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TOPEKA STATE JOTTKNAL, TUESDAY EVENING, DECEMBER 3, 1001.
3 roes on tbe warpath, so we must make it evident, unless we are false to our own traditions and to the demands of civilization and humanity, that while we will do everything in our power for tne Filipino who is peaceiui, we win take the sternest measures with the Filipino who follows the path of the lnsurrecto and the ladrone. The heartiest praise is due to large numbers of the natives or tne isianu for thfir stPHrtftLHt lovaltv. The Maca- bebes bave been conspicuous for their courage and devotion to tne nag. a recommend that the secretary of war be empowered to take some systematic action in the way of aiding those of these men who are crippled in the ser vice and the families of those who are killed. T .r-fiTST . TTriNT KFEDED. The time has come when there should be additional legislation for the Philip pines. Nothing better can be done for the islands than to introduce indus trial enterprises. Nothing would benefit them so much as throwing mem open to Industrial development. The connec tion between idleness and mischief is proverbial, and the opportunity to do remunerative work is one of the surest preventives of war. Of course no busi ness man will go into t-e Philippines unless it is to his interest to do so: and it is immensely to the interest of the islands that he should go in. It is therefore necessary that the congress should pass laws by wnicn xne re sources of the islands can. be develop ed; so that franchises (for limited terms of years) can be granted to companies doinsr business in them, and every en couragement be given to the incoming of business men of every Kino. PIELIJ MUST BE OPENED. Not to permit this is to do a wrong to the Philippines. The franchises must be granted and the business permitted only under regulations which will guarantee the islands against any kind of improper exploitation. But the vast natural wealth of the islands must be developed, and the capital willing to develop it must be given the opportuni ty. The field must be thrown open to individual enterprise, which has been the real factor in the development of every region over which our flag has llown. It Is urgently necessary to enact suitable laws dealing with general transportation, mining, banking, cur rency, homesteads, and the use and ownership of the lands and timber. These laws will give free play to in dustrial enterprise: and the commercial development which will surely follow will afford to the people of the islands the best proofs of the sincerity of our desire to aid them. CABLE AND CANAL. Crying Need of Both la Pointed Out to Congress. I call your attention most earnestly to the crying need of a cable to Ha waii and the Philippines, to be contin ued from the Philippines to points in Asia. We should not derer a day long er than necessary the construction of such a. cable. It is demanded not mere ly for commercial but for political and military considerations. Either the congress should immedi ately provide for the construction of a government cable, or else an arrange ment should be made by which like ad vantages to those accruing from a gov ernment cable may be secured to the government by contract with a. private cable comoany. ISTHMIAN CANAL. No single great material work which remains to be undertaken on this con tinent is of such consequence to the American people as the building of a canal across the Isthmus connecting North and South America, Its import ance to the nation is by no means lim ited merely to its material effects upoi our business prosperity; and yet with view to these effects alone it would be to the last degree important for us im mediately to begin it. While its bene ficial effects would perhaps be most marked upon the Pacific coast and the Oulf and South Atlantic states, it would also greatly benefit other sections. It is emphatically a work which it is for the interest of the entire country to be gin and complete as soon as possible; it is one of those great works which only a great nation can undertake with rrospects of success, and which when done are not only permanent assets in the nation's material interests, but standing monuments to its construc tive ability. CANAL. TREATY. I am glad to be able to announce to you that our negotiations on this sub ject with Great Britain, conducted on both sides in a spirit of friendliness and mutual good will and respect, have re sulted in my being able to lay before the senate a treaty which if ratified will enable us to begin preparations for an Isthmian canal at any time, and which guarantees to this nation every right that it has ever asked in connection with the canaL In this treaty, the old Clayton-Bulwer treaty, so long recog nized as inadequate to supply the base for the construction and maintenance of a necessarily American ship canal. Is abrogated. It specifically provides that the United States alone shall do the work of building and assume the re sponsibility of safeguarding the canal and shall regulate its neutral use by ail nations on terms of equality without the guaranty or interference of any outside nation from any quarter. The signed treaty will at or.ce be laid be fore the senate, and if approved the congress can then proceed to give effect to the advantages it secures us by pro viding for the building of the canal. THE MONROE DOCTRINE. Our Attitude Toward Cuba an Evi dence of Good Faith. The true end of every gTeat and free people should be self-respecting peace; and this nation rnost earnestly desires sincere and cordial friendship with all others. Over the entire world, of recent years, wars between the great civilized powers have become less and less fre quent. Wars with barbarous or semi barbarous peoples come in an entirely different category, being merely a most regrettable but necessary international police duty which must be performed for the sake of the welfare of mankind. Peace can only be kept with certaintv where both sides wish to keep it; but more and more the civilized peoples are realizing the wicked folly of war and are attaining that condition of just and intelligent regard for the rights of others which will in the end. as we hope and believe. make world-wide peace possible. The peace conference at The Hague gave definite expression to this hope and belief and marked a stride toward their attainment. This same peace conference acquiesced in our statement of the Monroe Doc trine as compatible with the purposes and aims of the conference. FOR ALL. AMERICA. The Monroe Doctrine should be the cardinal feature of the foreign policy of all the nations of the two Americas as it is of the United States. Just seventy-eight years have passed since President Monroe in his annual mes