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TOPEKA STATE JOURNAI MONDAY EVENING MAY 8, 1899.
WHITEWASH Is Applied in Liberal Quantities in the Report Of the Beef Inquiry Board Sub mitted to the President, EXCEPT TO GEX. MILES And to Gen. Eagan, Who Are Mildly Censured. The Packers Are Made to Ap pear Immaculate. The President Wants the Whole Matter Dropped. iWashington, May 8. By direction of the president, who approves the find ings. Acting Secretary of War Meikle john today made public the report and findings of the military court appointed to Investigate the charges made by Maj. Gen. Miles, commanding- the army, that the beef supplied to the army during the war with Spain was unfit for the (use of the troops. The most important features of the report are: The finding that the gener al's finding that the refrigerated beef (was treated with chemicals was not es tablished; that his allegations concern ing the canned fresh or canned roast beef were sustained as to its unsuita toility for food as used on the transports land as a long continued field ration; censures of Gen. Miles for "error" in failing to promptly notify the secretary of war when he first formed the opinion that the food was unfit; censure of the commissary general (then Gen. Eagan) for the too extensive purchase of the canned beef as an untried ration; cen sure of Col. Maus, of Gen. Miles' staff; the finding that the packers were not at fault and that the meats supplied to the army were of the same quality as those supplied to the trade generally, end the recommendation that no fur ther proceedings be taken in the prem ises. The conclusion of the court adverse to further proceedings and based upon the charges is as follows: "It has been developed in the course lof the inquiry, as recited in this report, that in some instances some individuals failed to perform the full measure of duty or to observe the proprieties which dignify high military command; but the court is of the opinion that the mere statement in the official report of facts developed meets the ends of the discipline, and that the interests of the eervice will be best subserved If fur ther proceedings be not taken." There is more or less criticism of Gen. Miles in various parts of the report. Probably the most direct instance is the one that states that, beyond the criticism of officers found elsewhere in the report, "the court finds that against none of the officers commanding corps, divisions, brigades and regiments and their staff officers should a charge of guilty be brought. "The court also finds that the major general commanding the army had no sufficient justification for alleging that the refrigerated beef was embalmed or was unfit for issue to troops. It also finds that he committed an error In that, "Slaving belief or knowledge, as claimed, that the food was unfit, that it caused eickness and distress, and that some of 4t was supplied under the pretense of eiDeriment, that other beef was em balmed, he did not immediately re tport such knowledge or belief to the secretary of war, to the end that proper remedy might be promptly applied." The censure of Col. Maus, inspector sjeneral on Gen. Miles' staff, is based upon his failure to call attention to charges concerning the beef at Chicka mauga, contained in a report of in spection made by Dr. (or Major) Daly on the 26th day of October last, in jwhleh he stated his belief that the flseef was chemically treated. "The silence of Col. Maus," says the ; report, "on so important a matter as the chemicalized beef reported by Maj. 3Daly, and personally known to himself, Is most remarkable." The remark is also made that Gen. Miles' failure to draw special attention to this report is "unexplained." Commenting upon Gen. Miles testi mony that he had first formed the opinion last August that the refriger ated beef had been processed, the court remarks: "Whatever the date on which he formed a belief, or a reasona Ible suspicion, that the health of the Uroops was being impaired by the use of deleterious food, it was his bounden duty, in the opinion of the court, in stantly to take the most effective meas ures within his control to ascertain the actual fact and to correct the wrong. If any should be found. It would have been practicable to obtain samples of the beef then being supplied to the army by contractors and to have sub mitted these samples to chemical ex amination which would have resulted In the detection of the presence or ab sence of boracic or salicylic acids, or any other chemical agent that may lave been used as a preservative agent. Yet no such precaution as that suggested (was taken by the major general com manding at that time, so far as has teen learned by the court. "The court finds the allegations of the major general commanding to the effect that the refrigerated beef sup plied to the troops was treated with chemical preserves have not been es tablished. The court also finds that so much of the allegations of the major sjeneral commanding in respect to the canned roast beef as relates to Its