedingly inconvenient, if not ac
tually dangerous to shipping. At the same
time, the Chagres is the only source from
which water can be drawn to fill the canal;
It ts therefore evident that a method had
to be devised by which the flood-crest could
be intercepted and the volume of water ad
mitted to the canal kept under constant
control. This will be done by creating two
reservoirs or lakes by erecting dams, one
across the valley of the lower Chagres, at
Bohlo, and the other across the valley of
the upper Chagres, at Alajuela. Lake
Bohlo, as it Is called, will contain the ex
cess waters of the Chagres; but the reser
voir at Alajuela will not only serve a
similar purpose, but will also supply the
summit level with water. The Alajuela
lake is situated some eight or ten miles
north of the canal, among the hills amid
which the Chagres has its source; and will
be about 190 feet above sea level, conse
quently considerably higher than the canal.
It is evident that if the two are connected
by some sort of channel, a constant influx
of water can be provided for the main
tenance of the waterway, even at ninety
seven feet above the level of the Atlantic.
This Is exactly what is contemplated; a
feeder will leave the lake at a level of 100.2
feet above tide, and follow the left bank
of a lateral valley, discharging gently into
the summit level about half a mile from the
locks of Obispo. The fall between the lake
and the point of delivery will be 55.8 feet,
and the cross-section is established to carry
from twenty-five to forty cubic meters (1,412
cubic feet) per second sufficient to meet
tbo contingencies of a largely Increasing
traffic. The feeder traverses a rough coun
try, and will be very costly, but all the de
tails of its construction have been carefully
DAMS, LOCKS AND CHANN'KLS.
Let us now return to the matter of the
regulation of the Chagres. , Tho variation in
the level of this stream during the wet
months is extreme, as I have already
noted. In order to collect data on this sub
ject three stations were established, re
spectively, at Gamboa. Bohlo and Alajuela.
It was ascertained that during the dry
months of February, March and April an
average of 903 cubic feet of water passed
Gamboa every second; but after a storm in
the wet season this quantity increased
three, four and five fold or more; as. for in
stance, after the storm of IST? the most se
vere known in ranama cubic f?et
rassed this point. In addition to the two
great dams at Bohlo and Alajuela, it v. ill
be necessary to construct four morc-at
Obispo. Taraiso, Tedro Miguel and Mira
f.ores. None of thec. however, presents
any engineering difficulties. They will be
constructed of earth, as. indeed, will be
that at Eohio. but the dam at Alajuela will
te of masonry, based upon the solid rock,
and the reservoir thus created will have a
capacity of 3.r-K).w.ft.) cubic feet. The lake
at Bohlo will have a capacity fully one-half
as great again, or about 5.2f:.OY,oc0 cubic
We now come to the interesting question
f the lock. The present plans call for
eight lo ks-four on the Atlantic and four
on the Pacific .-lope. On the Atlantic slope
two of the.c lo.ks will be located at Uohlo
and two at Obivpo. On the Pacific slope
there will be one lock at Paraisr, two at
I'eiro Micurl. an 1 the last :it Mirarores.
By means of the locks at Bohio, vessels will
be elcv.itrd frcm ti!Mttl to ;l height of
rerir sixty fet above the va. The locks
at Obispo nin complete the jfi (1 M;m
mlt-lel. But on the Pa. iii- th- de
scent wi'l nt be ?o abrupt, the lock at
P.iraiso drooping the j.m-1 only :,, -:: fwt
SNive the yen; Conh'e r k at Jeir
Migul ci iiK a fintlvr -ie .i.t to the
OOt !e:. that at Mir.p!:T. s blinking
t'ie ve?se .tc;n to th- t hie- a. .ll of
the?e h.k t ill 1. ..!b!. founde.; oil ,mk.
ith h.:mber 7: f. , t bivu. 1.! f:-o::i "I to
X.' feet deep.
b" most l;:t f y.i'.t r i f :!.
UK.ii'-! tM!.i i.I tint M I r 1 fi -
the t,t Ihv V.i is pacliri
It I- a
well-known fact that tho tides in the Bay
of Panama rle and fall about twenty feet,
whenas in the Gulf of I,Imon (Atlantic
side! the variation is.4nly a few Inches.
Thus, while r.o provision is required at
IJohlo to nie t the fluetuathm of the tide-I.'-vei,
th reverse is: trtit; at Mirallores,
whrre the aurf.ir-o of the water In the lock
will vary from 1) feet above to 10 feet below
the mean t W. --le el. It is this lluctuation
in the ti'le which has compelled the com
pmy to dredge the (hanr.cl beyond Ia Boca
out to the Isla !e Naos. a work of great
ilitiiculty. which has constantly to be re
peated, as the bar shoals again almost as
rapidly as the ilredges b-epen it.