sage announced that "The American continents are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future col onization by any European power" In other words, the Monroe Doctrine is a declaration that there must be no ter ritorial aggrandizement by any non American power at the expense of any American power on American soil It Is in no wise intended as hostile to'anv nation in the Old World. Still less is it intended to give cover to any aggres sion by one New World power at the XHensa ot any other. It ia simply a , step, and a long1 step, toward assuring the universal peace of the world by securing the possibility of permanent peace on tms hemisphere. During the past century other in fluences have established the per manence and independence of the smaller states of Europe. Through the Monroe Doctrine we hope to be able to safeguard like independence and se cure like permanence for the lesser among the New World nations. NO COMMERCIALISM. This doctrine has nothing to do with the commercial relations of any Amen can power, save that it in truth allows each or them to form such as It de sires. In other words, it is really a guaranty of the commercial independ ence of the Americas. We do not ask under this doctrine for any exclusive commercial dealings with any other American state. We do not guarantee any state against punishment if it mis conducts itself, provided that punish ment does not take the form of the acquisition of territory by any non American power. Our attitude in Cuba is a sufficient guaranty of our own good faith. We have not the slightest desire to secure any territory at the expense of any of our neighbors. We wish to work with them hand in hand, so that all of us may be uplifted together, and we re joice over the good fortune of any of them, we gladly hail their material prosperity and political stability, and are concerned and alarmed if any of them fall into industrial or political chaos. We do not wish to see any Old World military power grow up on this continent, or to be compelled to become a jnilitary power ourselves. The peo ples of the Americas can prosper best if left to work out their own salvation in their own way. UPBUILDING THE NAVY. Must Have War Craft or Take a Back Beat. The work of. upbuilding the navy must be steadily continued. No one point of our policy, foreign or domestic, is more important than this to the honor and material welfare, and above all to the peace, of our nation in the future. "Whether we desire it or not, we must henceforth recognize that we have International duties no less than international rights. Even if Our flag were hauled down in the Philippines and Porto Rico, even if we decided not to build the isthmian canaL we should need a thoroughly trained navy of ad equate size, or else be prepared defi nitely and for all time to abandon the idea that our nation is among those whose sons go down to the sea in ships. Unless our commerce is always to be carried in foreign bottoms, we must have war craft to protect it. inasmuch, however, as the American people have no thought of abandoning the path upon which they have en tered, and especially in view of the fact that the building of the isthmian canal is fast becoming one of the matters which the whole people are united in demanding, it is imperative that our navy should be put and kept in tne highest state of efficiency, and should be made to answer to our growing needs. So far from being in any way a provocation to war, an adequate and highly trained navy as the best guar anty against war, the cheapest and most effective peace insurance. The cost of building and maintaining such a navy represents the very lightest pre mium for insuring peace which this na tion can possibly pay. ANXIETY FOR PEACE. Probably no other great nation In the world is so anxious for peace as we are. There is not a single civilized power which has anything whatever to fear from aggressiveness on our part. All we want is peace; and toward this end we wish to be able to secure the same respect for our rights from oth ers which we are eager and anxious to extend to their rights in return, to in sure fair treatment to us commer cially, and to guarantee the safety of the American people. Our people intend to abide by the Monroe doctrine and to insist upon it as the one sure means of securing the peace of the western hemisphere. The navy offers us the only means of mak ing our insistence upon the Monroe doc trine anything but a subject of derision to whatever nation chooses to disre gard it. We desire the peace which comes as of right to the just man armed; not the peace granted on terms of ignominy to the craven and the weakling. NAVY MUST BE READY. Tt is not possible to improvise a navy after war breaks out. The ships must be built and the men trained long in advance. Some auxiliary vessels can be turned into makeshifts which will do in default of any better for the minor work, and a proportion of raw men can be mixed with the highly trained, their shortcomings being made good by the skill of their fellows; but the efficient fighting force of the navy when pitted against an equal opponent will be found almost exclusively in the war ships that have been regularly built and in the officers and men who through years of faithful performance of sea duty have been trained to handle their formidable but complex and delicate weapons with the highest efficiency. In the late war with Spain the ships that dealt the decisive blows at Manila and Santiago had been launched from two to fourteen years, and they were able to do as, they did because the men in the conning lowers, the gun turrets, and the engine rooms had through long years of practice at sea learned how to do their duty. NAVAL RETROSPECT. Our present navy was begun in 18S2. At that period our navy consisted of a collection of antiquated wooden ships, already almost as out of place against modern war vessels as the galleys of Alcibiades and Hamilcar certainly as the ships of Tromp and Blake. Nor at that time did we have men fit to handle a modern man-of-war. Under the wise legislation of the congress and the suc cessful administration of a succession of patriotic secretaries of the navy, be longing to both political parties, the work of upbuilding the navy went on, and ships equal to any in the world of their kind were continually added; and what was even more important, these ships were exercised at sea singly and in squadrons until the men aboard them were able to get the best possible service out of them. The result was seen in the short war with Spain, which was decided with such rapidity because of the infinitely greater preparedness of our navy than of the Spanish navy. TRIUMPH OF 189a It Was Largely Due to Forethought and Preparation. While awarding the