un euitability for food, as actually used on the transports, and as to its extensive or long continued use as a field ration are sustained. The evidence shows that Col. John F. Weston, assistant commissary general of subsistence, rec ommended the adoption of the canned roast beef as a component of the field ration and to this extent he is re sponsible." The report places the quantity of can ned roast beef purchased for the war by the commissary department at 6,847.174 pounds, including 350,000 pounds which was brought from Liverpool and other English points. This amount is charac terized as excessive and the commis sary general (General Eagan) is severe ly criticised in several parts of the doc uments on this score. One of the se verest rebukes is as follows: "Considering the little use that has been made of this beef In the regular the probability that the volunteers were entirely ignorant of it, that its use as a part of the field ration had never been sanctioned by the president or secretary of war, the court can but characterize the action- of the commissary general of subsistence as unwarranted and reckless in that he ordered the purchase of such enormous quantities of food that was practically untried and un known and the court so finds. The court also finds that there Is no ground for an imputation whatever of any other actuating motive, on the part of the commissary, than the earnest desire to procure the best possible food for the troops. The court pronounces this act of the commissary general of subsist ence a colossal error for which there is no palliation." The court finds that there was neg lect in Cuba and to a less degree in Por to Rico in delivering, tho refrigerated beef. "The court," says - the report, "does not wish to state the case more strong ly than to say that the finding appears to be warranted that too much time was consumed in distributing this per ishable article. The fault, if any there was, rested with the brigade and higher commanding officers and their commis saries and quartermasters, but the tes timony is not so definite or specific as to warrant the naming by the court of any particular officer." It says that the refrigerated beef was at first received with great satisfaction There is also a criticism of the delay in unloading the refrigerating- apparatus of Swift & Co. at Santiago. "An appeal by the contractors' agents to General Shatter for an order on the quarter master to expedite the delivery from the transport to the refrigerating plant did not effect any result. The delay in this matter was the cause of serious loss. "The court is of the opinion that the canned roast beef was not suitable as a travel ration on transports, considering the absence of cooking facilities, and the absence from that ration of fresh vegetables and condiments. For use on shore as a field ration, where the com panies had their camp cooking equip ment, and vegetables were available, canned roast beef is suitable for issue, say two days in ten, but not for two days in succession. In some organiza tions it seems to have constituted at least one-half of the meat ration and until after the surrender the troops had no means of cooking other than was practicable with the individual kit car ried. For such extensive use, or any use exceeding one day in five, the court finds this beef unsuitable. "The refrigerated beef is. In the opin ion of the court, a suitable ration for troops when it can be issued to them in good condition." As to whether anything better than the beef was available for a ration, the opinion is: "First That on the transports the reliance on canned fresh and canned corned beef was wise, but that the can ned fresh beef was less desirable than the corned beef. "Second That while bacon is not re garded as a suitable constant food in campaign for troops serving in the tropics, combined with the vegetables that were available it would have been more suitable and fit than the unknown and unfamiliar canned roast beef, eaten direct from the can. "Third That the use of refrigerated beef on shore, after the trooos had se cured convenient harbors and landing facilities, was wise and desirable. That the court believes that there was no better food available or practicable." The opinion is expressed that it would have been impracticable to land beef cattle on the hoof in Cuba, the remark of the court on this point being: as fol lows: "The commanding general of the ex pedition characterizes as 'absurd' such a proposition and many of his com manding officers whose opinion is given in the testimony coincided with him in the impracticability or inexpediency of such a project. The court concurs in the opinion of those men whose experi ence in active military service dated from 1S61." An instruction of the president to the court was: "If the packers of the coun try are guuty it must be known." Replying to this direction the court says: "The court finds that at the out break of hostilities in April. 