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TOPEKA STATE JOU11NAL.
i. r n l: THOMAS A. EDISON, WHOSE WORK IN THE ELECTRICAL WORLD HAS GIVEN HIM THE TITLE OF "THE WIZARD." THE PROGRESS OF A Ponderous Automobile of 1834 Has Been Succeeded by the Light Running and Marvelous Vehicle of 190a BY MALCOLM J. RICHARDS, PH.D. In spite of all failures and in spite of numerous mishaps, many minds have been engaged, theoretically or practi cally, in attempting to solve the prob lem of artilicial flight. Long before the dawn of the present century men were at work upon dying machines that re fused to fly, and the same question is still the most interesting and most im portant of the scientific problems that the nineteenth century will leave as a legacy to the twentieth. During the past hundred years con siderable progress has been made to ward the final solution of the great puz zle. There has been an advance along the lines of dirigible balloons, or air ships, but a flying machine that is in any way suited to the requirements of travel or transportation is still beyond the achievement of man. That such an invention is not only one of the possible, but probable re sults of twentieth century research is the opinion of most students. Every thing points to the fact that such an achievement is soon to be realized. It is not possible that so much time and money should have been expended for nothing, but it will undoubtedly be left to the next century to discover the true solution of the problem of successful aerial navigation. In spite of all this, however, there is much in the science of aeronautics that is deserving of the consideration in such a series of studies as this. Al though the great success has not been achieved, ballooning, as we know it, is still distinctly a science of the nine teenth century. Up to the close of the eighteenth century the progress along these lines had been scarcely worthy of notice, whereas the feats that have been accomplished during the past hun dred years have been distinctly worthy of notice. FAMOUS BALLOONISTS. Among the balloonists who are most deserving of attention and praise are Henry Giffard. the Tissandier Brothers, Gaston and Albert, and Renard and Krebs. In 1S52 Giffard broke all rec ords in the history of aeronautics by constructing a balloon which was pro pelled by a steam engine. This was the first air ship that could be navi gated in a desired direction. The next great achievement along these lines was made by Gaston Tis sandier, who exhibited a balloon that could be run by means of an electric storage battery, at the Paris Exposi tion of 1SS1. Later, assisted by his brother, he built another model, over i)0 feet long and 30 feet in diameter, which was fitted with dynamos and a f A 1 5 t I - air I '! -. fii .1 1 1K I I ' VI " 1 NEW YORK'S NEW FIRE ENGINE IS FITTED OUT WITH A SEARCH ING HT. A - s. V THE PASSING CENTURY. driving screw nearly ten feet in diam eter, and was supplied with current from an accumulator weighing about four hundred pounds. In this machine the two inventors were able to make a speed of from seven to nine miles an hour for an hour or two together. In 1SS4 Renard and Krebs constructed a balloon on similar lines, but with it they were able to obtain a speed that sometimes equalled fifteen miles an hour. This invention was one of the most interesting exhibits at the Paris exhibition of 1SS9. Since that time this science has made rapid progress, but the most pretentious attempt to put a balloon to practical use was during the Journey undertaken by Andree in the hope of reaching the north pole by the use of his air ship. Whether he returns or not is a ques tion that time alone can answer, but there is one point that he has proved, and this is that it is possible to con struct air ships that will be something more than a toy. Of course, up to the present time the faultless balloon has not been con structed, but the work of recent years tends to show that this will be attained, and there can be no question but that the highest credit should be paid to the nineteenth century pioneers in this great work to the men who were able to give the first practical illustration of the fact that balloons, like terrestrial machines, might be made subject to the control of man. A PERFECT SUBMARINE. The search for a successful subma rine boat has also been going on for more than a hundred years, but there is little doubt but that the solution of this problem will prove to be one of the greatest achievements of the nine teenth century. The first mention of a craft of this nature was made about the middle of the eighteenth century, when the Gentleman's Magazine pub lished the description of a strange boat constructed by a man named Symons, which actually dived in the Dart. During the remainder of the eight eenth century several attempts were made to construct a submarine boat that could be depended upon to come to the surface again, but while some good results were obtained, not one of the crafts proved practicable. Despite all these failures, however, the work was taken up by inventors of the nineteenth century, and the past hundred years have been rich in prog ress along these lines of navigation. One by one the problems that have pre vented the successful use of subma rine craft have been overcome. Some- mi u" in . .m t1 , .. .' 