fullest honor to the men who actually commanded and manned the ships which destroyed the Spanish sea forces in the Philippines and in Cuba, we must not forget that an equal meed of praise belongs to those without whom neither blow could have been struck. The congressmen who voted years in advance the monev to lav down the ships, to build the guns, to buy the armor plate; the department officials and the business men and wage-workers who fur nished what congress had authorized: the secretaries of the navy who asked for and expended the appropriations, and nnally the officers who. in fair weather andv foul, on actual sea service, trained and disci plined the crews of the ships when there was no war in sight all are entitled to a full share in the glory of Manila and San tiago, and the respect accorded by every true American to those who wrought such signal triumph for our country. It was forethought and preparation which se cured us the overwhelming triumph of 1S98. If we fail to show fore thought and preparation now, there may come a time when disaster will be fall us Instead of triumph; and should this time come, the fault will rest primar ily, not upon those whom the accident of events puts in supreme command at the moment, Dut upon tnose wno have failed to prepare in aavance. SHOULD BE NO CPSSATTOW There should be no cessation in the work of completing our navy. So far in genuity has been wholly unable to devise a substitute for the great war craft wuose nammering guns heat out the mas tery of the hierh seas. It is unsafe ajid uwise not to provide this year for eev- ttuuiuuiiai uaiue snips ana neavy armored cruisers with auriliarv nnii lighter craft in proportion: for the exact numoers ana cnaracter 1 refer you to tne report of the secretary of the navy. But there is something we need even more than additional ships, and this is addi tional officers and men. To provide bat the ships and cruisers and then lay them up, with the expectation of leaving them unmanned until they are needed in actual war, would be worse than folly; it would be a crime against the nation. To send any war ship against a compe tent enemy unless those aboard it have been trained by years of actual sea ser vice, including incessant gunnery prac tice, would be to invite not merely dis aster, but the bitterest shame and humil iation. Pour thousand additional seamen and one thousand additional marines should be provided; and an increase in the officers should be provided by making a large addition to the classes at Annapo lis. There is one smaller matter which should be mentioned in connection with Annapolis. The pretentious and unmean ing title of "naval cadet" should be abol ished: the title of "midshipman," full of historic association, should be restored. SHOULD MAINTAIN ACTIVITY. Even in time of peace a war ship should be used until it wears out, for only so can it be kept fit to resiond to any emer gency. The officers and men alike should be kept as much as possible on blue wa ter, for It is there only they can learn their duties as they should be learned. The big vessels should be manoeuvred in squadrons containing not merely battle ships, but the necessary proportion of cruisers and scouts. The torpedo boats should be handled by the younger offi cers in such manner as will best fit the latter to take responsibility and meet the emergencies of actual warfare. UNCEASING PRACTICE. Oar Ships Should Equal Any in the World in Efficiency. Every detail ashore which can be per formed by a civilian should be so per formed, the officer beiner kent for his special duty in the sea service. Above all, the gunnery practice should be un ceasing. It is important to have our navy of adequate size, but it is even more important that ship for ship it should equal in efficiency any navy in the world. This is possible only with highly drilled crews and officers, and this in turn im peratively demands continuous and pro gressive instruction in taj-eret oraetice. ship handling, squadron tactics and gen eral discipline. Our ships must be as sembled in squadrons actively cruising away irom narDors ana never long at anchor. The resulting wear uoon en gines and hulls must be endured; .a bat tle ship worn in long training of officers and men is well paid for by the results, wnne on the other hand, no matter in how excellent condition, it is useless if the crew be not expert. We now have seventeen battle shiDS ap propriated for, of which nine are com pleted and have been commissioned for actual service. The remaining eight will be ready in from two to four years, but it will take at least that time to recruit and train the men to fight them. It is or vast concern tnat we nave trained crews readv for the vessels bv the time they are commissioned. Good ships and good guns are simply good weapons, and the best weapons are useless save in the hands of men who know how to fight with them. The men must be trained and drilled under a thorough and well planned system ot progressive Instruction, wnue the recruiting must be carried on with still greater vigor. Every effort must be made to exalt the main function of the officer the command of men. The lead ing graduates of the naval academy should be assigned to the combatant branches, the line and marines. ESSENTIALS OF SUCCESS. Many of the essentials of success are already recognized by the general board, which, as the central office of a growing staff, is moving steadily toward a proper war efficiency and a proper efficiency of the whole navy, under the secretary. This general board, by fostering the creation of a general staff, is providing for the of ficial and then the general recognition of our altered conditions as a nation and of the true meaning of a great war fleet, which meaning is, first, the best men, and, second, the best ships. The naval militia forces are state or ganizations, and are trained for coast service, and in event of war they will constitute the inner line of defense. They should receive hearty encouragement from tne general government. A NAVAL RESERVE. But in addition we should at once pro vide for a national naval resevre, organ ized and trained under the direction of the navy department, and subject to the call of the chief executive whenever war becomes imminent. It should be a real auxiliary to the naval seagoing peace establishment, and offer material to be drawn on at once for manning our ships in time of war. It should be composed of graduates of the naval academy, grad uates of the naval militia, officers and crews of coast line steamers, longshore schooners, fishing vessels and steam yachts, together with the coast popula tion about such centers as life saving stations and lisht houses. The American people must either build and maintain an adequate navy or else make