1898. the packers of canned beef were engaged in the manufacture of an article of stand ard quality, well known to the trade and the subsistence department, under the name of canned roast beef. The methods of packing then in use werethe fame as those habitually employed in the preparation of the meat as an arti cle of commerce, and the court does not find that they underwent any change during the progress of the war. The large purchases for the use of the mili tary forces during the months of May and June, 1898. were made not at the solicitation of the packers, or in conse quence of efforts put forth by them for that purpose but by the order and up on the initiative of the commissary general of subsistence, such purchases being made in every case by officers of his department in the osual manner." On another point connected with the packers the court says: "Although the subject of readjustment of accounts between the United States and the con tractors was not referred to the court, it appears from the testimony that whenever any cans have been found to be defective, subsequent to their origi nal delivery to the subsistence depart ment, such cans have been replaced in every instance." Replying specifically to other ques tions set out by the president, the court says: "That the canned beef was described as 'fresh' because it was not salted, but that the meat was not old or stale. "That the refrigerated beef furnished the army was not 'doctored or treated with any agency other than cold air.' "That the meat purchased for the army was the meat of commerce, that 'both kinds refrigerated and canned were such as are well known in both hemispheres as commercial articles, of which there is and has been very large consumption, not only by the trade generally, but by the United States navy and by the armies and navies of Europe. "That no reports of unfitness or un suitability of the beef sent from the United States were forwarded to the war department by any general officer serving in Cuba or Porto Rico while the field operations were in progress, nor were any such reports received until more than one month after hostilities ceased. "That, barring some defects in meth ods of inspecting the beef on its de livery to the subsistence department, the deterioration of the meat in ship ment was due to the fault of no one." The charges of Gen. Miles', as made In newspaper interviews, as well as those made before the war investigat ing commission, are referred to at length, among them being the inter view with the general sent out from the New York office of the Associated Press on January 31, in which Gen. Miles was quoted as saying that he had "overwhelming evidence that the beef was treated with chemicals to pre serve it and that he had affidavits from men who saw the beef undergoing the embalming process." The court notes the denial which Gen. Miles made to this part of the conversation as it was printed in the New York Herald, but prints the charge as a part of the al legations, saying on this point: "The testimony of both Mr. Reld and Mr. Berry, of the New York Times, agree in the veracity of the interview as reported by the former, and this Is found in the Herald clipping. The court does not, therefore, ignore this para graph, but treats it is a part of the allegations which, are under Investiga tion." Summing up the results of the inves tigations of the chemists employed by the court, the court says: "The con tents of all the cases, .which, consisted PkiilliillllllllirlllHTIHMPrT'W X X I IIIIIIIIIIL sKA ' 1 II ! M B. A- CI m . V M TiW l in M Mill hot94iiii Z fY7is of boiled rather than roast beef, were found to be perfectly sweet, with an odor of cooked meat. The beef in near ly all the cans appeared to have been softened by exposure to heat, but ap parently without injurious effect as to its quality; apart from this the meat contents were found to be in a good state of preservation in every case. No trace of preservative acids was found in any of the cans. There is no testimony to the effect that any of the canned fresh beef supplied to the subsistence department since April 25, 1898, has been chemically treated or sub jected to the action of preservatives of any kind save as small quantities of common salt have been added as sea soning to the product of certain pack ers." Detailing the numerous investigations of the keeping quality of the canned fresh beef, the court concludes that "in no case did the numbers of swelled or tainted cans discovered greatly exceed in amount 1 per cent of the entire number examined." Several pages of the report are devoted to the consideration of the allegations made by General Miles that the refriger ated beef was treated with preservatives, but the statement is made upon the threshold of this question "that but little testimony was submitted by him in sup port of this contention." The inference drawn by the court from the absence of such testimony is adverse to the existence of the practice alleged to prevail by the major general command ing. Attention Is then called to the fact that the testimony bearing upon the chemical ization of the beef deals with it