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TOPE K A STATE JOURNAL, SATURDAY EVENING, JULY 1900.
S ?T?Tr FAIR STAK GAZERS WHO HAVE S TK"" 15ECOME VERY few people are aware that among the observers of the recent eclipse of the sun were at least a dozen women who have attained dis tinction in astronomy. These women are' employed in connec tion with th3 observatories of the great colleges either as computers, photogra phers of the heavens or as teachers. Ail the large women's colleges are sup plied with observatories with all the latest appliances for the study of the sky. 'Vassar, Smith. Wellesley, Swarth more, Bryn llawr, Mount Holyoke and Radeliffe have observatories, and Bar nard, through the courtesy of the as tronomical department of Columbia, af fords women opportunities to study the Etars. It is a fallacy to assume that women can never succeed in the exact sciences. In this country alone many women are making a great success cf one of the most exact of all the sciences that of astronomy, where the variation of a millionth part in a computation or the swerving of a hair's breadth in the ad justment of a delicafe instrument is a matter of great import. Speaking of women's work In astron omy, the average well informed person is apt to refer to Caroline Herschel and Maria Mitchell as the only women who have achieved fame in the study of the stars". This is a mistake. Long ago, when Egypt was writing Its history in stone, the records show that women were initiated into the study of astronomy by the priestly sa vants in whom all the wisdom of the land was centered. Berenice, after whom a constellation was named and who was the daughter of one of the Ptolemies, is believed to have been an astronomer of ability. The beautiful and unfortunate Hypa tia was an observer of the stars; so was the fascinating Eudocia, empress of Theodosius II. In modern times there was Mary Summervllle, whose achievements were so well regarded that the British government granted her an annual pension of 300. St. Hildegarde, the pious abbess of the Convent of Mount St. Rupert, near Bingen-on-the-Rhine, published as the result of her investigations a theory of the solar system which antedated that of Copernicus by three centuries. The stories of the achievements of Marie Cunitz, Mme. Elisabeth Heive lius. Marie Clara Muller, Marie Kirche, Theresa and Madeline Manfredi, the beautiful and brilliant Marquise du Chatelet. Mme. Lepaute, Elisabeth von Matt, Wilhelmina Bottcher, Minna Wind and Catherine Searpellini would put to shame those of many modern men of science. Caroline Herschel. sis ter of the great Sir "William Herschel, was the discoverer of eight comets and the publisher of seven catalogues of stars and nebulae. Her devotion to her , The all over lace frock, contrary to expectations, has not lost Its graceful Individuality, although yielding to the Importunities of Dame Fashion to discard the flowing train. Much success is achieved by the bertha arrangement on th feeSiss &sd. the correct piacicg ot sauz? rosettes. - FAMOUS. ! brother was remarkable and in no small degree contributed to his success. Of the women astronomers Searpellini of Italy, Mme. Rumke of Germany, Car oline Herschel of England and Maria Mitchell of America may be classed as the greatest. Searpellini belonged to a family whose members were eminent in many lines of science. She organized a meteorological station, edited a bulle tin, made the first catalogue of meteors observed in Italy, and made a study of the influence of the moon on- earth quakes. She was an honorary member of many societies of scholars and was awarded a gold , medal by the Italian govprnment in honor of her work. A statue to her memory adorns the Campo Verano in Rome. Maria Mitchell, who for about 20 years held the professorship of astronomy at Vassar, is too well known to require more than passing mention. If a congress of women professionally interested in astronomy were to be call ed today, it might number about 100. The University of Harvard has con nected with its astronomical depart ment about 19 women who are engaged in making calculations. Mrs. W. P. Fleming is the most eminent of these ladies. She was born in Dundee, Scot land, and in 1S79, after her marriage, came to the United States and became one of the computers at Harvard. She is" now in the department for the exam ination of the photographic plates taken with the Draper telescope. She has discovered a number of variable stars and confirmed the discovery of several new stars. Dr. Dorothea Klumpke of San Fran cisco is the head of the bureau for the measurement of the plates of the astro photographic catalogue at the Paris ob servatory. Her thesis on "The Rings of Saturn" recently obtained for her the degree of doctor of mathematical sci ence from the French university at Sorbonne. Several young women as sist Miss Klumpke in her work in the little ivy grown tower in which she makes her calculations. All alone, she sometimes spends a night at the tele scope watching the course of the heav enly bodies. Miss Mary W. Whitney, the head of the astronomical department of Vassar college, is one of the most distinguished of the women astronomers of America. She was the pupil, as she is the suc cessor, of Maria Mitchell. After grad uating at Vassar Miss Whitney studied at Cambridge, Mass., under Professor Benjamin Pierce and at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. In 1S89 she be came the assistant at Vassar, and on Miss Mitchell's retirement succeeded her. After the regular scholastic duties of the day are over