COLOMBIA TAKBS TOLL
The cone s-ion under which t he eompiny
H now operating1 has recently been ex
tended to i:l'i. By it terms the govern
tv.i r.t of t'nlombi:' cedes ro the company
gratuiticu.dy all the land necessary to dig
th canal, together with considerable por
tions of the jiublic dciiiains and valuable
mining rights; and the rit;ht to introduce
into the isthmus any article necessary for
th- prosecution f the work. On its side,
the company is required to pay the Colom
bian government 5 per cent, of the gross
revenue during the lirst twenty-five years,
C per cent, during the next twenty-five
years arid S per cnit. during tho remainder
of the term. It is interesting to note that
the work, even of tho old French company,
was carried on, not under any treaty be
tween France and Colombia, but under a
treaty between the United States and Co
lombia, executed in IM:, by which "the
United States guarantee positively and
efficaciously " by the present stipula
tion the perfect neutrality of the isthmus,
with the view that the free transit from
the one to the ether sea may not be in
terrupted nor embarrassed in any future
time while the treaty exists." In a word,
this treaty establishes in Panama much the
same condition which the Hay-I'uuncefote
treaty as originally drafted proposed for
Nicaragua; a situation which Is not without
Its anomalies; and which cannot fail to
suggest curious ideas to tho American
As our train was approaching Panama at
a point at which the railroad and canal
part company I saw a group of Jamaican
negroes trudging through the tlust beside
the track, evidently on their way home after
the tlay's work. There were perhaps ten
In the party man, woman and a string of
pickaninnies. The woman's costume was
not particularly striking, the youngsters
wore nothing but their shining black skins,
but the bead of the family sported a single
garment a flaming red shirt. He looked up
as we passed, and grinned expansively. He
was a good type of the laborers now at
work on the canal stalwart, lazy and
good tempered, wanting little, and content
with with anything, even a single flaming
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS.
Can you tell me what will destroy the
silver moth? Beader.
Spray with kerosene emulsion.
Please give a little information as to the
domestic life of Leland Powers, impersonator?-!:.
We know nothing about his domestic life.
Will you tell the birthplaces of Rear Ad
mirals Sampson and Schley?-S. A.
Palmyra, N. Y and Frederick county,
Where is Fort Porter, N. Y.. what city?
Also Madison Barracks, same State. B. II.
At Buffalo and Sackctfs Harbor, re
spectively. -i- -5- -f-
Where did John McCullough die? 2. Was
be deranged just previous to hi death?
3. Where was he born? 4. How old was he
when he died? K. S.
In an asylum for lunatics at Philadel
phia. 2. Yes. 3. In Coleraine, Ireland. !.
How did the word "dago" start? J. A. W.
This thoroughly unadmlrable bit of slang
started with American sailors, who4 find
ing that : Santiago, San Diego. Iago and
Diego were oft recurring vocables in Span
ish America, dubbed natives of these coun
tries dago men or dicgos.
Who is our minister to Haiti? 2. Ts the
Argentine Republic dominated by negroes?
3. What is the population of Buenos Ayres?
C. K. It.
William F. Powell. 2. No; negroes con
stitute a very small percentage of the pop
ulation. 3. By the census of isr5 it was
What was the "salary grab?" T. M.
An amendment to an appropriation bill
passed March C, 1S73, raising the salaries
of the President. Vice President, senators,
congressmen and Supreme Court justices.
In the following January it was repealed
except as it applied to President and jus
tices. Will you give me the origin and mean
ing of the word Itasca, head of the Missis
sippi river? D. B.
The word was made by Henry Rowe
Schoolcraft from the Latin barbarism.
Veritas caput. He was head of the scien
tific expedition that explored the lake in
1S32 for the lirt time.
Can you give statistics of farm laborers
wages in Kngland. espcciallv the western
and southern counties? D. D. H.
The average weekly wage for these coun
ties for 1M) was IS shillings, about mid
way between the highest and lowest by
counties for the United Kingdom. In tho
past four years it had increased approxi
mately 7 pence per week per year.
Please state the different degrees of
formality in closing a letter? Also state
the forms most commonly used by different
classes of letter-writers. L. W.
"Yours respectfully," "Yours truly," or
"Very truly" arc forms most common in
business letters. "Yours sincerely," "faith
fully," "affectionately," or "with sincere
regard," or "as ever, your friend." or "with
love," or variations of these phrases are
most frequently found at tho close of let
ters of friendship. Lovers' communications
are a law unto themselves each writer
devising his er her own terms of farewell.
How is wine fermented? Does wine age
in bottles ?-T.
The fresh juice of the grapes begins
spontaneously to ferment, from the effect
of minute germs that adhere to the skins
of the fruit or that are afloat In the air
Fermentation is noticeable In from a few
hours to a few days, according to tempera
ture, high temperature causing a prompt
ferment. 2. Yes. slowly, and in time bot
tleti wine will become too acid and harsh to
be palatable; but most of the aging 4ccury
much more rapidly while the wine is in
small caks. ThN takes from two to cirht
years, according to the kind of wine, and
When was the battle of Rorke's Drift,
Zululand. fought, al whld; the Twer.tv
fourth Infarury. a l.-h regiment, was
wipc.i o it of eis:n,-o'; 2. h was to
hi tine for the di.-aster? W'a thfre auv u k
4; 4-our.ig. op th pat of the rm-ri who
4-jTiipoe, the r Ki:i:cnt ? H. 1.