up their minds definitely to accept a secondary position in international af fairs, not merely in political, but in com mercial matters. It has been well said that there is no surer way of courting na tional disaster than to be "opulent, ag gressive and unarmed." ARMY BIG ENOUGH. Nothing Necessary but a High Point of Efficiency. It Is not necessary to increase our army beyond its present size at this time. But it is necessary to keep it at the highest point of efficiency. The individual units who as officers and enlisted men com pose the army, are, we have good reason to believe, at least as efficient as those of any other army in the entire world. It is our duty to see that their training is of a kind to insure the highest possible expression of power to these units when acting in combination. The conditions of modern war are such as to make an infinitely heavier demand than ever before upon the individual character and capacity of the officer and the enlisted man, and to make it far more difficult for men to act together with ef fect. At presrTit the fighting must be done in extended order. which means that each man must act for himself and at the same time act in combination with cithers with whom he is no longer in the old fashioned elbow-to-elbow touch. Un der these conditions a few men of the highest excellence are worth more than many men without the special skill which is only found as the result of special training applied to men of exceptional phvsique and morale. But nowadays the most valuable fighting man and the most difficult to perfect is the rifleman who is also a skillful and daring rider. FIGHTERS ON HORSEBACK. The proportion of our cavalry regi ments has wisely been increased. The American cavalryman, trained to manoeu vre and fight with equal facility on foot and on horseback, is the best type of soldier for general purposes now to be found in the world. The ideal cavalryman of the present day is a man who can fight on foot as effectively as the best in fantryman, and who is in addition un surpassed in the care and management of his horse and in his ability to fight on horsebaclc. A general staff should be created. As for the present staff and supply depart ments, they should be filled by details from the line, the men so detailed return ing after a while to their line duties. It is very undesirable to have the senior grades of the army composed of men who have come to fill the positions by the mere fact of seniority. A system should be adopted by which there shall be an elim ination grade by grade of those who seem unlit to render the best strvise in the next grade. Justice to the veterans or the civil war who are still in the army would seem to require that in the matter of retirements they be given by law the same privileges accorded to their com rades in the navr. POLITICS MUST BE KEPT OUT. The process of eiinvaation of the least fit should be conducted in a manner that would render it practically impossible to apply political or social pressure on be half of any candidate, so that each man ... .1 I, Via t , . . J . J 1 V. '. ,. 1 ' ' juuru i i i .7iv .in " 1 1 menus. Pressure for the promotion of civil offcials for political reasons is bad enough, but it is tenfold worse where applied on be- ucuij. ui wie uincers or tne njmy or navy. Every promotion and every detail under I ho war ,1 ..,..,....-..-,., ....... t ... .. . . I . . 1 with regard to the good of the service and to the capacity and merit of the man himself. No pressure, political, social or personal, of any kind, will be permitted to exercise the least effect in any question luuiuuuti ui ueuiii, aiiu il inert; is rea own iJ uenevtj iiiaL sueu measure is ex ercised at the instigation of the officer twii ilcu, xi. vvui uc . Html ii mii.Lait: afford to have rewards or duties distrib uted save on the simple ground that those who by their own merits are entitled to the rewards get them, and that those who are peculiarly fit to do the duties are chosen to perform them. TOO MUCH PAPER WORK. It Should Be Reduced in Both Army and Navy. Every effort should be made to brin? the army to a constantly increasing stat of efficiency. When on actual service na work save that directly in the line of sucn service snouKl De requirea. xne pa per work in the army, as in the navy, should be greatly reduced. What is need ed is proved power of command and ca pacity to work well in the field. Con stant care is necessary to prevent dry rot in the transportation and commissary de partments. Our army is so small and so much scat tered that it Is very difficult to give the higher officers (as well as the lower offi cers and the enlisted men) a chance to practice manoevers in mass and on a comparatively large scale. In time of need no amount of individual excellence would avail against the paralysis which would follow inability to work as a co herent whole, under skillful and daring leadership. The congress should provide means whereby it will be possible to have field exercises by at least a division of regulars, and if possible also a division of national guardsmen once a year. These exercises might take the form of field manoeuvres; or, if on the gulf coast or the Pacific or Atlantic seaboard, or in the region of the great lakes, the army corps wnen assempiea couia oe marcnea trora some inland point to some point on the water, there embarked, disembarked alter a couple of days' journey at some other point, and again marched inland. Only by actual handling and providing for men in masses while they are marching, camp ing, embarking and disembarking, will it be possible to train the higher officers to perform their duties well and smoothly. liiJS iuisi,nrs D&B-r. A great debt is owing from the public to the men of the American navy. They should be so treated as to enable them to reach the highest point of efficiency, so that they may be able to respond in stantly to any demand made upon them to sustain the interests of the nation and the honor of the flag. The individual American enlisted man is probably on the whole a more formidable fighting man than the regular of any other army. Ev ery consideration should be shown him. and in return the highest standard of use fulness should be exacted lrom him. It is well worth while for the congress to con sider whether the pay of enlisted men upon second and subsequent enlistment should not be increased to correspond with the increased value of the veteran soldier. REORGANIZATION ACT. Much trood has already come from the act reorganizing the army, passed early in the present year. The three prime reforms an of tnem or nterany mestimanie vaiue are: first, the substitution of four-year details from the line of permanent ap pointments in the so-called staff divisions: second, the establishment