only at the time of its issuance to the troops, and analysis of this testimpny is made with the result of showing "considerable differ ence of view as to the substances used and the mode of their application." Considerable attention is giver to Dr. Daly's testimony concerning the refrig erated beef on the transport Panama and also to his report concerning the beef sup plied to the immunes stationed at Chlcka mauga. Referring to the doctor's analysis of residium from beef secured on the transport, the court calls attention to the fact that he approved the finding of the board of survey and that notwithstanding there were other medical officers on board no reference was made by him to his sus picion that the meai had been chemically treated. Referring to this and to another inci dent, the court says: "The testimony shows that the beef treated by the Powell process, which was declared by rr. Daly to contain boric and salicylic .was, in fact, treated by fumigation and the ma terials employed contained neither boric nor sylieylic acids. The beef from which the broth was made on the Panama had not been positively identified as refrig erated beef and the connection between the residium of the sample taken from the ship's cauldron and that analyzed by Dr. Daly has not been established to the sat isfaction of the court." A chapter of the report is devoted to the consideration of the cause of the sick ness in the army in the Santiago cam paign, but "the court finds it impossible to conclude that either the canned fresh beef or refrigerated beef appeared to any appreciable extent as causes of intestinal disease." Speaking of the ration as a whole, the court says: "As to the effects of the food supplv, having regard to both sufficiency and quality, it seems to be clearly established that the army ration as supplied, without modification, to the troops serving in the West Indies was by no means adapted for use in a tropical climate. If this be true, the unfitness of the ration should have . manifested itself by its failure to keep the troops which subsisted upon it in the best possible condition Tor service in hot Climates. Tlis. in the nninlnn rtf ! the court, is fully established in evidence. j. iik lusLiuwieiicy or trie tooa snppty in Cuba and the irregularity attending upon its distribution, due primarily to a marked deficiency in transportation facilities and to the conditions of the weather and the roads, appeared to some extent as causes of sickness among the troops who were thus insufficiently and irregularly sub sisted." The report closes with the following statement: "The court, with a deep sense of the res ponsibilities devolving upon it. has labored sealously to bring out the truth, and be lieves that it has fully covered ail the matters referred to it for investigation. The calling of mope witnesses from the large number suggested by the major gen eral commanding, including ail those who have taken part in the operations of the war. would only have resulted in addi tional testimony on the same lines as those pursued, without throwing further light upon the questions involved. Several witnesses who were duly subpoenaed to appear before the court did not obey the summons. "Some of these were called at the in stance of the major general commanding, others at the instance of the court. Hav ing knowledge of the fact that the stat utes did not make it possible to testify before a court-martial or court of inquiry, the court took no steps to compel their attendance." The document is signed by J. F. Wade, major general United States volunteers, president, and George B. Davis, lieutenant colonel, deputy judge advocate general, recorder. The foregoing report having been sub mitted with the proceedings to the presi dent, the following are the orders thereon: Executive Mansion, Washington. D. c. Mav fi isx The findings of the court of inquirv are approved. WILLIAM M'KINL!?T. The court of inquiry, of which Major General James F. Wade, United States volunteers, is presiuent. Is nereby dis solved. By order of the acting secretary of war. H. C. CORBIN, Adjutant General. Quick, rood work, American Steam Laundry. 112 .West Seventh street. Tele. J phone 341, for lcmeS HATS FOR CHILDREN. From the Nfw York Press.l Of all the gay colors which fashion is good enough to allow he children this spring pink is the favorite. Deep rose pink, the hue of the sunniest bud in the garden, is the preferred shade. And these pink hats and bonnets, like nearly every dressy head covering for children, are frilled and puffed exceed ingly. So that whatsoever pretty faces later come under them, those faces will seem to be framed in swirls of pink. Sometimes the entire brim of the hat is finely plaited taffeta silk four inches deep. This is fastened only at the crown, and the outer edge has a will of its own. Other brims are of straw ob scured by several ruffles, one over the other, of pink chiffon. And a different sort of straw is cov ered on the under side toward the face with a dozen wee ruffles of pink silk muslin. Crowns are