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The Topeka state journal. [volume] (Topeka, Kansas) 1892-1980, December 03, 1901, LAST EDITION, Image 3

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn82016014/1901-12-03/ed-1/seq-3/

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roes on tbe warpath, so we must make
it evident, unless we are false to our
own traditions and to the demands of
civilization and humanity, that while
we will do everything in our power for
tne Filipino who is peaceiui, we win
take the sternest measures with the
Filipino who follows the path of the
lnsurrecto and the ladrone.
The heartiest praise is due to large
numbers of the natives or tne isianu
for thfir stPHrtftLHt lovaltv. The Maca-
bebes bave been conspicuous for their
courage and devotion to tne nag. a
recommend that the secretary of war
be empowered to take some systematic
action in the way of aiding those of
these men who are crippled in the ser
vice and the families of those who are
The time has come when there should
be additional legislation for the Philip
pines. Nothing better can be done for
the islands than to introduce indus
trial enterprises. Nothing would benefit
them so much as throwing mem open
to Industrial development. The connec
tion between idleness and mischief is
proverbial, and the opportunity to do
remunerative work is one of the surest
preventives of war. Of course no busi
ness man will go into t-e Philippines
unless it is to his interest to do so: and
it is immensely to the interest of the
islands that he should go in. It is
therefore necessary that the congress
should pass laws by wnicn xne re
sources of the islands can. be develop
ed; so that franchises (for limited terms
of years) can be granted to companies
doinsr business in them, and every en
couragement be given to the incoming
of business men of every Kino.
Not to permit this is to do a wrong
to the Philippines. The franchises must
be granted and the business permitted
only under regulations which will
guarantee the islands against any kind
of improper exploitation. But the vast
natural wealth of the islands must be
developed, and the capital willing to
develop it must be given the opportuni
ty. The field must be thrown open to
individual enterprise, which has been
the real factor in the development of
every region over which our flag has
llown. It Is urgently necessary to enact
suitable laws dealing with general
transportation, mining, banking, cur
rency, homesteads, and the use and
ownership of the lands and timber.
These laws will give free play to in
dustrial enterprise: and the commercial
development which will surely follow
will afford to the people of the islands
the best proofs of the sincerity of our
desire to aid them.
Crying Need of Both la Pointed Out
to Congress.
I call your attention most earnestly
to the crying need of a cable to Ha
waii and the Philippines, to be contin
ued from the Philippines to points in
Asia. We should not derer a day long
er than necessary the construction of
such a. cable. It is demanded not mere
ly for commercial but for political and
military considerations.
Either the congress should immedi
ately provide for the construction of a
government cable, or else an arrange
ment should be made by which like ad
vantages to those accruing from a gov
ernment cable may be secured to the
government by contract with a. private
cable comoany.
No single great material work which
remains to be undertaken on this con
tinent is of such consequence to the
American people as the building of a
canal across the Isthmus connecting
North and South America, Its import
ance to the nation is by no means lim
ited merely to its material effects upoi
our business prosperity; and yet with
view to these effects alone it would be
to the last degree important for us im
mediately to begin it. While its bene
ficial effects would perhaps be most
marked upon the Pacific coast and the
Oulf and South Atlantic states, it would
also greatly benefit other sections. It
is emphatically a work which it is for
the interest of the entire country to be
gin and complete as soon as possible;
it is one of those great works which
only a great nation can undertake with
rrospects of success, and which when
done are not only permanent assets in
the nation's material interests, but
standing monuments to its construc
tive ability.
I am glad to be able to announce to
you that our negotiations on this sub
ject with Great Britain, conducted on
both sides in a spirit of friendliness and
mutual good will and respect, have re
sulted in my being able to lay before
the senate a treaty which if ratified will
enable us to begin preparations for an
Isthmian canal at any time, and which
guarantees to this nation every right
that it has ever asked in connection
with the canaL In this treaty, the old
Clayton-Bulwer treaty, so long recog
nized as inadequate to supply the base
for the construction and maintenance
of a necessarily American ship canal. Is
abrogated. It specifically provides that
the United States alone shall do the
work of building and assume the re
sponsibility of safeguarding the canal
and shall regulate its neutral use by ail
nations on terms of equality without
the guaranty or interference of any
outside nation from any quarter. The
signed treaty will at or.ce be laid be
fore the senate, and if approved the
congress can then proceed to give effect
to the advantages it secures us by pro
viding for the building of the canal.
Our Attitude Toward Cuba an Evi
dence of Good Faith.
The true end of every gTeat and free
people should be self-respecting peace;
and this nation rnost earnestly desires
sincere and cordial friendship with all
others. Over the entire world, of recent
years, wars between the great civilized
powers have become less and less fre
quent. Wars with barbarous or semi
barbarous peoples come in an entirely
different category, being merely a most
regrettable but necessary international
police duty which must be performed
for the sake of the welfare of mankind.