Miss Whitney and her assistants give their time to the ob servation of the comets and minor plan- ets. The results are published in The Astronomical Journal, Popular Astron omy, Astronomisehe and Naehrichten. Just at present the Vassar staff is study ing stellar photographs and expects soon to publish the result of the inves tigation, which, as photography forms an important part of modern astronom ical work, will be of the utmost impor tance to science. This work is largely done under Miss Whitney's direction by Miss Caroline Fairness, her assistant in the Vassar observatory. Connected with Wellesley are two able women astronomers. One of these is Miss Sarah F. Whiting, in charge of the department relating to the new as tro physics, who lectures to the gen eral classes on astronomy. Professor Whiting conducts her astronomical in struction as a department of applied physics. Professor Ellen Hayes has charge of the department . of mathematical as tronomy and has done much fine work In the calculation of the orbits of com ets. Professor Hayes and Professor Whiting received their instruction as f - K. .-- V guests of professors at celebrated ob servatories. Miss Whiting was first a pupil of Professor Pickering of Har vard, who deserves the gratitude of all women for the generous manner in which he has assisted them in astro nomical work. Wellesley is now having completed a handsome observatory, the gift of Mrs. John C. Whiting, one of the trustees of the college. Its architectural beauty is as notable as the completeness of Its scientific equipment. Miss Elizabeth M. Bardwell, - for 32 years astronomical instructor at Mount Holyoke college and one of the notable women in her profession, died about a year ago. She became a mem ber of the Mount Holyoke faculty in 1866, just a year after Maria Mitchell joined' the faculty at Vas sar. She was a member of the British Astronomical association and of other learned societies and contributed to the astronomical journals. These contributions were highly valued on ac count of their accuracy and charm of style. A fellowship of $10,000 in memory of Miss Bardwell is now open to -subscriptions. The object of the scholar ship is to provide for a year's post graduate course in the universities cf Europe. This will serve to further the work of women in astronomy and will at the same time be a beautiful memo rial of a good and talented woman. The advanced work of the astronom ical student at Barnard must be pur sued under the auspices of Columbia university, which has one of the finest observatories and one of the ablest staffs of professors in the country. Five women are connected with the de partment. These are engaged in mak ing calculations in regard to astral pho tographs. Their results are most valu able, as two of the most important of modern astronomical investigations are being prosecuted by Columbia. One of these is the determination of the north and south poles by astronomical calcu lations and the other the fixing of the variation of latitude. Miss Flora E. IiV'mVAW i WW X. fil. I A PAIR OF SEASONABLE NOVELTIES. The lace bertha, which has been Illus trated for the benefit of those desirous of retrimming an evening bodice, is made from deep lace flouncing, tucked LACE EVENING BERTHA. and gathered In perpendicular rows. At each end the net portion of the flounce, which forms the drapery, is tightly gathered up, and the falling border neatly finished off, thus perfecting the flounce illusion. A short length of the lace Is then cut in half, horizontally, the upper or net half arranged as an arm drapery. The flounce half, headed by rose leaves, falls round the other arm, leaving the top visible, and at this side of the bertha a spray of rosea with foliage is introduced, while the other side is finished with a velvet bow and paste buckle. The back of the bertha resembles the front, minus the velvet bow. Harpham is exceptionally skillful in the use of astronomical instruments and is noted for mathematical accuracy. Her time is devoted entirely to the mathe matical phase" of the work under the di rection of Professor J. K. Rees, who is conducting the investigation in regard to the variation of latitude, as well as several other Important astronomical investigations. Four women assist Miss Harpham in the examination of the photographs and the making of measurements from these. Miss Mary Proctor, famous as a writ er and lecturer on astronomy, is the daughter of Sir Richard Proctor, one of the greatest of English astronomers. Miss Proctor now lives in New York. Her knowledge of astronomy was ob tained from her father, and her advice Is often sought by American astrono mers. Mrs. Mabel Loomis Todd is the wife of Professor David Todd, head of the astronomical department at Amherst college and the author of several , val uable astronomical contributions. Mrs. Todd acquired her knowledge of as tronomy in the observatory of her fa ther, Professor Loomis of Washington. She has written a book on the moon. A few years ago, when Professor Todd went to Japan at the head of a govern, merit expedition to observe an eclipse of the sun, Mrs. Todd accompanied him and rendered valuable assistance. She was shown the greatest honor by the Japanese government, who put a spe cial yacht at her command and accords ed her many unusual privileges t en- THREE WOMEN ASTRONOMERS. able her to study the Ainos, the aborig inal inhabitants of the country, about whom she has since published a charm ing book. ALICE DE BERDT. TIIK CARE OF HAIRBRUSHES There is really an art in the proper washing of