oftenest in ample "Tarn" shapes, of pink silk, or silk and inserting, or natural straw. And the choicest trimming is a big hemmed bow of rose pink silk jauntily toward the front. Some of these hats, even the largest, have long strings of pink mous seline de sole. Other hats are all red from straw to ribbon. Straws used for the best hats are tuscan, leghorn, fine manila, satin and an exquisite openwork sort, in blue and pink, which suggests frosts on the window panes in its delicacy. Hats of this lightness bear linings and frills of taffeta. Pokes are in order for little folk. The fancier the poke the better. An exclu sive design is of soft satin straw with Tarn crown and crinkled brim. A many- looped white satin ribbon bow fills in between the crown and the brim crink lings. From the back there are long white ribbon ends. Tiny steel buckles hold in place some ends of ribbon on these modified pokes. Hatpins of cut metal or colored crys tal are used with pretty effect on these young hats. Always the pins are small and simple, and used on the hats of grown-up folk, to fasten a knot or ro sette. Children's school hats are sturdy sailors, especially in bright red and navy blue. The reds have knots of red ribbon and plenty of red quills. The blues, many of them with sugar-loaf crown, are wreathed with wild flowers. COREAN DOCTORS From the Missionary Review. By the Coreans, disease, as well as all the other ills of life, is attributed to the malevolence of demons, and In most cases of sickness more money is spent In exorcism, with a view to propitiating the evil spirit, than in medicine for the suffering -victim. Perhaps nothing serves better to illustrate to the occi dental mind the contrariness of things Oriental than the music, dancing and feasting called for In case of sickness in a Corean home. The chief figures in the troop of actors is a female exorcist, be lieved to be in league with a powerful demon, by whose aid she can entice or drive away the evil spirit causing the sickness. As she sings and dances the others beat upon drums, tom-toms, etc., all together making noise enough to distract the poor sufferer. As a pro pitiatory sacrifice tables are spread laden with food and wine, of the odor arising from which the spirit is sup posed to partake and depart satisfied. The Corean doctor's treatment, too, being directed toward the driving out of the demon, is naturally believed to be effective in proportion to its severity. Persons suffering from low malarial and other fevers invariably have var- i ious parts of the body pierced with large and, of course, surgically unclean needles, as a supposed important part of their treatment. We have seen bro ken limbs that have been punctured all around the seat of fracture in a similar manner. Indeed, no treatment is more common than the use of the needle.. No attempt is made to keep it clean, and consequently frightful abscesses, some times causing death, often follow its use. Butte, Mont., $28.85, via Santa Fe Route. Save Tour Neck And wear collars that have no rough edges. We do them. American Steam Laundry, TeL 341. $2.50 For $2.00. Commutation tickets at lunch counter. Hotel Oxford and restaurant. CASTOR I A For Infants and Children. The Kind You Have Always Bought Bears the Signature of END IS JN SIGHT. Final Work on State Capitol Soon to Be Commenced. Will Cost About $100,000 to Complete the Building. THE MONEY IS COMING. Authorized Lery Will Raise Nearly 175,000. New Library Rooms Will Be Furnished at Once. An event long delayed in Kansas his tory is about to come to pass. The state capitol in this city is to be fin ished. The state executive council announ ces that the closing work will be com menced with the completion of the new state library rooms. This will be ac complished and the library moved to its new quarters at least by the end of the year. By September or October the finishing of the first floor will be start ed, and by the time of meeting of the next legislature the rooms in the north and south wings above the first floor will be ready for occupancy. The levy of one-fourth mill, author ized at the last session of the legisla ture, will not become available until next January, and for this reason the work of finishing the building will not be taken up before September or Octo ber. For the work done during the lat ter part of this year the contractors will have to content themselves with the word of the executive council until the levy is in the hands of the state treasurer early in January. One hundred and seventy-five thou sand dollars in round numbers will be raised by the one-fourth mill levy. Mr. J. G. Holland of this city, who made original plans for the completion of the state house, says that with due econo my the building can be finished for something over $100,000. The rotunda and halls alone remain to be finished on the first floor of the capitol. In the completion of the rotun da it was originally intended to place busts of prominent Kansans in the niches supplied in the construction- of the walls. However, not long ago Sec