1 k' r "r. ili.. 'H FVi. I times it has been at the cost of human life, and always at a great outlay of time and money, but now, at the close of the century, it looks as If the world was to reap the benefit of all this re search. WTith the Gustave Zede In France and the Holland and Argonaut in this coun try, there seems to be little reason to believe that the successful submarine boat has not been found. The great American inventor, Fulton, failed, just as Symonds and Bushnell had failed before him, but to their failures are due a portion of the'credit of the pres ent success of Holland or of Lake. ROAD TRANSPORTATION. If there is any department of hu man endeavor in which unprecedented progress has been made during the past century, it is in that of road trans portation. In the eighteenth century the vehicles were still far from what one might have anticipated, and jour neys were made as often on horseback as by any other way. To-day the crude vehicles have dis appeared. In the early part of the present century they gave place to con veyances that were as comfortable as they were safe and ornamental, but now even these are disappearing to make way for a new vehicle that would have astonished our forefathers be yond the power of expression. This ve hicle, of course, is the automobile. Of course, as is well known, the steam carriage antedates the locomotive, and Isaac Newton suggested a rude form of the machine as early as 1680. From that time until the present day invent ors have been at work trying to dis cover some suitable conveyance of this kind. One of the first automobiles, however, was made in the early part of the pres ent century, and it is thus described by "The Mechanics' Magazine" for Jan uary, 1834: "The carriage is built to carry fifty passengers. The wheels are about six inches broad in the tire and eight feet in diameter. The crank shaft worked by the cylinders is connected by endless chains with the axles of the hind wheels of the carriage, and each wheel has a separate axle. "The spokes of the wheels are so con structed as to operate like springs to the whole machine that is, to give and take according to the inequalities of the road. "The boiler consists of a series of double tubes, one within the other, placed in a vertical position around a circular fireplace, and communicating with it; the heated air passes through these tubes, which are everywhere sur rounded by water. The tubes are in the form of siphons, to counteract the effect of unequal expansion. The draught is produced by a fanner worked by the engine, and the furnace is madd to consume its own smoke." Crude as such a machine would be to-day, it was a mechanical marvel three-quarters of a century ago, for it was not until 1S62 or 1S63 that even these steam road vehicles came into practical use. Constant efforts were made to improve them, however, and by 1893 it began to look as if the art of automobile building would finally be mastered. THIS DESOLATE ISLAND OFF IN THE FAR PACIFIC, IS NOW THE CAN FIND REFUGE. In that year a steam carriage made the trip from Paris to Rouen and re turn, a distance of some eighty miles, in twelve hours and fifty minutes, an achievement that was everywhere praised. Two years later, however, at the French competition, a petroleum carriage made a run of 736 miles in forty-eight hours and fifty-three min utes, or a little more than fifteen miles an hour. Not only is the automobile one of the most remarkable inventions of this century, but it has been of great ser vice to the people of the United States in that it has given a strong impetus to the movement in favor of good roads. SEARCHLIGHT FOR FIRE ENGINE. Xew Tort's Kew Apparatus For En abling the Firemen to See Through Flames. The new searchlight fire engine, which was built on the suggestions fur nished by Fire Chief Croker of New York, arrived there a short time ago from Elmira. It was received at the department repair shop in West Third street by Chief of Construction Ryan, who immediately started to get the en gine ready for service. It was given a test and was found to work success fully. The machine is the first searchlight fire engine ever constructed, and is ex pected to almost revolutionize the pres ent method of fighting interior fires by enabling the firemen to overcome the great barrier of smoke. The light pen etrating the smoke will allow the fire men to locate the seat of the fire in stead of, as at present, groping around in darkness and directing streams of water ahead. The machine will be located In the quarters of Engine Company 20, which commands the great dry goods district, where fires are hottest and smoke the densest. It will be manned by an offi cer, engineers and complement of fire men, and will respond to alarms .for large fires and when called out by spe cial alarms. Directly connected