Th! affair lasted durhig the niicht of Jan.
22-2.1. 17. i4;d on'y ne company of the
Twent -T e.nh was e:ig:gd. Their lo
was 12 nun not of vn .v... Zli;iJ peine
4-stImite.j at 2.' '".. Un the previous day. r.l
La:idu!a. four 4-otMpmle of thi; regiment
. lid a native confine nt kid ;en practical
ly .r.nil.ilated. 2. I.e-d Cb.-lmsfonl was ii.
K' tu fal 40;un;i..l. The im n wer.- brave
r. .ugii. hm .it lala were hop4 lessly
rpv. v r ! by n:ir.:b r.
W T.;;t i the ;l(.:t of 7i:..!;'.;;s A. IMi
son. 2. WW.t .ovu. e u!d pursue t.
protect' an Idea or Improvement on an ar
ticle already patente!, and now in public
use, the idea not being an improvement on
the article itself, but a use to which it
mav be applied and is not now applied?
W. (I. A..
West Orange. N J. 2. We can only state
that the patent laws ace not likely to as
sist you. The mere conception of an idea
Is not patentable, nor 1? a new use of an
old thing, the law holding, in the latter
case, that when an invention is made its
author Is fntitled to all Its attributes,
whether discovered by him or by another
subseiuently to hi$ Invention.
Is any leep.drill.1 well called an artesian
veil? 2. What is the supposed or known
cause of water flowing to the top? J. K. H.
Yes, even though a pump is necessary to
bring the water to the surface, though
strictly an artesian well is a flowing or
spouting bored well, the word coming from
the former French province of Artoi.
where these wells originated. 2. The chief
conditions upon which an artesian How de
pends are the existence of a previous
strata, cemmonly sandstone, inclined at a
ry slight angle to the horizontal, and en
closed between less pervious layers such as
clays or shales. Then the higher edge of
the pervious bed must receive water abund
antly and lose little to lower strata. In it,
then, water accumulates until sufficient
pressure results to force water to above the
surface once an outlet is provided.
Will you give a short sketch of Perry's
expedition to Japan in lSSi? M. A. B.
Up to that time Japan had been like
China, a sealed territory, but the Dutch
had had some commercial hold there, and
the establishment of California as a State
and of Oregon as a Territory suggested bet
ter commercial intercourse with the coun
tries across the Pacific. So an expedition
was fitted out in the summer of 1S52 to
carry a letter from President Fillmore to
the Japanese sovereign soliciting a friend
ly treaty. Several warships were put in
command of Commodore M. C. Perry, and
he had the diplomatic part of the mission,
too. He carried many useful Implements
.and inventions as a present to the Japan
ese government, and was ordered to make
the most friendly approaches, not to use
violence unless attacked, but If attacked
to return a blow that would bo remembered.
After delivering his letter Perry was made
to wait several months before he could land,
tut eventually concluded a favorable
Will you tell something of the olive tree,
its culture and the methods of taking and
using its fruit for oil and preserves? C.
The tree has a close-grained yellow wood
much esteemed for carving, and. though a
slow grower, attains great age and size.
Propagated from cuttings, sprouts or
gnarled woody buds that form about the
trunk, it attains its growth from seven to
nine years, and fives an increasing crop up
to thirty years of age. Some kinds yield
yearly, others every other year, and stories
are told of a singlo tree producing 300
pounds of oil, but one-twentieth as much
is a fair crop. The tree is kindly to the
soil, thriving on poor soil with no more of
fertilization than is afforded ' by putting
the pomade of the oil mill about it, but the
groves of Kurope usually have the moit
scrupulous care. Olives when fully ripe
are purple or purplish black. The same va
rieties are not used for oil and pickling.
For the former the fruit is not allowed to
get quite ripe, and the best oil is that which
flows without more pressure than is neces
sary to crush the fruit. Next the pulp is
pressed in baskets for the olive oil of com
merce. Then the pulp is ground, thinned
with water and pressed for a poor quality,
and sometimes a final pressing done in con
nection with, hot water produces a still
cheaper quality. For sickling, olives are
picke4l green, and a bath of lye is followed
by one of brine.
-s- -i- -5-
Wlll you print the motto and flower
adopted by each State? Mrs. X. Y. G.
Not all States have a motto, ind few
have a State flower by legislative enact
ment, most of the flowers in the following
list having been, chosen by ballot among
school children. Alabama's motto Is "Here
we rest," her flower the golden rod; Ar
kansas. "Mercy, justice, regnat populi;
California. "Kureka," the California pop
py; Colorado. "Nil sine numine, Colum
bine; Connecticut, "Qui transtulit sus
tinef," Delaware, "Liberty and independ
ence," peach; Florida, "In God is our
trust;" Georgia, "Wisdom, justice, modera
tion;" Idaho, "Salve," syringa; Illinois,
"National Union, State sovereignty;" Iowa,
"Our liberties we prize and our rights we
will maintain," wild rose; Kansas, "Ad
astra per aspera;" Kentucky. "United we
stand, divided we fall;" Louisiana. "Union,
justice and confidence," magnolia; Maine,
"Dlrijxio," pine cone and tassel; Maryland.