retary of Agriculture F.D. Coburn sug gested that this space be set aside for an artistic exhibition of the agricul tural products of Kansas, and it is more than likely that this suggestion will be carried out. Instead of busts, large glass cases will fill the niches about the rotunda, and narrow cases of glass will extend around the walls above a marble wainscoting, all containing the finest specimens of Kansas agriculture to be procured. It would form a. unique and appropriate finishing. The new library room is to be sup plied with metal bookcases. When com pleted it will be one of the handsomest state library rooms in the country. The uncompleted rooms on the third and fourth floors of the builduig are practically all intended for committee rooms to be used in connection with legislative business. ANCIENT SAWS. (From the London Architect.) Saws were used by the ancient Egyp tians. One that was discovered with sev eral other carpenters' tools in a private tomb at Thebes Is now preserved in the .British museum. lne blade, wnicn ap pears to be of brass, is ten and one-half inches long and one and one-quarter inches broad at the widest part. The teeth are irregular and appear to have been formed by striking a blun-edged instrument against the edge of the plate, the bur, or rough shoulder, thus produced not being removed. A painting copied in Rosel lini's work on Egyptian antiquities repre sents a man using a similar saw, the piece of wood which he is cutting being held between two upright posts. In other representations the timber is bound with ropes to a single post, and In one. also copied by Rosellini, the workman is en gaged in tightening the rope, having left the saw sticking in the cut. In an en graving given in the third volume of Wil kinson's Manners and Customs of the An cient Egyptians a saw is represented of much larger dimensions, its length being by comparison with the man not less than three or four feet. It does not appear that the Egyptians used saws worked by two men. "The invention of eaws was vari ously attributed by the Greeks to two or three individuals, who are supposed to have taken the idea from the jawbone of a snake or the backbone of a fish. There is a very curious picture among the re mains discovered in the ruins of Hercu laneum. representing the Interior of a carpenter's workshop, with two genii cut ting a piece of wood with a frame-saw, and on an altar preserved in the Capi toline museum at Rome there'is a perfect representation of a bow-saw, ex actly resembling, in the form of the frame and the twisted cord for tight ening it. those used by modern carpen ters. From these remains it is evident that these forms of the instruments were known to the ancients. Chinese Court Historians. From the New York Herald. There are "court historians in China, as there are in other countries, but there is one striking difference, and it lies in the fact that the work of the Chinese court historians does not see the light until the reigning dynasty comes to an end. In this way these celestial historians have an opportunity to describe most truthfully the virtues and vices of the various rules and the real signficance of the events which take place during their regime. T;hey can write what they please without fear of censure, for they know that their work will not be pub lished as long as the reigning dynasty lasts. This has been the rule for more than two thousand years, the first court his torians having been appointed by the imperial house of Han, which reigned from 206 B. C. until 25 A. D. The duty of these historians is; to write a plain account of all the events that occur during their tenure of office. At regular intervals their completed work is taken from them and is locked up in an iron safe or vault. There it remains until the first member of a new dynasty ascends the throne. It is then given with all the other histories in the vault to the court his torian who is then living, and from the mass of documents he is expected to prepare a truthful history of the dynas ty which has just expired. The present dynasty has been reigning since 1644, and consequently no court history has been published since that date. 21 Meals $3.25. Hotel Oxford and Restaurant. FRANK LONG, Manager. The Topeka Cash Dry Goods Co. have opened a job department on their sec ond floor where they keep all the soiled, stained or otherwise damaged goods to be found In their entire establishment. Whenever they advertise any of this class of goods it is ALWAYS under "Job Department" heading. Remember this. is the foundation on which is built the ( enduring fame of the emington Wyckoff, Seamans Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict, 105 W. 9th St. Kansas City, Mo. J. F. MYERS, Local Dealer, Topeka, Kansas. A PICNIC IN JAPAN. CFrom the St. Nicholas. SV picnic in Japan is a treat that does not fall In the way of many Americans; but it was not strange that the children of an American consul general at Yoko hama should have been invited to at tend one. One of its jolliest incidents was the