to the engine is a marine-type multipolar generator, sup plying sixty-five amperes of current at a pressure of thirty volts. On each side of the driver's seat is placed an eigh-teen-inch projector, and the seat folds over so that the projectors can swing through a complete circle. They can also be placed at any ver tical angle. The projectors are supplied with special deiiecting glass fronts, making it possible to cover a large area with the light at short range; or by using the plain glass fronts, also sup plied, the light may be thrown out in parallel rays to a great distance. WHERE FUGITIVES ' HAY HIDE. Few Spots Where Criminals May Con ceal Themselves From the Man With the Warrant It was Dick Swiveller who checked off the streets of London and then de cided that there was practically no thoroughfare that he could traverse without fear of meeting a creditor, and the fugitive criminals of to-day are in much the same position. They may seat themselves before a map 'and study the countries of the earth until mountains, rivers and cities mingle and become one before their weary eyes, but they will be unable to select a single spot in the whole civilized world in which they would be safe from the pursuit of the dreaded man with a war rant. To-day extradition constitutes so much a part of the jurisprudence of all countries that it is difficult for one to remember that such a condition of af fairs is something that is very new, but the public records show that it has only been within the past few years that the world has had no city of ref uge to which the criminal might hasten in the hour of his escape. A few years ago there were many such spots, scattered from one end of the earth to the other, and in those days the fugitive had but to select his place of abode. If he arrived at the chosen habitation, justice was unable to reach him. At that time safe harbors were of fered by Spain, Turkey, Algiers, Ja pan, Holland, Chili, Ecuador, the Phil ippines, Cuba and all of Central Amer ica with the exception of British Hon duras, to all kinds of criminals from the United States, from murderers down, while the places to which such offend ers as embezzlers might flee was much larger. WENT TO CANADA. Almost everyone can remember the time when every runaway bank cashier found refuge in Canada, but gradually the desirable hiding places commenced to narrow down. The United States Government lost no opportunity to per suade other Powers that nothing could be more advantageous than an, extra dition treaty, and it has now accom plished its purpose. Several years ago Canada passed the law that has made the Dominion an unhealthy resort for such tourists, and still later, Japan adopted a treaty covering what are called the "crimes against property." Eventually things simmered down un til there was nothing left but Central j merica, and at last only Spanish Hon duras was left. The treaty clause that was adopted in 189S robbed the fugitive of his last place of refuge, so that to day those who desire to escape the strong arm of justice will have to take up their abode upon some desert island or upon some one of the islands in the Pacific that are rarely if ever visited, and that have absolutely no means of communication with the civilized world. While it is quite probable that the fugitive in question would be able to escape discovery in such a place, he would not be thoroughly . safe even there, for any country that desired his presence before the court would not hesitate to go and take him bodily from an island that had no treaty relations with its government. At the present time no one of these islands offers a safer haven than Pit cairn, in the Pacific, but the question that would trouble the gentleman who desired to escape would be as to the means of leaching that Island. It is so far away from the ordinary routes of travel that the regular ocean steamers never stop at its one port, and the only visitors are occasional sailing vessels that put in for water and to give the islanders an opportunity to exchange their products for clothes and other necessities of life. . It is doubtful, however, if any fugi tive who had been used to the refine ments of civilized life would be willing to take up his abode on the island, even for the sake of his liberty. To those who are unacquainted with the condi tions that now exist on the island the very name of Pitcairn is suggestive of all kinds of romantic associations. Even the dull old school geographies used to pause for a moment in their painful round of rivers, boundaries and "principal oxports," to linger pleasantly over the romance of the mutiny on the British ship Bounty, in 1789, and the landing of the leader, Fletcher Chris tian, with eight other Englishmen, six Polynesian men and twelve Polynesian women, on lonely Pitcairn Island, where they founded a colony and agreed to live without law. There is no question but that the life was a wild whirl while it lasted, but in eleven years every adult on the is land had either been murdered or had died of dissipation, with the exception of old Alexander