Peace can only be kept with certaintv
where both sides wish to keep it; but
more and more the civilized peoples
are realizing the wicked folly of war
and are attaining that condition of just
and intelligent regard for the rights of
others which will in the end. as we
hope and believe. make world-wide
peace possible. The peace conference
at The Hague gave definite expression
to this hope and belief and marked a
stride toward their attainment.
This same peace conference acquiesced
in our statement of the Monroe Doc
trine as compatible with the purposes
and aims of the conference.
The Monroe Doctrine should be the
cardinal feature of the foreign policy
of all the nations of the two Americas
as it is of the United States. Just
seventy-eight years have passed since
President Monroe in his annual mes
sage announced that "The American
continents are henceforth not to be
considered as subjects for future col
onization by any European power" In
other words, the Monroe Doctrine is a
declaration that there must be no ter
ritorial aggrandizement by any non
American power at the expense of any
American power on American soil It
Is in no wise intended as hostile to'anv
nation in the Old World. Still less is it
intended to give cover to any aggres
sion by one New World power at the
XHensa ot any other. It ia simply a ,
step, and a long1 step, toward assuring
the universal peace of the world by
securing the possibility of permanent
peace on tms hemisphere.
During the past century other in
fluences have established the per
manence and independence of the
smaller states of Europe. Through the
Monroe Doctrine we hope to be able
to safeguard like independence and se
cure like permanence for the lesser
among the New World nations.
This doctrine has nothing to do with
the commercial relations of any Amen
can power, save that it in truth allows
each or them to form such as It de
sires. In other words, it is really a
guaranty of the commercial independ
ence of the Americas. We do not ask
under this doctrine for any exclusive
commercial dealings with any other
American state. We do not guarantee
any state against punishment if it mis
conducts itself, provided that punish
ment does not take the form of the
acquisition of territory by any non
American power.
Our attitude in Cuba is a sufficient
guaranty of our own good faith. We
have not the slightest desire to secure
any territory at the expense of any of
our neighbors. We wish to work with
them hand in hand, so that all of us
may be uplifted together, and we re
joice over the good fortune of any of
them, we gladly hail their material
prosperity and political stability, and
are concerned and alarmed if any of
them fall into industrial or political
chaos. We do not wish to see any Old
World military power grow up on this
continent, or to be compelled to become
a jnilitary power ourselves. The peo
ples of the Americas can prosper best
if left to work out their own salvation
in their own way.
Must Have War Craft or Take a Back
The work of. upbuilding the navy
must be steadily continued. No one
point of our policy, foreign or domestic,
is more important than this to the
honor and material welfare, and above
all to the peace, of our nation in the
future. "Whether we desire it or not,
we must henceforth recognize that we
have International duties no less than
international rights. Even if Our flag
were hauled down in the Philippines
and Porto Rico, even if we decided not
to build the isthmian canaL we should
need a thoroughly trained navy of ad
equate size, or else be prepared defi
nitely and for all time to abandon the
idea that our nation is among those
whose sons go down to the sea in ships.
Unless our commerce is always to be
carried in foreign bottoms, we must
have war craft to protect it.
inasmuch, however, as the American
people have no thought of abandoning
the path upon which they have en
tered, and especially in view of the fact
that the building of the isthmian canal
is fast becoming one of the matters
which the whole people are united in
demanding, it is imperative that our
navy should be put and kept in tne
highest state of efficiency, and should
be made to answer to our growing
needs. So far from being in any way
a provocation to war, an adequate and
highly trained navy as the best guar
anty against war, the cheapest and
most effective peace insurance. The
cost of building and maintaining such
a navy represents the very lightest pre
mium for insuring peace which this na
tion can possibly pay.
Probably no other great nation In the
world is so anxious for peace as we
are. There is not a single civilized
power which has anything whatever to
fear from aggressiveness on our part.
All we want is peace; and toward this
end we wish to be able to secure the
same respect for our rights from oth
ers which we are eager and anxious to
extend to their rights in return, to in
sure fair treatment to us commer
cially, and to guarantee the safety of
the American people.