appearance of a troupe of rov ing acrobats, who planted themselves close by and promptly began their per formance. It consisted of four boy tumblers, mere fat babies, whose bones were evidently of India rubber. It was considered almost mean to let Julie go on sleeping, and soon her joyful pipe was added to the rest of the hubbub? An opposition show drew near, and was rewarded with instant success; for thi3 time the theatrical company was com posed of two brown monkeys, dressed, of course, in tiny kimonos, with blue coolie handkerchiefs tied about their heads. They began by bowing in true Japanese fashion to the delighted audi ence; then they fell to fencing, with a terrible clashing of spears fully as long as pencils; and between each round the showman opened wee red fans and handed them to the supposedly over heated artists, who comically squatted and absentmindedly fanned the grass about them. Lee and Ned fairly rolled on the ground with laughter, and Julie had to be held firmly on both sides. such was her frenzy of excitement. With a snort of perfect contempt the other showman began to beat his drum and give sharp orders to his boneless ba bies. But they, palled, -after the mon keys; and no matter how many ages they stood on their poor little heads, nor how many scores of wheels they wheeled, despite their twists and tum bles and starts and screams and clap pings and bowings, the eyes of the au dience wandered back to where panted the sad-eyed monkeys in their striped cotton kimonos, glancing about with marked disapproval and a settled mel ancholy regarding the world at large. Attracted by the jingle of the copper sen, showered equally by the sympa thetic tutor, other roaming shows and musicians drew near, and soon the pic nic party was the enraptured center of a hullabaloo that could be heard a quarter of a mile away. PRODUCTION OF ASBESTOS From the Boston Transcript. Asbestos is a physical paradox, yet one of nature's most marvelous pro ductions. It has been called a mineral ogical vegetable: it is both fibrous and crystalline; elastic, yet brittle: a float ing stone, which can be readily carded, spun or woven into tissue. In Germany it is known as steinflachs (stone flax), and the miners of Quebec give it quite as expressive a name pierre coton (cotton stone.) The asbestos mines of Quebec are the most famous in the world, yielding 85 per cent of the entire output. Italy being the only competing country; and there the Industry is de clining. Although Charlemange Is said to have had a tablecloth of asbestos, which he cleansed by throwing into the fire, it was practically unknown until 1850. The Italian mineral was then ex perimented with, and some years later put on the market. In 1878 the first Canadian mine was opened, and the product steadily increased until 1890, when 9,860 tons, worth $1,260,000, were mined. There has since been a decline in value, the amount for 1896 being 12, 200, worth only $430,000. Asbestos is flexible, non-combustible and a non conductor of heat and electricity, and on these properties its increasing use depends. It is spun Into yarn, from which cloth is woven for drop curtains in theaters, clothing for firemen, acid workers, etc. It is made into lamp wicks and gloves for stokers and ropes for fire escapes. It is felted into mill board, to be used as an insulator in dynamos and as a fireproof lining for floors. It is used to insulate electric wires and as a. covering to prevent loss of heat from steam pipes. Mixed with rubber, it is used to pack steam joints. AFRICAN RIVERS. From the Gentleman's Magazine. It Is a distinguishing feature of most African rivers that they contain no wa ter for at least eight months of the year. It is true that water can almost always be found in a river bed by dig ging for it, but in outward appearance a river is usually a broad belt of sand lying between high and precipitous banks. Many and many a coach has been upset in one of these drifts, as they are called. The descent is always steep, frequently so steep that the brakes cannot hold the coaches. They start going down at a crawl, and then the coach gathers way and goes on with a rush, the mules are driv en into a heap anyhow, and one won ders that they do not get their legs broken; but they usually land all right, while the coach, practically unmanage able, goes down like a sort of tobog gan jumping from stone to stone, and swaying like a ship in a sudden squall, and may or may not arrive right side uppermost at the bottom. In fact, the passenger who has gathered his ideas of coaching from a trip to Brighton or a drive to Virginia Water, finds that he has a lot to learn about the subject when he gets to South Africa. Still, on the whole, it was wonderful how few accidents did occur, and if one consid ers that the coaches ran night and day, and that when there was no moon it would sometimes be too dark to see the mules from the coach, it reflects great credit on the drivers. Low Rates For Baptists And others. Santa Fe will sell tickets to San Francisco and return for $60.00. Limited