of a corps of artillery with a chief at the head; third, the establishment of a maximum limit for the army. It would be difficult to overestimate the improvement in the ef ficiency of our army which these three re forms are making, and have in part al ready effected. The reorganization provided for by the act has been substantially accomplished. The improved conditions in the Philip pines have enabled the war department materially to reduce the military charge upon our revenue and to arrange the number of soldiers so as to bring this number much nearer to the minimum than to the maximum limit established by law. There is. however, need of supple mentary legislation.Thorough military ed ucation must be provided, and in addition to the regulars the advantages of this education should be given to the officers of the national guard and others in civil life who desire intelligently to fit them selves for possible military duty. The officers should be given the chance to per fect themselves by study in the highest branches of this art. At West Point the education should be of the kind most apt to turn out men who are good in actual field service; too much stress should not be laid on mathematics, nor should pro ficiency therein be held to establish the right of entry to a corps d'elite. The typical American officer of the best kind need not be a good mathematician: but he must be able to master himself, to control others and to show boldness and fertility of resource in every emergency. MILITIA AND VOLUNTEERS. Laws Relative to' State Soldiers Are Obsolete and Worthless. Action should be taken In reference to the militia and to the raising of volun teer forces. Our militia law is obsolete and worthless. The organization and arm ament of the national guard of the several states, which are treated as militia in the appropriations by the congress, should be made Identical with those provided for the regular forces. The obligations and duties of the guard in time of war should be carefully defined and a system estab lished by law under which the method of procedure of raising volunteer forces should be prescribed in advance. It is ut terly impossible in the excitement and haste of impending war to do this satis factorily if arrangements have not been made long beforehand. Provision should be made for utilizing in the first volun teer organizations called out the training of those citizens who have already had experience under arms, and especially for the selection in advance pf the officers of any force which may be raised: for care ful selection of the kind necessary is im possible after the outbreak of war. That the army is not at all a mere in strument of destruction has been shown during the last three years. In the Phil ippines. Cuba, and Porto Rico it has proved itself a great constructive force, a most potent implement for the upbuild ing of a peaceful civilization. SAVIORS OF THE UNION. No other citizens deserve so well of the republic as the veterans, the survivors of those who saved the Union. They did the one deed which if left undone would have meant that all else in our history wen for nothing. But for their steadfast prowess in the greatest crisis of our history, all our annals would be meaningless and our great experiment in popular freedom and self-government a gloomy failure. More over, they not onlv left us a united na tion, but thev left us also as a heritage the memory of the mighty deeds by which the nation was kept united. We are now indeed one nation, one in fact as well as in name; we are united in our devotion to the flag which is the symbol of nation al greatness and unity: and the very com pleteness of our nation enables us all, In every part of tlie country, to glory in the valor shown alike by the sons of the north and the sons of the south in the times that tried men's souls. The men who in the last three years have done so well in the East and the West Indies and on the mainland of Asia have shown that this remembrance is not lost. In any serious crisis the United States must rely for the great mass of its fight ing men upon the volunteer soldiery who do not make a permanent profession of the militarv career: and whenever such a crisis arises the deathless memories of the civil war will give to Americans the lift of loftv purpose which comes to those whose fathers have stood valiantly in the forefront of battle. CIVIL SERVICE. Wherever in Effect the Government Has Been the Gainer. The merit system of making appoint ments is in its essence as democratic and American as the common school system itself. It simplv means that in 'clerical and other positions where the duties are entirely non-political. all applicants should have a fair field and no favor, each standing on his merits as he is able to show them by practical test. Written competitive examinations offer the only available means in many cases for apply ing this system. In other cases, as where laborers are employed," a system of regis tration undoubtedly can be widely extend ed. There are, of course, places where the written competitive examination can not be applied, and others where it offers by no means an ideal solution, but where under existing political conditions it is, though an imperfect means, yet the best present means of getting satisfactory re sults. Wherever the conditions have permitted the application of the merit system in its fullest and widest sense, the gain to the government has been Immense. The navy yards and the postal service Illustrate, probably better than any other branches of the government, the great gain in econ omy, efficiency and honesty due to the enforcement of this principle. TO INCLUDE THE DISTRICT. I recommend the passage of a law which will extend the classified service to the District of Columbia, or will at least enable the president thus to ex tend it. In my judgment all laws pro viding for the temporary employment of clerks should hereafter contain a provis ion that they be selected under the civil service law. It is important to have this system ob tain at home, but it is even more im portant to have it applied rigidly in our insular possessions. Not an office should be filled in the Philippines or Porto Rico with any regard to the man's partisan af filiations or services, with any regard to the political, social or personal influence which he may have it his command; in short, heed should be paid to absolutely nothing save the man's own , character and the needs of the service. ALSO THE ISLANDS. The administration of these islands should be as wholly free from the sus picion of partisan politics as the admin istration of the army and navy. All that we ask from the public servant in the Philippines or Porto Rico is that he re llect honor on his country by the way in