Our people intend to abide by the
Monroe doctrine and to insist upon it as
the one sure means of securing the
peace of the western hemisphere. The
navy offers us the only means of mak
ing our insistence upon the Monroe doc
trine anything but a subject of derision
to whatever nation chooses to disre
gard it. We desire the peace which
comes as of right to the just man
armed; not the peace granted on terms
of ignominy to the craven and the
Tt is not possible to improvise a navy
after war breaks out. The ships must
be built and the men trained long in
advance. Some auxiliary vessels can
be turned into makeshifts which will
do in default of any better for the
minor work, and a proportion of raw
men can be mixed with the highly
trained, their shortcomings being made
good by the skill of their fellows; but
the efficient fighting force of the navy
when pitted against an equal opponent
will be found almost exclusively in the
war ships that have been regularly built
and in the officers and men who through
years of faithful performance of sea
duty have been trained to handle their
formidable but complex and delicate
weapons with the highest efficiency. In
the late war with Spain the ships that
dealt the decisive blows at Manila and
Santiago had been launched from two
to fourteen years, and they were able
to do as, they did because the men
in the conning lowers, the gun turrets,
and the engine rooms had through long
years of practice at sea learned how to
do their duty.
Our present navy was begun in 18S2.
At that period our navy consisted of a
collection of antiquated wooden ships,
already almost as out of place against
modern war vessels as the galleys of
Alcibiades and Hamilcar certainly as
the ships of Tromp and Blake. Nor at
that time did we have men fit to handle
a modern man-of-war. Under the wise
legislation of the congress and the suc
cessful administration of a succession
of patriotic secretaries of the navy, be
longing to both political parties, the
work of upbuilding the navy went on,
and ships equal to any in the world of
their kind were continually added; and
what was even more important, these
ships were exercised at sea singly and
in squadrons until the men aboard
them were able to get the best possible
service out of them. The result was
seen in the short war with Spain, which
was decided with such rapidity because
of the infinitely greater preparedness of
our navy than of the Spanish navy.
It Was Largely Due to Forethought
and Preparation.
While awarding the fullest honor to the
men who actually commanded and
manned the ships which destroyed the
Spanish sea forces in the Philippines and
in Cuba, we must not forget that an equal
meed of praise belongs to those without
whom neither blow could have been
struck. The congressmen who voted years
in advance the monev to lav down the
ships, to build the guns, to buy the armor
plate; the department officials and the
business men and wage-workers who fur
nished what congress had authorized: the
secretaries of the navy who asked for and
expended the appropriations, and nnally
the officers who. in fair weather andv foul,
on actual sea service, trained and disci
plined the crews of the ships when there
was no war in sight all are entitled to a
full share in the glory of Manila and San
tiago, and the respect accorded by every
true American to those who wrought such
signal triumph for our country. It was
forethought and preparation which se
cured us the overwhelming triumph of
1S98. If we fail to show fore
thought and preparation now, there
may come a time when disaster will be
fall us Instead of triumph; and should
this time come, the fault will rest primar
ily, not upon those whom the accident of
events puts in supreme command at the
moment, Dut upon tnose wno have failed
to prepare in aavance.
There should be no cessation in the
work of completing our navy. So far in
genuity has been wholly unable to devise
a substitute for the great war craft
wuose nammering guns heat out the mas
tery of the hierh seas. It is unsafe ajid
uwise not to provide this year for eev-
ttuuiuuiiai uaiue snips ana neavy
armored cruisers with auriliarv nnii
lighter craft in proportion: for the exact
numoers ana cnaracter 1 refer you to tne
report of the secretary of the navy. But
there is something we need even more
than additional ships, and this is addi
tional officers and men. To provide bat
the ships and cruisers and then lay them
up, with the expectation of leaving them
unmanned until they are needed in actual
war, would be worse than folly; it would
be a crime against the nation.
To send any war ship against a compe
tent enemy unless those aboard it have
been trained by years of actual sea ser
vice, including incessant gunnery prac
tice, would be to invite not merely dis
aster, but the bitterest shame and humil
iation. Pour thousand additional seamen
and one thousand additional marines
should be provided; and an increase in
the officers should be provided by making
a large addition to the classes at Annapo
lis. There is one smaller matter which
should be mentioned in connection with
Annapolis. The pretentious and unmean
ing title of "naval cadet" should be abol
ished: the title of "midshipman," full of
historic association, should be restored.
Even in time of peace a war ship should
be used until it wears out, for only so
can it be kept fit to resiond to any emer
gency. The officers and men alike should
be kept as much as possible on blue wa
ter, for It is there only they can learn
their duties as they should be learned.
The big vessels should be manoeuvred in
squadrons containing not merely battle
ships, but the necessary proportion of
cruisers and scouts. The torpedo boats
should be handled by the younger offi
cers in such manner as will best fit the
latter to take responsibility and meet the
emergencies of actual warfare.
Oar Ships Should Equal Any in the
World in Efficiency.
Every detail ashore which can be per
formed by a civilian should be so per
formed, the officer beiner kent for his
special duty in the sea service. Above
all, the gunnery practice should be un
ceasing. It is important to have our navy
of adequate size, but it is even more
important that ship for ship it should
equal in efficiency any navy in the world.