Smith, who was left alone with the children, who had sprung up like weeds. With the help of a few settlers dropped by stray ships, he began the Christian era, the Anno Domini of the Pitcairn microcosm, and from that date the virtues and simplicity of the Pit cairn islanders became one of the pret tiest pages in the history of modern civilization. That is the romantic side of the story, the bright side that history tells. There is another and darker side, however, that has been left to the modern chron icler to relate. For years things re mained in an ideal condition in Pit cairn. Everyone was moral and loved his neighbor as he loved himself, but gradually things began to change. Gen erations of intermarriage in a few fam ilies, coupled with the vices bred in the plenty and idleness of the tropical island, gradually undid all the good work that had been done by the earlier settlers, and to-day, it is stated, the people are little more than a race of degenerates. To banish a fugitive to live among such people would be worse than' to sentence him to prison, and existence on any of" the other islands -where he would be likely to be sheltered would be just as desirable. NO REFUGE. . As the result, therefore, it may be said with truth that there is no place in the civilized world where the es caped law breaker can hide his head. To-day his. government could follow him to any spot where he might go, for even those places where there is no definite treaty are always willing to give up the criminal who has taken ref uge in that land. Among all civilized powers the principle of extradition is found and demands for the surrender of a fugitive by one government to an other are usually complied with on the ground of international comity. Of course it must be remembered that there are certain offenses in the mon archical states of Europe that could not be regarded as crimes in this coun try, and in no possible way can the present extradition treaty be so twist ed as to permit of the surrender of for eign fugitives who have taken refuge in the United States because of such offenses. For instance, in Germany a man might be seriously punished for hav ing offended the dignity of the Emper or, but if he succeeded in reaching these shores the fact that he had been ac cused of lese majeste would not be suf ficient to persuade the officials of this country to give him up. In the United States the work of ex tradition is done through the solicitor of the State Department, and the ex pense is borne by the counties of the State demanding the fugitive. The United States Government bears the ex pense only in the case of violators of the United States laws, such as coun terfeiters and mail robbers. The aver age cost of bringing a fugitive back to this country is $500, and in many cases the crime committed is not suffi ciently serious to warrant such an out lay. In important instances, however, much greater sums will be spent, for the French Government spent more than 200,000 francs in obtaining the ex tradition of Carpenter and other em ployees of the Railway of Northern France. Of late eome governments have been trying to make Nihilism, Anarchism and the like extraditable, but nothing has been accomplished along, this line owing to the fact that it is very hard to discriminate between these and oth er political offenders. King Humbert of Italy and the Czar of Russia are particularly anxious to see this provis ion made. They desire to make an arcy, like piracy, a common crime, but the United States will not heed the sug gestion. Like most countries with free institutions, it has a serious objection to turning over political prisoners, and in cases where other- and extraditable offenses are charged, they have even refused to surrender the fugitive - on the extraditable offense unless there first should be an understanding that ONLY SPOT WHERE FUGITIVES he should be tried for the latter and not for the political crime. In this way does the law of this coun try protect the man who has succeeded in escaping from any political despot ism in Europe, but in cases of actual crime against life or property, the gov ernments of to-day have no sympathy for the criminal. One by one his places of refuge have been taken from him until now he will be compelled to take up his abode in a balloon or upon a practically desert island or else run the chance of being able to conceal his identity in places where he is not known. Of course this is being done ivery day, and it is possible that the de ception might be carried out success fully, but in no way does this condition of uncertainty compare to the time when Europe, Asia and Africa, as well as North and South America, all of fered havens of refuge to the violators of law. MARQUIS OF LORNEJNTRADE. He is in the Wall Taper Trnst, While His Wile Slakes Statues. Trusts have received the stamp of approval of the reigning family in Great Britain. It is announced that Queen Victoria's son-in-law, the Mar quis of Lome, is one of the principal organizers of the gigantic trust which has been formed to control the wall pa per