"Fattl maschii, parole femlne;" Massachu
setts. "Fuse petit placidam sub libertate
quietcm;" Michigan, "SI quaerls, peninsu
lam amaenam clrcumsplce," apple blossom;
Minnesota. "Ietoile du nord," mocassin;
Missouri, "Salus populi suprema lex esto,"
golden rod; Montana, "Oro y plata," bitter
root; Nebraska, "Equality before the law,"
golden rod; Nevada, "All for our country ;
New Jersey, sugar maple; New York, "Ex
celsior," rose; North Dakota, "Liberty and
Union, one and Inseparable, now and for
ever," wild rose; Oregon, "The Union,"
Oregon grape; Pennsylvania. "Both can't
survive;" Rhode Island, "Hope," violet;
South Carolina, "Animls opibuque pa
rati;" South Dakota, "Under God the peo
ple rule;" Tennessee. "Agriculture, com
merce;" Utah, sago lily; Vermont, "Free
dom and Unity," red clover; Virginia, "Sic
semper tyrannis;" Washington, "Al-kl,"
rhododendron; West Virginia, -"Montan!
semper liberi;" Wisconsin, "Forward;"
Wyoming. "Cedant arma togae." golden
A Sons of Lotc
Hey, rose, just born
Twin to a thorn;
Was't so with you. O Iov and Scorn?
Sweet eyes that smiled,
Now wet and wild;
O Ey and Tar mother and child.
WHl: Love and Tain
Tt would, oh! would I could love again!
New York Evening Post.
A chamber nf horrors, or a Continental
curators rail it. mou- cecc-rowsl v. a "Maga
zine." is an Indispensable feature of every
grat art collection. Libraries are feeling
th same need of discriminating between
useful and relatively useless books. The
Athenaeum reports that:
The Pritish Museum will come to the end
of its storage room with th close of the
present year. As there is no hope of ob
taining enough mn-y from th treasury
tor the extension of its London buildings
one treasury nffcial is said to have sug
;esUl the stoppage of all fresh books, un
der the act for the abatement of nuisances
omc of the musev.ni tticials propose the
building of a storehouse for books long
i iuistd in a dry part of the country where
land is cheap. All b'oks shunted there
v. onld be marked in the catalogue with "a
bii P." and would only be accessible
atter twenty-four hours' notice being sent
.;p daily from the mortuary and returned
thither when done with. Hoth the Univer
sity Library at Cambrnig" and the Polic
ial, are sadly in need ot some such relief
for th rr I no roiin for the due enlarge
ment of thoir present buildings.
He d not nrd our aid. th Patent. Lord,
To w"rk poii hi lonfertectd plan.
In faiiMnnlra tt. ?tiny of r.;u:.
Vn.t : -t 1 faivy 'K his own apora,
n l vtTf h'-.iue al ioe i wonirnu kind.
He vJi' tat we hall fre!y rav- a hare
In ! ! in M. n tK.vuht imi'lamt-J Inert
hin the ..ui. wlt'ii.n our ir.moyt Mind;
Jut a a nether. I"iy with hr task..
; 't t'ue I'laltin m, e ;;iat Iviut.ij- ka
l.;t ' donifh. ;'rchsr'' for t'r.y innda
!' l.ivwd and moll c;vllih v, lh dm.inO;
:t- In !it-' ho i-w t.i un a oart
i.n snn!" a ,;!-,! tit th h'!jful htart.
-Mxtiarrt S. Terai t. la iJood iiojek.:pins
USES OF THE BATH.
SuKcetlom of nn Old Prnclltloner on
Topic -f General Interet.
There may be a great many people who
have but little use for water for drinking
purposes, but none but tramps, can get
along without :ing more or less water
for toilet purpo.-es. Indeed, some people
are cranks on the bath question, and
would have everyone fol.ow their methods,
forgetting that what is good for one is
bad for another.
There is the coM bath, for' instance, so
greatly vaunted as a preventive if not a
cure for every ill. Some people would
have us believe that the fountain of youth
is a cold bath, yet others, from experience,
would call it a bath of oblivion and death.
There are two sides to the cpuestlon. In
tact.' it takes a pretty strong and rugged
person, one with gool vital power, to en
joy and be benefited by a cold bath. True,
if not too long and continued, a cold bath
usually acts as a tonic and exhilarant, but
not always; but if it does not have this
effect it is injuricus to a person otherwise
healthy. As a rule, individuals of weak
circulation and nervous disposition do not
bear the effects of cold bathing well; it
deprives them of an undesirable amount of
animal heat, which they cannot readily re
new; it causes nervous shock and po5sibly
congestion, unrelieved by compensatory re
action to the surface. To be more specific,
when a person, . after a cold bath in any
form, remains chilled, has a pale counte
nance and the fingers and lips aro blue;
when It is followed by a sense of languor
and drowsiness, he may be cure that he
is deriving more harm than benefit from the
bath and it must be given up or modified,
for there are various ways of taking a
cold bath. The temperature of a cold bath
should be about sixty degrees Fahrenheit.