hairbrushes. The best brushes may be ruined by careless washing, and if the bristles are allow ed to become soft a hairbrush becomes practically useless for its intended pur poses. Many people cleanse hairbrush es by covering them with wheaten flour and simply rubbing the bristles togeth er. This method, however, is not thor oughly ' satisfactory. To keep your brushes in good condition proceed in the following manner: Have two shal low dishes, tpne of moderately hot, the other of cold water. To the first dish, which contains, say. a quart of water, add a dessertspoonful of ammonia. Now take your brushes, one by one, and keep dipping the bristles up and down in the water being careful not to wet the backs), and in a minute or two the dirt and dust will come out of them as if by magic, lemving them beautiful ly white. Now dip up and down sev eral times In the second dish, containing the clear water, to rinse them; shake well and place to drain across a rack or towel horse. No soap is needed and no rubbing with the hands. If you adopt this method of cleansing yonr brushes, you will find that they will last three times as long as if cleansed with soap and that the bristles will pre serve their stiffness. When fruit is served, nothing can be more appropriate than for the plates in which the dishes of berries are set to be partially covered by a doily on which clusters of berries are embroider ed. The one shown in the sketch is em broidered with blackberries. For the fruit shades of blue black silk shading into deep blue should be used. The EERRT EMBROIDERED DOILY. " usual foliage green tints are needed fof the leaves and stems. The darker part of the berry will, of course, be that In the shadow, the bluish tints of silk be ing put on where the light strikes it. The veinings are in lighter siik. S s ss H i THE CRIB I FASHIONS FOR g f THE PETTICOAT o k - - BABY OF ALL the elaborate exhibits In fashion's continuous fair at the moment none is more interesting than that over which the stork presides as patron saint. The wee person's ward robe is positively gorgeous, and the cost ,f it astonishes even the most ex travagant Every" garment must be handmade, of course, and the innumer able thread tucks, the countless inser tions of real lace and the hemstitched or lace edged ruffles entail a tremen- dous amount of work. Needless to say this makes them very costly. Chief among the important belongings of the nursery god Is the crib. Nowa days it Is a medley of silk and lace pad ded, shirred and frilled into a beauteous and downy nest. Usually the frame is of wicker. One of plain pine, however. Is less expensive and will be found quite as satisfactory as a foundation for prevailing decorative schemes, as no part of the wood is visible beneath the yards of silk and leagues of lace used. A very handsome crib illustrating the extravagance of the day is composed of yellow liberty silk lavishly trimmed in renaissance lace. There is a deep ruf fle of silk falling from the side and barely escaping the floor. Over this is a closely shirred, lace .edged frill, drap ed in wide, graceful scallops marked by a series of narrow white ribbon ro settes. To a gilt rod is adjusted the silk canopy bedecked in cascades of renaissance lace and dotted by rosettes thrici the size of those elsewhere em ployed. Dressing baskets are made .to match the cribs In color, and contain ivory toilet articles, upon which appear the small owner's initials In letters of gold. The color furore has invaded the in fantile sanctum, and for the time being few nurseries are equipped in white. A crib which is useful and inexpen sive, as well as unique, may be made from a large clothesbasket. This bas ket is lined with cotton batting, over which is daintily sewed some delicately colored china silk or soft finished linen material. The outside is deftly covered by means of a top drawstring and sev eral widths of the material drawn to gether under the bottom. After the handles have been ribbon wrapped big bows are tied upon them. As a matter of convenience the basket is superior to the standing crib. In it baby can be carried from one room to another with little trouble and less dangar of Injuring the frail back by too much lift ing. In selecting a basket care should be taken to see that the sides are tall enough to protect the head from possi ble drafts. The square shaped basket for this reason, if not from an artistic standpoint, should be chosen in prefer ence to the oval kind. That the influence of fashion extends to babyland may be further observed in the use of mercerized cotton for small clothes. This and corded dimity are the favored materials. The latter is sel dom tucked, but garments made of it are elaborately trimmed in lace bands and edgings, v Infant dresses are shorter. They must barely cover the toes of the silk lined pique shoes, which are pretty and ac ceptable substitutes for woolen bootees. Silk slippers with lace vamps and quilted soles are provided for the little ones who while wearing short frocks are still in arms. - Another indication of fashion's Inva sion Is found In the caps of lace. They are close fitting and unlined. Small de signs in all over lace are used for their construction. . Beneath this filmy head gear baby's soft ringlets get the bene fit of air and sunshine, which, from a hygienic standpoint, is most desirable. No article of raiment has ever been so freely- discussed as baby's flannel band. Extreme advocates of dress re form would discard it altogether. The modern physician's advice is less rad ical. He advocates the use of the band as a protection against cold, but not as a support or compress, and insists that it be loosely pinned. This theory will appeal to every experienced mother who long since has learned the ines timable value of the flannel strip, though appreciating the difficulty of thecoat 1 T FLANNEL BANDS f if ii . ... ... ....