output of the world. Lord Lorne has long .been interested in the production of wall papers, hav ing been for six years the active part ner of a firm of house decorators and paperhangers in Chelsea, London. Many i3 the suburban residence that has had the hangings of its parlor, the ceilings of its dining room and the cornices of its halls designed by the brother-in-law of the Prince of Wales. Lord Lorne and his royal wife are poor, and it is not to drive away ennui but to add to his income that he has gone into business. True, his wife re ceives from the Crown an income of $30,000 a year, with the use of apart ments in Kensington Palace. But the expenses incumbent upon her as a daughter of the Queen, such as, for in stance, the maintenance of gentlemen and ladies-in-waiting, the charities to which she is expected to contribute, etc., more than swallow up this an nuity; and as the Marquis has mani fested his-disapproval of the third mar riage which the aged Duke of. Argyle contracted recently he receives little financial assistance from his father. The Princess is herself not above working. Not only is she a clever painter, ready at all times to sell her pictures, but she is skilful with the chisel, and ready to take an order for a statue or a bust, charging as much as $S,o00 and $15,000 for her handiwork. A VIEW OF THE HONEY MARKET. Approved by Eussell Sage. "The financial situation in America," said Mr. Sage, '"was never more legiti mate and sound than it is to-day. The only cloud on the horizon is the pres ent War ' between Great Britain and the Boers. If by clever states manship international trouble is avert ed, there is no reason why good busi ness should not have plain sailing in the United States for a long time. If the war should be confined exclusively to themselves, the effect would not be disastrous in any way to American fi nances, for now, after the first shock our affairs here will run on smoothly and normally, and a considerable stim ulation in the prices of our products will ensue. The great danger is that as one spark may put a city In flames, so a war comparatively insignificant in itself may involve several of the first- class powers. The keenest states men cannot foresee the results. "The money question here has dis turbed public sentiment for thirty or forty days. The great demand upon the city banks for loans has come from all parts of the country, as well as from large dealers who are making applica tions for great sums of money for bus iness purposes. That the country at large is in a very prosperous condition commercially is indicated by the de mand upon New York banks from Chi cago, St. Louis, Minneapolis, St. Paul, and in fact from almost all tho big cities of the United States. "That business men are preparing for a greatly increased volume of business in the immediate future is shown by the fact that they are willing to pay full rates and a premium for money in order to be in readiness for any tax which new enterprises may put upon their financial resources. " There is lit tle chance of any relaxation in the price of money in the near future, as it is now loaning at full rates and a pre pium of from one to one and a half per cent, for thirty days,' three or six months. This is the strongest kind of an indication of the way in which bus iness men regard money prospects. "The offer of the Government to an ticipate interest on bonds will help to ease the money situation temporarily, but high- prices of money are legiti mately due in consequence of vastly in creased demands for industrial pur poses. Our cotton and wheat have a great market, and at high prices will bring vast sums of money from abroad. For we are spreading out and develop ing markets all over the world, many of which are greater than we can sup ply at present. Of course, all of this is a great stimulus to money. On the other hand, the very high price of iron has retarded the entering into contracts for the building of steam roads, trol ley lines, bridges, and the great build ings which are to-day constructed so largely of iron and steel. This has had the effect of restricting to a limited ex tent the employment of labor. "Apart from this question of war and its many complications and uncertain ties, the business prospects of the United States are infinitely brighter than ever before in the history of the country, as any one with a keen eye and good digestion can see. "Industrials have got to take a back seat, that is. most of them. There have been forced upon an ill-advised public great amounts of stock of over-capitalized concerns of tMis character. Of course, I have no reference to first-class properties. There was a time during the recent advance in prices all along the line when many industrials of ques tionable value were advanced in price artificially in sympathy with the gen eral market. The banks were prevailed upon to loan money on some of these securities, and I was afraid that this indiscretion might lead to a panic. But that danger is happily passed. A high rate is now demanded for money ad vanced on the majority of