The effect varies with the method of tak
ing it and the length of time it is endured
as well as with the degree of activity of
the person, taking it. As, for the duration,
a single plunge into ice water may havo
less depressing effects than a long con
tinuance in a bath of higher temperature.
The plunge bath, in which the whole
body can be immersed, is the ideal form,
but it is not always available and the
shock is extreme. Few people can endure,
it with comfort or safety. On the other
band, the sponge bath is always at hand,
at home or abroad, and It is almost the uni
versal method of obtaining comfort and
cleanliness. All that is required is a large,
clean pponge. a sufficiency of water, and
privacy. The best way to take it is to
have four Micks, about two inches square,
halved at about two inches from the end
so that they may be put together in a
square frame, and a piece of rubber sheet
ing a yard square. The sticks should be of
such a length that they may fit Into a
trunk while traveling. To use this the
sticks are framed together and the rubber
cloth is laid over them, thus making a
shallow tray, two inches deep, which
catches the water which Is squeezed from
the sponge over the shoulders and other
parts. When the bath is finished the cloth
is gathered up by the four corners and
the water is emptied out. By squeezing
the water from the sponge from a height
the effect of a mild douche is obtained,
but if this is too stimulating go to the
opposite extrem and simply sop the water
onto the body with the sponge. Whatever
method is used, it is Imperative to rub the
body briskly and strongly with a coarse
towel until the skin is dry and in a glow,
for only in this way is reaction established
and the jrood effects of the cold bath ob
tained. Sometimes persons cannot take
the cold sponge bath, because standing in
tho cold water causes-a rush of blood to
the head, but this may be remedied, In
part, by standing in warm water while
the bath is being taken.
The time of taking the bath is also of
great importance. Some people cannot fol
low the rule of taking it before breakfast,
but find that taking a cup of hot coffee
before taking the bath makes it endurable
and beneficial. Others must delay the time
until one or two hours after breakfast, and
the exigencies of life often make it impos
sible at that time. Of course, every one
knows the danger of going into cold water
when heated, but. on the other hand, the
bath may be delayed until the body is so
chilled that it does not react, or the bather,
especially if he be a swimmer, stays in the
water too long and suffers too great de
pression of vitality.
Sea bathing differs from fresh water
bathing in the presence of salt and other
chemicals in the water which have a stim
ulating effect upon the skin, but some
times the effect is too marked and causes
itching or even an eruption, forcing the
person to give up the luxury and beneficial
restorative and tonic effects of the sea
bath. The temperature is also more equable,
so that there Is not so great danger of a
chill, and. In addition, there is the benefit
of the fresh air and the change of envi
ronment, which is fully as great, if not
more so, as the Fea bathing.
For purposes of cleanliness the tepid
hath is the most desirable, the water being
at a temperature of from 85 to 04 degrees
Fahrenheit. This does not cause such a
shock to the system as the cold bath, and a
person may remain in It from fifteen to
twenty minutes without injury. It relaxes
and cleanses the skin and promotes insen
sible perspiration. After fatigue it is rest
ful, anl in slight feverish states, where the
skin is dry and hot it is refreshing and
The warm or hot bath is to be used only
as a remedial agent to promote reaction,
to allay pain, whether spasmodic or from
Inflammation, to soothe convulsive action,
and to cause relaxation of tissue. It is
often sufficient to soothe children who suf
fer from simple and inflammatory fevers,
and In the treatment of some skin dis
eases and In Brlght's disease it is often
recommended with advantage. The temper
ature should be about 1X degrees Fahren
heit, and the time for remaining In the bath
should not exceed twenty-five minutes, and
less if the desired effect is obtained sooner,
for the effect of the hot bath is weakening
if prolonged too long. Nothing is worse
than the habit that some people have of
getting Into a steaming hot bath and stay
ing in soak an hour or two, just because it
Is soothing and restful; it causes such a
relaxation of vital power that reaction is
slow and Imperfect, and this alone would
make an invalid of a well man if it was
habitual. Fersons who have any organic
disorder, especially of the heart, or are
subject to acute attacks of acute function
al disorder, such as a rush of blood to the
head, should take hot baths cautiously. If
The temperature of the bath cannot be
estimated by the feeling. A bath ther
mometer can be obtained cheaply, and
should always be floated in th water and
the temperature regulated by it. The old
woman's way will not do; she said she
knew about the bath, because If the baby
turned blue she knew It was too cold, and
if he turned red it was too 'hot, and gov
erned herself accordingly, but what the
baby had to say is not recorded. In fact, if
the temperature Is left entirely to feeling
much damage may be done. In the case,
for example, of a hot foot bath, given to
an insensible per.on. the feet may be actu
ally soalod an l yet the patient would not
A bot foot bath (r.ot over ll degree
Fahrenheit), by the way. 1 ext-eme
e.Tlcacioui In treatlne headache, especially
when th- head throbs as if h!I thp bloo.I
l: the body were pumping through it. I.
should be hot enough t.- ml Jen the fkir..
and may be strengthened in its efTects b
: WlY I !mi A M A T)AT TC !
r 1 . an, 1 , 1 11 1 , 1 J
Entire Building Occupied Exclusively by This Institution.