which he makes that country's rule a benefit to the peoples who have come un der it. This is all that we should ask and we can not afford to be content with less. The merit system is simply one method of securing honest and efficient adminis tration of the government; and in the long run the sole justification of any type of government lies in its proving itself both honest and efficient. CONSULAR SERVICE. The consular service is now organized under the provisions of a law passed in lS5ti. which is entirely inadequate to ex isting conditions. The interest shown by somany commercial bodies throughout the' country in the reorganization of the service is heartily commended to your at tention. Several bills providing for a new consular service have in recent years been submitted to the congress. They are based upon the just principle that appointments to the service should be made only after a practical test of the applicant's fitness, that the promotions should be governed by trustworthiness, adaptability and zeal in the performance of duty, and that the tenure of office should be unaffected by partisan considerations. The guardianship and fostering of our rapidly expanding foreign commerce, the protection of American citizens resorting to foreign countries in lawful pursuit of their affairs, and the maintenance of the dignity of the nation abroad, combine to make it essential that our consuls should be men of character, knowledge and en terprise. It is true that the service is now. in the main, efficient, but a stand ard of excellence can not be permanently maintained until the principles set tortn in the bills heretofore submitted to the congress on this subject are enacted into law. INDIAN POLICY. It Is Time to Treat the Red Man as an Individual. In mV judgment the time has arrived when we should definitely make up our minds to recognize the Indian as an in dividual and not as a member of a tribe. The general allotment act is a mighty pulverizing engine to break up the tribal mass. It acts directly upon the family and the individual. Under its provisions some 60.000 Indians have already become citizens of the United States. We should now break up the tribal funds, doing for them what allotment does for the tribal lands: that is. thev should be divided into individual holdings. There will A be a LiaillllOll pei iuii uuiuig wxi.ii funds will in many cases have to bi held in trust. This is the case also with the lands. A stop should be put upon the indiscriminate permission to Indians to lease their allotments. The effort should be steadilv to make the Indian work like anv other man on his own ground. The marriage laws of the Indians should be made the same as those of the whites. INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION. Tn the schools the education should be elementary and largely industrial. The need of higher education among the In dians is very, very limited. On the res ervations care should be taken to try to suit the teaching to the needs of the particular Indian. There is no use in at tempting to induce agriculture in a coun try suited onlv for cattle raising, where the Indian should be made a stock grower. The ration system, which is merely the corral and the reservation svstem. is hiehlv detrimental to the In dians. It promotes beggary, perpetuates pauperism and stifles industry. It is an effectual barrier to progress. It must continue to a greater or less aegree as lona- as the tribes are herded on reserva tions and have everything in common. The Indian should be treated as an indi viduallike the white man. During the change of treatment inevitable hardships will occur: every effort should be made to minimize these hardships: but we should not because of them hesitate to make the change. There should be a continuous re duction in the numbers of agencies. TO SEPARATE THEM FROM LIQUOR. In dealing with the aboriginal races few things are more important than to .pre serve them from the terrible physical and moral degradation resulting irom tne liquor traffic. We are doing all we can to save our own Indian tribes from this evil. Wherever fcy international agree ment this same end can be attained as regards races where we do not possess exclusive control, every effort should be made to bring It about. ST. LOI7IS EXPOSITION. I bespeak the most cordial support from the congress and the people for the St. Louis exposition to commemorate the one hundredth anniversary of the Louis iana purchase. This purchase was the greatest instance of expansion in our his torv. It definitely decided that we were to "become a great continental republic, by far the foremost power in the western hemisphere. It is one of three or four great landmarks in our history the great turning points in our development. It Is eminently fitting that all our people should join with heartiest good will in commemorating it. and the citizens of St. Louis, of Missouri, of all the adjacent region, are entitled to every aid in mak ing the celebration a noteworthy event in our annals. We earnestly hope that for eign nations will appreciate the deep in terest our country takes in this expo sition, and our view of its importance from everv standpoint, and that they will participate in securing its success. The national government should be rep resented by a full and complete set of exhibits. CHARLESTON'S BIG FAIR. The people of Charleston, with great energv and civic spirit, are carrying on an exposition which will continue through out most of the present session of con gress. I heartily commend this exposi tion to the good will of the people. It deserves all the encouragement that can be given it. The managers of the Charles ton exposition have requested the cabi net officers to place thereat the govern ment exhibits which have been at Buffa lo, promising to pay the necessary ex penses. I have taken the responsibility of directing that this be done, for I feel that it is due to Charleston to help her in her praiseworthy effort. In my opin ion the management should not be re quired to pay all these expenses. I earn estly recommend that the congress ap propriate at once the small sum necessary for this purpose. THE PAN-AMERICAN. The Pan-American exposition at Buffalo has just closed. Both f-om the industrial and the artistic standpoint this exposition has been in a high degree creditable and useful, not merely to Buffalo but to the United States. The terrible tragedy of the president's assassination interfered materially with its being a financial suc cess. The exposition was peculiarly in harmonv with the trend of our public policv. because it represented an effort to bring into closer touch all the people of the western hemisphere, and give them an increasing sense of unity. Such an effort was a genuine service