--a 6$ proper adjustment when it was believed to be necessary that it should encircle baby's body tightly. The up to date band is so great an improvement upon the unmanageable length of flannel with which young . mothers wrestled years ago that there should be no ques tion about its use. Those of today are knit or woven of "wool or of silk and wool and extend from the armpits well down over the abdomen. . They are slipped on over -the feet and are made to hug the body closely without binding In any way. They are elastic and give with every breath baby draws. Although we are apt to discredit dress reform movements on general princi ples, through this medium often come some valuable health hints. For in stance, long petticoats for infants were first denounced by dress reform moth ers. Today they are discarded by all who understand anything of the re quirements of comfortable dressing. The flannel pinning blanket and wool stockings keep the infant warm enough below the body, which is already in cased in a band and shirt. Over these is needed nothing heavier than a cotton slip. When the temperature varies, a light baby blanket or . shawl .wrapped about the Infant will . supply sufficient additional warmth.' . - i Box coats are the accepted mode for infants and are decidedly picturesque. The long, loose lines are quite in keep ing with the simple method employed in cutting children's clothes. Girls in their first corsets are Ignor ing the de Milo lines and instead are affecting the Russian small waist. This they obtain in a new way. After the corset is fitted they put on a tiny belt. which they buckle tightly over it and wear beneath their outer- garments. This, according to one fledgeling, de fines the line more clearly than does the lacing of the corset in sections by means of several strings. The corset, aided by this viselike belt, naturally sooner assumes the curves of the covet ed figure. Parasols with half a dozen different covers to harmonize with as many dif ferent costumes are among the novel ties. The parasol proper is of white or some favorite shade of silk. The covers are made of lace, chiffon or dotted mull. Lace ones are composed of the all over variety or of many ruffles. Those of chiffon are plaited, hand painted, tuck ed or shirred. Mull covers are plain, with a deep frill ribbon trimmed. In shop parlance we speak of the "petti coated parasol," which is a name well suited to the new and fascinating sum mer sunshade. The unsuccessful legislation regard ing the length of hatpins has given that needful but somewhat formidable adjunct a bit of prominence. Hatpins are now manufactured on the lines of a broadsword rather than on those of a rapier. For the coarse straw summer hats these are all right, but for the vel vet chapeaux the inventive genius will have to try again. Fichus and Gainsborough hats go . Braid trimmings become more conspicuous on tailor gowns as the season advances. A new model showing the gored skirt lends itself well to Ul'3 mod of treatment. . - . together that Is, if you want to carry out the beginning of the century style that one sees so charmingly portrayed in fancy portraits. The prettiest fichus are those made of soft chiffon, finished with fine plaitings drawn into V shape at the waiet and fastened in a bowknot. To be au fait the Gainsborough's broad brim" should correspond in coior, treatment and texture. Talking of hats begets thoughts ot real flowers as , well as artificial ones. If you want to keep your drawing room ferns fresh for winter, give them a summer outing. - Plant them in a shady corner of the yard, where the soft breezes may' invigorate" them. They need the holiday just as much as hu man beings do. An excellent plan for the housekeeper who glories In growing centerpieces for her" table Is to have two at once. It Is economy in -the end. Then one of them can always" be' in the air, where it may be sprayed and care, fully nursed at tbe first signs of droop-, ing. . . - . - New York. A PARASOL IN BLACK AND WHITE. The insides of .the new parasols are as ornate as the outsldes were a season or so ago. The covers, while corded and striped, embroidered and appllqued outside, are not to any extent ornament ed with flounces or ruchings of djaph anous material, much as that fabric is used this season. Within, however. It is quite a different story. The smart est parasols are lined with bands of ruching and rows of shirring, with a dainty, gathered piece of lace where the stick passes through the shade. This stick is nearly always handsomely carved and jeweled. One stick serves for many parasols, for a handsome one is too costly to be lightly thrown away. The frames of this year's parasols are moderately curved and of medium size., . LITERARY WOMEN. It has been estimated that there ar In England some 540 women editors, authors and journalists, and of these a well known publisher has declared that five have an income of 4,000 a year. In journalism women have met with im mense success; at least one lady jour nalist receives a salary of 700 a year, and there are not a few who have no difficulty in making from 300 to 500. The last census in the United States showed that there "were no fewer than 3,000 women engaged in literary, as apart from journalistic, work. ,