industrials, and even then it is insisted that they be put in at low prices. The rejection of these stocks by the banks of late has tended to increase public confidence in the integrity of our financial institu tions. "Naturally, high rates for money will cause the holders of gilt-edged securi ties that pay small dividends to sell out and loan their money at higher rates. The rates on mortgages will no doubt be advanced, but this will not hurt real estate, as the higher salaries paid to working people will enable them in turn to pay higher rent. The people in this country should remember one thing; that is, they are not living upon themselves, but upon the world at large, which they have made their mar ket, through industry and moral in tegrity. "In this war between England and the Boers we should, as I say, unques tionably support England, not only be cause she stood beside us during our recent war, but because England and America combined would be more pow erful, morally, intellectually and finan cially, than all the rest of the world. Without Mfting a finger we can, by our attitude, compel all other nations to keep their hands off. This will have the effect of not only shortening the war with the Boers, but preventing the dis organization of business and finance throughout the whole civilized world." Approved, RUSSELL SAGE. (?:.- A . ..i. i.i. ii i AN AUTOMOBILE WHICH WAS THE WONDER OF THE WORLD IN 1S34. IT CARRIED 60 PEOPLE. SECRETARY ROOT RIDES HORSEBACK. Though He Has Kot by Any Means Found the Animal He Wanted. When Secretary Root was at Lake Champlain with the President, he was called upon to review the Twenty sixth Volunteer Regiment, stationed at Plattsburg BarraGks, and . he greatly admired the sight of the field officers dashing about the parade grounds upon their curveting steeds. He was offered a mount upon one of these mettlesome animals, but coyly refused and stuck to terra flrma. But the fine picture remained in his mind, and after his return, while sit ting in his office, one fine afternoon, he summoned to him Adjt.-Gen. Corbin. "General," he remarked, "I have been a busy man for a number of years back." Gen. Corbin bowed his head in as sent. "And, General, for my business I have neglected many pleasures pleasures and pastimes, sir that I once enjoyed." "Yes, Mr. Secretary." "One of which. General, I am sorry to state, is the noble and king-like sport of equestrianism. Ah, horseback rid ing a firm seat and a steady hand, a gallop in the bracing air over a smooth road! Could anything be more enjoy able?" "Nothing, Mr. Secretary. Nothing." "Well, General, to come to the point, I find that now, in the course of my duties, I shall need a suitable mount occasionally, and you know there is nothing like knowing the horse one has under one. I desire to make use of your superior judgment in these matters." "Certainly, Mr. Secretary." "As I said, I have neglected the exer cise, and, of course ah! well, I would like an animal with a mild temper, sweet dispositioned, you know, and a broad back the sort that is hard to fall off of.- "I understand, Mr. Secretary. I will ask Gen. Ludingfon. who has had con siderable more experience than either of us, to aid me in making the selec tion." "And I say, General," called the Sec retary, "this need not be made public, you know not just now, at any rate." "Yes, Mr. Secretary." Gen. Corbin hurried up stairs to the office of the Quartermaster General. "Ludington!" he gasped, short of breath, "the Secretary of War wants us to help him buy a horse a riding horse. He wants a fine, good looking horse, with a broad back, so he can't fall off, and gentle as a dog." "Sure! Sure!" answered Gen. Lud ington. "I can get it for him. Sure! What color does he want?" "Wait a minute and I'll ask him." Gen. Corbin retraced his steps and found the Secretary waiting for him. "Mr. Secretary, Gen. Ludington wants to know what color horse you want." "Ah, yes, let me see. What color? I had never thought of that. I always rather fancied a gray horse, you know; perhaps it was from a picture I once saw. Yes, I believe it was. You re ca"ll the magnificent gray horse Napo leon strides in the canvas, 'The Eve of Waterloo?'" "A splendid animal, Mr. Secretary." s "And then there was Alexander's Bu cephalus a magnificent black, if I re member. Black is a beautiful color for a horse." "But, Mr. Secretary, Bucephalus was i ? ns: RUSSELL SAGE, CALLED THE "UNCLE" OF WALL STREET. well, ah! you might say not exactly well broken." "Well, sir, I have no objection to a sorrel. In fact, I am not particular about the color, sir. A broad back, though, remember; that is the main point and the disposition." Gen. Corbin again visited the Quar termaster General. "Ludington," he said, "the Secretary says he likes a gray, and he likes a black, and a sorrel or a bay, or a straw berry roan in fact, any color, just so the horse is gentle and he won't fall off." "Sure, sure!" raid the Quartermaster General. "I will find him right away." But Gen. Ludington was too san guine, for the horse has not yet been purchased. If A. M l i i .. - .1