to the entire American public. EDUCATIONAL MATTERS. Smithsonian Institution and Libraries Recommended For Consideration. The advancement of the highest inter ests ot national science and learning and the custody of objects of art and of the valuable results of scientific expeditions conducted by the United States have been committea to tne omiinsonian hibulu tion. Tm furtherance of its declared pur pose for the "increase and diffusion of knowledge among men" the congress nas irom time to time given it otner im portant functions. Such trusts have been executed by the institution with notable fidelity. There should be no halt in the work of the institution, in accordance with the plans which its secretary has presenter, ror tne preservation ul wie vanishin races of great North American animals in the National Zoological park. The urgent needs of the National Museum are recommended to the lavoraoie con sideration of congress. PURI.lr: T.TRRATtTFS. Perhaps the most characteristic educa tional movement of the past 50 years is that which has created the modern public library and developed it into broad and active service. There are now over 5,hX) public libraries in the United States, the product of this period. In addition to ac-cumulatine- material, thev are also striv ing by organization, by improvement In metnod and by co-operation to give greater efficiency to the material they hold, to make it more widely useful, and by avoidance of unnecessary duplication in process to reduce the cost of its ad ministration. In these efforts they naturally look for assistance to tne leaerai liorary, wnicn, though still the library of congress, and so entitled, is the one national library of the United States. Already the largest single collection of books on the western hemisphere, and certain to increase more rapnily than any other through purchase, exchange and the operation of the copy right law, this library has a unique op portunity to render to the libraries of this country to American scholarship service of the highest importance, it is housed in a building which is the largest and most magnificent yet erected for li brary use. Resources are now being pro vided which will develop the collection properly, equip it with the apparatus and service necessary to its effective use. render its bibliographic work widely avail able, and enable it to become, not merely a center of research, but the chief fac tor in great co-operative efforts for the diffusion of knowledge and advancement of learning. PERMANENT CENSUS OFFICE. For the sake of good administration, sound economy, and the advancement of science, the census office as now consti tuted should be made a permanent gov ernment bureau. This would insure bet ter, cheaper, and more satisfactory work, in the interest not only of our business but of statistic, economic and social sci ence. POSTAL SERVICE. The remarkable growth of the postal service is shown in the fact that its reve nues have doubled and its exieriture have nt-arly doubled within twelve years. Its progressive development compels con stantly increasing outlay, but in this per iod of business energy and prosperity its receipts grow so much faster than its ex penses that the amount has been steadily reduced from $11,411.77M in 1M7 to $3..'3.727 in 1H01. Among recent postal advances the success of rural free delivery wherever established has been so marked and act ual experience has made its benefits so Plain that the demand for its extension is general and urgent. RURAL DELIVERY. Tt is just that the great agricultural population should share in the improve ment of the service. The number of ru ral routes now in operation is 6.009, prac tically all established within three years and there are 6.000 applications awaiting action. It is expected that the number in operation at the close of the current fiscal year will reach S,0o0. The mail will then be daily carried to the doors of 5, 700,000 of our people who have heretofore been dependent upon distant offices, and one-third of all that portion of the coun try which is adapted to it will be cov ered by this kind of service. The full measure of postal progress which might be realized has long been hampered and obstructed by the heavy burden imposed on the government through the intrenched and well under stood abuses which have grown up in connection with second-class mail matter. The extent of this burden appears when it is stated that while the second-class matter makes nearly three-fifths of the weight of all the mail, it paid for the last fiscal year only $4.2:i4.44o of the aggregate postal revenue of $111,631.13. If the pound rate of postage, which produces the large loss thus entailed, and which was fixed by the congress with the purpose of en couraging the dissemination of public information, were limited to the legiti mate newspapers and periodicals actually contemplated by the law. no just excep tion could be taken. That expense would be the recognized and accepted cost of a liberal public policy deliberately adopted for a justifiable end. But much of the matter which enjoys the privileged rate is wholly outside of the intent of the law. and has secured admission only through fWi evasion of its reouirements or through lax construction. The proportion of such wrongly included matter is estimated by postal experts to be one-half of the whole volume of second-class mail. If it be only one-third or one-quarter, the magnitude of the burden is apparent. The postoft'ice department has now undertaken to re move the abuses so far as is possible by a stricter application of the law; and it should be sustained in its effort. THE CHINESE TROUBLE. History of the War and Ita Results Reviewed. Owing to the rapid growth of our power and our interests on the Pacific, whatever . happens in China must be of the keenest national concern to us. The general terms of the settlement of the questions growing1 out of anti-foreign uprisings in China of 1900, having been formulated in a joint note addressed to China by the representatives of the in jured powers in December last, were promptly accepted by the Chinese gov ernment. After protracted conferences the plenipotentiaries of the several pow ers were able to sign a final protocol with the Chinese plenipotentiaries on the 7th of last September, setting forth the measures taken by China in compliance with the demands of the joint note and expressing their satisfaction therewith. It will be laid before the congress with a report of the plenipotentiary on behalf of the United Stages. Mr. William Wood ville Rockhill, to whom high praise is due for the tact, good judgment and en ergy he has displayed in performing an exceptionally difficult and delicate task. BETTOR FUTURE RELATIONS The agreement reached disposes