for return to July 15, 1899. Pullman sleepers palace and tourist and free chair cars to California daily. Thos. L. King, agent, Topeka, has il lustrated descriptive literature of points of interest. Standard Typewriter & Benedict, 327 Broadway, N. Y. THE DOGRA SEPO. From the Indian News. Of all the martial races of the north who furnish recruits for the ranks of our native army, the Dogras of the Kangra Valley are, undoubtedly, the least known. The gallant little Gurk has, the daring and impetuous Pathans and the grim warrior Sikhs have all a worldwide reputation (the man in the street at home can tell you all about them), but the Dogras, good and ster ling soldiers though they have proved themselves to be, have not yet attained a like pinnacle of fame. And yet our Dogra sepoys have done us equally gal lant service, as the records of our fron tier expeditions amply prove, and on many a hard-fought- field have shed their blood freely for the Jionor of the British Raj. A hillman, like the Gurkha, the Dogra also possesses in a measure the soldierly qualities of the Sikh and Pathan, and withal excels all three in intelligence. The Dogra loves his fair native hills and valleys as much as the Pathan tribesman does his rugged fast nesses, and Dogra sepoys more thrifty than their spendthrift Pathan com rades, save money steadily in order to return to their homes. The Dogras are natives of the hilly country lying along the base of the snowy Himalayas, extending from the Sutlej in the south to the Chenab in the north. These hill regions consist of a series of parallel ranges divided by longitudinal valleys, which increase gradually in elevation as they recede from the plains and approach the snowy barrier which forms the northern boundary. Here every zone of climate and variety of vegetation are to be met with, from the scorching heat and ex uberant growth of the tropics to barren heights destitute of verdure and capped with perpetual snow. The four Dogra classes which furnish recruits for our army are the Brahmins, Rajputs.Rath ees and Girths, and these four classes comprise upward of four-fifths of the entire population of their hills. It might well be imagined that, on service, the caste prejudices of the Dogras would create difficulties and tend materially to depreciate their value as soldiers. This, however, has been proved not to be the case. For example, the Dogra, particular as he is about his drinking water in cantonments, will on active service cheerfully drink out of a mus suck. In appearance the Dogra is distinctly prepossessing, his features being well formed, and his complexion, owing to the temperate climate of his native hills, decidedly fair. In stature Do gras seldom exceed medium height, and it must be admitted that in bodily strength and vigor they compare unfa vorably with the stalwart Sikhs and Pathans. However, their physique and strength are quite up to the standard required by our recruiting officers, and as regards their inferiority in stature to the latter races, it must be remem bered that it is not always the biggest men who can stand the most fatigue and hard work. As "Wardens of the Marches" the Dogras have proved themselves well worthy of confidence, and the recalcitrant border tribesmen know to their cost that in them they have to deal with foes whose martial instincts are as highly developed as their own, and who, moreover, in dis cipline and intelligence are immeasura bly their superiors. Dogras also enlist In the Bengal cav alry regiments, and, as a rule, prove excellent horsemen. A few years ago the experiment of forming class regi ments of Dogras was tried, and the 37th and 38th Bengal infantry became the 37th and 38th Dogras. The experiment has been wholly successful, as the rec ords of both these corps short though they be are extremely fine ones. The 37th Dogras served with credit through out the Chitral campaign, while the deeds of the 38th Dogras during the op erations of the Malakand field force are still fresh in our memory. Dogras seem more suitable than any other race to form into class regiments, and we could well do with a few more regi ments entirely composed of them. There Is no more loyal and faithful soldier in the native army than the Dogra, whose motto and watchword may with truth be said to be "Semper Fidells." MAN OR LADY to travel and appoint agents. Established firm. $."i0 per month and all expenses to start. Mfr., Box 826 Chicago, 111. Seattle, Wash., $28.85, via Santa Fe Route. Your linen left spotless, American Steam Laundry, UjS West Seventh. Telephone 341. is that when her - little ones are born, they will be vigor ous and healthy. Her hopes will be fully realized if she will prepare herself during pregnancy with MOTHER'S FRIEND, the widely-known external liniment which so many women use. It not only paves the way for easy de livery, but insures strength and vigor to the new-born. Sold h, itrairri.ta for SI m bottle. M tmr mm tr HImhmI kMk rt.m H0THXk8 PUIKK THE BRADFn2XJ REGULATOR. CO., Atlanta. Qa. 'TrTrTrTrTrTrinrirTrs"s"ii's'iiii n