A Thorough Musical Education Afler the Methods of Foremost European Conservatories.
Branches taught: Piano-forte, Voice; Cul
ture, Pipe Organ, Cabinet Organ, Violin
and all orchestral instruments, Harmon)
and Composition, Ensemble, Elocution,
Physical Culture, Modern Languages and
Students are prepared for positions in
schools and colleges, in church choirs and !
for the stage, concert or oratorio.
Students from the city and vicinity, as
well as those from abroad, can enter at
any time during the school year and sum
EDGAR M. CAWLEY,
adding a table spoonful of mustard and i
couple of handfuls of alt. Then, to cct the
full benefit after the feet have been gently
wiped dry they should be incased in woolen
stockings or wrapped in a flannel bandage.
The shower bath is a sort of douche in
which a multitude of line streams of water,
cold or warm, are allowed to play from a
greater or lesser height upon the body.
It is a valuable agent in nervous exhaus
tion, in St. Vitus dance and the like, but
not every one can bear it. Standing in hot
water will greatly moderate the shock. An
elaborate apparatus is not necessary; in
deed, a watering pot makes one of the best
forms of apparatus, the shock being regu
lated by the height at which it is held and
the temperature being regulated by the
needs, remembering that cold water gives
the greatest shock. It should not be in
judiciously given after a hot bath, as some
times a person may be rendered uncon
scious by the extreme shock, which may
act upon the heart or iungs or both.
A douche which is al?o useful a a
strengthencr In nervous disease and of
weak muscles which havo been sprained or
otherwise made lame may be given by a
watering pot without the sprinkler attach
ment or it may be poured from a pitcher
or jug the person holding it standing on a
chair if additional force is desired.
The Turkish bath has been known from
tlmfs of the greatest antiquity, yet very
little is generally known about it to-day.
It produces most free perspiration and then
braces and stimulates tho nervous system
by the alternation of very hot, moit air
and then intense cold. It favors the cir
culation of the blood through the finest
blood vessels and relieves congestion of
internal organs, while exhalation from the
lungs is also stimulated. Ireful as it Is
in many cases, it is positively harmful in
many others. It may. be taken, other
things being favorable, by people suffering
from chronic gout and rheumatism, es
pecially those where there are deposits in
the joints. It is also useful in scaly erup
tions of the skin. Some cases of sciatica
and tic doloreux and some chronic diseases
of the lungs, stomach and liver are bene
fited by it. It also sometimes removes
dropsy of the feet and legs when these are
not due to any organic trouble, but it is
not a safe remedy for all ills. and. indeeC.
makes many worse. It should not be in
cautiously indulged in. and it is always
best to obtain a physician's sanction ot
this heroic remedy.
Whatever the kind of bath taken remem
ber lint to take it immediately after eat
ing or when extremely fatigued or ex
hausted. Then a bath of any kind is dan
gerous. The effect also depends upon age
and ?ex. A vigorous child endures a bath
better than a nervously exhausted man,
and few old people can take a cold bath
with comfort or safety. I, -t M. D.
The soldier who is shot in these days and
who is not killed outright has little cause
to fear death from his wounds. At the
time of the civil war, and also in the Franco-Prussian
war, a large proportion or the
total death? were from wounds which v.cre
not immediately fatal. In his recent paper
before th British Medical Association b'.r
William AlicCormack. president of the
Royal Colitze of Surgeons, pointed ot a
fact which was observed by American sur
geons in the war with Spain namely, that
the character of gunshot wounds had com
pletely changed in thirty years. Not only
are the wounds less severe, but the pro
portion of wounded men to the whole num
ber of participants in a battle is smaller.
Sir William attributes this fact to the. im
proved weapons, which he considers to be
less efficient. It is likely, however, that
while fewer men are wounded more are
killed outright. Certainly in the Bor war
the proportion of rtad to wounded Hritons
was larger than former experience would
have led us to expect. That only 6 per
cent, nf the wounded die now may mean
not that the wounds are less dangerous in
themselves, but that antiseptic treatment
anl the advances in abdominal surgery
have enabled the surgeons to save many
wounded who would have died under the
old treatment. In other words, instead of
accusin the inventors of inefficiency in
gunmaktng. 'the distinguished surgeon
should have credited his own profession
with an increased power to aave.
Look Arc Deceptive.
Visitor I've been in many asylums, but
I've never scon such a dangerous, wild
eved lot of lunntic as that group over
there; and they"re without guards, too!
Attendant Why, man, those nin't luna
tics. Visitor They nir't?
Attendant I should say not; they're vis
itors. Visitor Victors-'.
Attendant Ve. sir; they're some of the
leading rr.eraVrs f. the chess congress
which is holding Its convention down town.
linage und Home.