in a manner satisfactory to the powers of the various grounds of complaint, and will contribute materially to better future re lations between China and the powers. Reparation has been made by China for the murder of foreigners during the up rising, ar.d punishment has been inflicted on the officials, however high in rank, recognized as responsible for or having participated in the outbreak. Official ex aminations have been forbidden for a period of five years in all cities in which foreigners have been murdered or cruelly treated, and edicts have been issued mak ing all officials directly responsible for the future safety of foreigners and for the suppression of violence against them. Provisions have been made for insuring the future safety of the foreign represen tatives in Peking by setting aside for their exclusive use a quarter of the city which the powers can -make- defensible and in which they can if necessary main tain permanent military guards; by dis mantling the military works between the capital and the sea; and by allowing the temporary maintenance of foreign mili tary posts along the line. An edict has been issued by the emperor of China pro hibiting for two years the importation of arms and ammunition into China. China has agreed to pay adequate indemnities to - the states, societies and individuals for the losses sustained by them and for the expenses of the military expedi tions sent by the various powers to pro tect life and restore order. TO REVISE TREATIES. Under the provisions of the joint note of December, 1900, China has agreed to revise the treaties of commerce and nav igation and to take such other steps for the purpose of facilitating foreign trade as the foreign powers may decide to be needed- The Chinese government has decided to participate financially in the work of bet tering the water approaches to Shang hai and to Tienstin, the centers of for eign trade in central and northern China, and an international conservancy board, in which the Chinese government is large ly represented, has been provided for the improvement of the Shanghai river and the control of its navigation. In the same line of commercial advantage a revision of the present tariff on imports has been assented to for the purpose of substitut ing snecific for ad valorem-duties, and an expert has been sent abroad on the part of the United States to assist in this work. A list of article to remain tree GOLD .CURE Nearly everybody seems to be taking Prof. Mdb yon' Cold Cure whenever a cold appear!. It relieves the head, nose, throat and Iuurs so quickly that a cold need no longer be a forerunner of fcrippe, diphtheria or pneumonia. A vial of the Cold t ura is like a life insurance policy. Every one of his remedies is as sure. Mostly 2;c. vial. Guide to Health frr. Mnnvon. New YorV and Phi'aHr'phia MLMO.VS I.NHALltt CLRKl tlTHtttH. of duty, including flour, cereals and rice, gold and silver coin and bullion, has also been agreed upon in the settlement. STOOD FOR MODERATION. During t hese troubles our govern merit has unswervingly advocated moderation, and has materially aided in bringing about an adjustment which tends to en hance the welfare of China and to lead to a more beneticinl intercourse bet wei a the empire and the modern world: while in the critical period of revolt and massa cre we did our full share in safeguarding life and property, restoring order and vin dicating the nationn I interest and honor. It behooves us to continue in these paths, doing what lies in our power to foster feelings of giod will and leaving no effort untried to work out the great policy of full and fair intercourse between China, and the nations. on a footing of junl rights and advantages to all. We advo cate the "open door" with all that it im plies: not merely the procurement of en larged commercial oimortunities on tin! coasts, but across to the interior by tlm waterways with which China has been so extraordinarily favored. Only by bring ing tne people ot China into peaceful and friendly community of trade with all the peoples of the earth can the work now auspiriouslv begun be carried to fruition. In the attainment of this purpose we nec essarily claim parity of treatment, under the conventions, throughout the empire for our trade and our citizens with thoso of all other powers. PAN-AMERICAN CONGRESS. Money Fraudulently Obtained From Mexico Should Be Paid Back. We view with livelv interest and keen hopes' of beneficial results the proceeding of the Pan-American congress, convoked at t he in vita t ion of Mexico am! now sit ting at the Mexican capital. The dele gates of the United Ptatt s are under the most liberal instructions to co-operate with their colleagues in all matters prom ising advantage to the great family of America n commonwealths, as well in their relations among themselves as in their domestic advancement and in their intercourse with the world at lare. M y predecessor eommunica tt d do the congress the fact that the Weil and i.t A bra a wards atra inst Mexico have been adjudged by the behest courts of the country to have been obtained through, fraud and perjury on the part of the claimants and that in accordance with thtt acts of congress the money remaining in the hands of the secretary of state on these awards has been returned to Mexi co. A considerable portion of the money received from Mexico on theso awards had been paid by this government to the claimants before the decision of th courts was rendered. Mv judgment is that the congress should return to Mexico an amount equal to tne sums thus aireauy paid to the claimants. The death of Oneen Victoria caused the people of the United States deep and heartfelt sorrow, to which the government gave full expression. When President Mc Kinley died our nation in turn receive 1 from everv Quarter of the liritish culture expressions of grief and sympathy no sincere. The death of the Kmpress Dow ager Frederick of Germany also aroused tlie eenuine svmnathv of the American people: and this sympathy was cordially reciprocatea Dy it rmany wneu r.- in e--dent was assassinated. Inde. d. from ev ery quarter of the civilized world we re ceived, at tne time or ine prrsiuriu death, assurances of such grief a nd re gards as to touch the hearts of our peo nip Tn the midst of our affliction we rev erently thank the Almighty that we are at peace with the nations of mankind : and we firmly intend that our policy shall be such as to continue unbroken these in ternational relations of mutual respect nd firood will. White House, Iec. 3, 1901. jusTFoasAmorappERs O F THERE IS A SATIS FACTION IN USING DIAMOND "C" SOAP i THE SATISFACTION THAT. COMES FROM LESS WORK. I.ESS WORRY. SMOOTHER HANDS A NJ CLEANER CLOTHES. ...... 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