A hovse 1 built of brick n-l stones, of -ills and
pot ani pier;
Hut hom s built of Jovlrj !eeds that stani a
A Yru. tlvvijh but an Iwrr.ble cot. Jthin it"
.all mav holi
I hem f rncels beauty, rich in Iyjve's eternal
The :vn of earth build house? halls and chain-
hr. ioof an! dorn
LJut the wr.fT.n or th rnrth God knowil-th
Tnmn build t5v himt.
Five eouM not stray from Tara-llto. for. O r.o
llr raciflus rehtx lit the way, k: Paradise
Conservatory of Music,
EDGAR M. CAWLEY, Director.
S09 Xortli Illixaoi Street,
TBE REGULAR SCHOOL YEAR CONSISTS OF FOUR TERMS OF TEN WEEKS EACH
First Term Monday, September 2, 1901, to Monday, November 11, iooj
Srcond Term Monday, November 11. 1901, to Monday, February 3, 1Q;
Vacation Two weeks, Saturday, December 21, 1901, to Saturday, Januar
Third Term-Monday, February 3, 1902, to Monday, April 14, 1902.
Vacation liight days, Monday, April 14, 1902, to Tuesday, April 22,
Fourth Term Tuesday, April 22, to Tuesday, July 1, 1902.
Catalogue and Particulars Address
Director, 509 N. Illinois
THE VINDICATION OF AN OLD FRlfiWD.
The newspaper of late have been full of the discussion regarding Prof. Koch' recent
statement that tuberculosis is not transmissible through cow'a milk. The Professor
now makes the proper apology to our useful friend, the cow.
DEPURATOR TREATMENT TO THE FRONT
In 1"nS1 Ir. Kk-1i made the important discovery that consumption was cauM br th belni
of tuheivuloMs. I'.vT Miiv that time common cow's milk h is oeen supposed to be ouo of tti
most fivju-nt mediums of communicating the disease.
Dr. KM'h now announces that he hi- dis-.-overed that n danger whatever exit from ths
use nf mlik, even when from cows which are atnicted with tuberculosis, other eminent dort on
dissent from this opinion very positively. Who sh:ill decid when doctors disajjrer?" The im
portant fact remains that all doctors now agree with 1'rof. Koch in his demonstration that con
Mi nipt ion comes from the erin tuberculosis. Must important of all is the lact that certain anil
septic medicines properly administered
WILL POSITIVELY DESTROY THE GERM
We have tlv formula which lias proiuced convincing result. We have tho means of matin j
these medicines effective by means of
Thfre is no other appliance in ue that can accomplish this result, anl we stand reatr M
demonstrate this fict to the medical profession or th" mot sk ptic.-il lnvm.ni. It cost nothing
to i n vp ti Ktttc. Hiid von can have a FREE TR.IAI TREATMENT, whkU will convince yu.i of
theeth;icvof the DEPURATOR TREATMENT.
It GETS RESUITS hv poitu: directly to the seat of th diea
Itptnemhe r that. n matter what you hve heard. CONSUMPTION IS CURABLE IP
Ti WX' TV 1 ! . . in 1 1 1 .o r li.l 1 1 1 :i 1 1 ! w! t Villi fOiiV ll!iV h fi 1. . H I v 1 1 1 1 1 it t 1 1 1 T Si IV.
CURABLE IF TREATED TOO LATE. Ionot waste any time, us you hve none to 1
I if vim haveanvdi-eas.. .l the LUNGS, NOSE AND THROAT.
: Our FREE BOOK tells you all about the DEPURATOR TREATMENT, and contain
testimonials irom liome lwopie yoti know. Write nr call fir it. It appeals to your reason. It
costs nothlnzto investigate. Visitors always welcome.
P.v permission v rrirr t a tew onlv t tho many who have taken lwpurator Treatment.
Thvn re your neighbors and friends. Their names will be bent on application.
DEPURATOR MEDICAL INSTITUTE
805 and 807 N. Illinois St., Indianapolis, Ind. Old Phone 25374
W. S. ROWLEY, M. D., Medical Director
HOL'Ii Weck (iav. S;:V)a. m. to6 p. m. rvcidnz and unJays hv appointment. Con'i!
tatinn nd trial treatment tree. ASK POR FREE BOOK.
IN THE GOSSIP'S CORNER.
Since Johnson's out and Tasgart's had his
One Moore ambition seeks the light of day,
To sec if rose:- bloom upon official walls
And if the Taggart "nay" is "no" or
While still Uie sun on Appcl's boom'.et
And Hamlin totters 'lonj; the parlous lines
That had to Klory or to ktrk despair.
Shrill eouine laughter o'er the landscape
This Is the natal day of toben (Irecn In
gersoll, soldler, lawyer, orator, author and
agnostic, who was born in Dresden. X. Y.,
hi HZZ. lie died in Dobbs Terry. X. Y., on
July 23, IH'jO. He was the ?on of a Congre
gational clergyman, and when ten years old
accompanied his father to the West, where
their nomadic life gave him little oppor
tunity to complete an education. At
twenty-one be was admitted to the bar and
began practice with his brother at Shaw
neetown. 111. Ills gift of oratory so-n made
him conspicuous in the courts. Soon after
his marriage at IYoria, in lV'J. he organized
the Eleventh Illinois Cavalry and went to
the front as its colonel. His gallant resist
ance to overwhelming numbers at Lexing
ton. Tenn.. made his reputation as a soldier,
but being taken prisoner and paroled, and
despairing of exchange, he resigned and en
tfred politics as a Republican, alsi resum
ing his law practice and figuring in many
noted cases. In the ItepJblican convention
of 1S76 he placed Hlaine In nomination in a
speech which caused that statesman to be
known, for all time, as "The Plumed
Knight." His pronouncements against
Christianity preclud.'d his political prefer
ment, ai'd from !so to his Joath, two yfara
ago. the law and his lectures were tho Held
of his actiitits.
The niot striking thins in connection
with the Into Socialist convention in this
city lay in the similarity of appearance of
a great majority of the member?. I lo not
mean that most of them are tall or short,
dark or llght, beanled or smooth-shaven;
but that, in three essential features, in the
proportion of fully three out of five of all
the dcks.ites I saw. they ar cast In the
same facial mold. These are: The pendulous
under Hp. indicating- erratic temperament
and ftubbornnc-s in nonessential things;
the narrow forehead with overhanging
brow. howine a narrow purview of the
world and a suspicious disposition; the re
treating chin, emphasizing the ment&l
Young ladies from a distance find a home
in the Conservatory building, where thev
can pursue their studies under the super
vision of the Director and Faculty.
The building is new and modern in even
particular; is lighted by electricity and
heated by steam. The largest Conserva
tory of Music in the Middle West.
A contract has been closed with The STARR
PIANO COMPANY for twelve Starr Uprights
and two Starr Grands, to be delivered by Au
gust 31. Pupils in the Piano Department will
have the use of these superb pianos for lessons
St., Indianapolis, Ind.
mnr.il instability indicated, in part, by t:.
drooping under lip. It lid not rTJi:r 1
hearing or a reading of tb.ir procedi?'t
to enable fine ever po slichtly skilVd :n
physiognomy to classify them as a fui.ia
mental part of the world's unrest.
To those who new r tire of fl.ujntii c be
fore the public the "inh rr r.t antriv.-! !.-:. f
labor ami capital," and to thos- v. h : -Y
bo blinded or atrny by tlx p r: i : .
ITopagandu, the following H-!inition of
ital. by the world s preatt-st political .:. 4
mist, J(.:in Stewart Mill, is comm.-n! d :
"As whatever of th produce of the e . i".
try is levoted to production is capital, si,
conversely, the whole of the capital of th
country is devoted to production."
Some criticism has Ixen aroused, in li-tereste-d
quarters, by my comment, a S ; -day
or two npo. on the po- al! .1 ".-. r '
concerts given by the I5edfrd : .
Mer's Hand. My congratulations to :
fonl that it possesses a band capaM. f
giviig suecessful concerts, on S'.::..!.i r
any other day, an as dnccr as my r ' !
that a concert i: not "sa n d" simpv -cause
it is riven on Sunday. I am 0
strict a Sabbatarian that 1 1 not . ; !
elate, s-ven days in the we. k. good n, ;-
whether It b- sacred nuMc. a ir.:,nh. -cal"
music, or cwn a wl!-plad pi... . f
ragtime, though I am n.. part::! )
s: neopatcd ir.hanrony. 1 d..-;! t if th- g '.
people of I'.edford .r Indian ipo'N v, : 3
cre to sit through a long Programm-- -ckisivtly
fn.rn "l. Hugu.nots.' -M.
I aul." "Creation." 'Saul'" or ".M. .!.. '
and other kindred grand prod a, :i..ri. h
while we must cuter to t!:- j.aj.-jl tr t in
music as in co-.mthss othr tlntit.-. i. ; ;s
not classify the re.-ult as "sair.-.l."
The rounding IlrifVr.
Two li'if-r;; arc of a more c''n!-II;. J
poiti'jn, coming1 c!o. to look at '
j-ti.tnger as he Mts on th..- 1I0 rsi!I f t::
i bain. Their curioity cti.-t rntng :v :s
pel haps dlniiil ii liey .1 ; wa t-
ing ihr snppo.'d livcrv. rrks. Lkr m-. t:. y
stand and consid-r. bt't betray no uiü-v:
ncrly eagerness. "Who l h i k. ..,!.'
they might Ik- haying. "I n.'or aw I'.i
before," Hut thir jaws -till m.oi
chauicilly. and thir UMu;fu , - ar . '.1
ot a peat eful satl.-f a tii . nd mi;t e
a grc-t alleviation t the temper W i a
flieh H prMiaI sedall-... .jv c.-.!i .' '
one ever be fretted into a. . as pm-tt.-tion?
As t matt r oi' tut, I l-vl.-v t n t
cows never ?uff--r frc:n t'U irvM eM:
lug mal..dy. The rf t o: h Ith .:!
happines. I to I lx y --toi e.l. l"."t
llcwr hutried. 1 hive nti e ;..': of f.' - J
who seemed to havt hartisd tiio cu'