This is possible only with highly drilled
crews and officers, and this in turn im
peratively demands continuous and pro
gressive instruction in taj-eret oraetice.
ship handling, squadron tactics and gen
eral discipline. Our ships must be as
sembled in squadrons actively cruising
away irom narDors ana never long at
anchor. The resulting wear uoon en
gines and hulls must be endured; .a bat
tle ship worn in long training of officers
and men is well paid for by the results,
wnne on the other hand, no matter in
how excellent condition, it is useless if
the crew be not expert.
We now have seventeen battle shiDS ap
propriated for, of which nine are com
pleted and have been commissioned for
actual service. The remaining eight will
be ready in from two to four years, but
it will take at least that time to recruit
and train the men to fight them. It is
or vast concern tnat we nave trained
crews readv for the vessels bv the time
they are commissioned. Good ships and
good guns are simply good weapons, and
the best weapons are useless save in the
hands of men who know how to fight
with them. The men must be trained and
drilled under a thorough and well planned
system ot progressive Instruction, wnue
the recruiting must be carried on with
still greater vigor. Every effort must be
made to exalt the main function of the
officer the command of men. The lead
ing graduates of the naval academy
should be assigned to the combatant
branches, the line and marines.
Many of the essentials of success are
already recognized by the general board,
which, as the central office of a growing
staff, is moving steadily toward a proper
war efficiency and a proper efficiency of
the whole navy, under the secretary. This
general board, by fostering the creation
of a general staff, is providing for the of
ficial and then the general recognition of
our altered conditions as a nation and of
the true meaning of a great war fleet,
which meaning is, first, the best men,
and, second, the best ships.
The naval militia forces are state or
ganizations, and are trained for coast
service, and in event of war they will
constitute the inner line of defense. They
should receive hearty encouragement from
tne general government.
But in addition we should at once pro
vide for a national naval resevre, organ
ized and trained under the direction of
the navy department, and subject to the
call of the chief executive whenever war
becomes imminent. It should be a real
auxiliary to the naval seagoing peace
establishment, and offer material to be
drawn on at once for manning our ships
in time of war. It should be composed
of graduates of the naval academy, grad
uates of the naval militia, officers and
crews of coast line steamers, longshore
schooners, fishing vessels and steam
yachts, together with the coast popula
tion about such centers as life saving
stations and lisht houses.
The American people must either build
and maintain an adequate navy or else
make up their minds definitely to accept
a secondary position in international af
fairs, not merely in political, but in com
mercial matters. It has been well said
that there is no surer way of courting na
tional disaster than to be "opulent, ag
gressive and unarmed."
Nothing Necessary but a High Point
of Efficiency.
It Is not necessary to increase our army
beyond its present size at this time. But
it is necessary to keep it at the highest
point of efficiency. The individual units
who as officers and enlisted men com
pose the army, are, we have good reason
to believe, at least as efficient as those
of any other army in the entire world.
It is our duty to see that their training
is of a kind to insure the highest possible
expression of power to these units when
acting in combination.
The conditions of modern war are such
as to make an infinitely heavier demand
than ever before upon the individual
character and capacity of the officer and
the enlisted man, and to make it far more
difficult for men to act together with ef
fect. At presrTit the fighting must be
done in extended order. which means
that each man must act for himself and
at the same time act in combination with
cithers with whom he is no longer in the
old fashioned elbow-to-elbow touch. Un
der these conditions a few men of the
highest excellence are worth more than
many men without the special skill which
is only found as the result of special
training applied to men of exceptional
phvsique and morale. But nowadays the
most valuable fighting man and the most
difficult to perfect is the rifleman who is
also a skillful and daring rider.
The proportion of our cavalry regi
ments has wisely been increased. The
American cavalryman, trained to manoeu
vre and fight with equal facility on foot
and on horseback, is the best type of
soldier for general purposes now to be
found in the world. The ideal cavalryman
of the present day is a man who can fight
on foot as effectively as the best in
fantryman, and who is in addition un
surpassed in the care and management of
his horse and in his ability to fight on
A general staff should be created. As
for the present staff and supply depart
ments, they should be filled by details
from the line, the men so detailed return
ing after a while to their line duties. It
is very undesirable to have the senior grades
of the army composed of men who have
come to fill the positions by the mere
fact of seniority. A system should be
adopted by which there shall be an elim
ination grade by grade of those who seem
unlit to render the best strvise in the
next grade. Justice to the veterans or
the civil war who are still in the army
would seem to require that in the matter
of retirements they be given by law the
same privileges accorded to their com
rades in the navr.
The process of eiinvaation of the least
fit should be conducted in a manner that
would render it practically impossible to
apply political or social pressure on be
half of any candidate, so that each man
... .1 I, Via t , . . J . J 1 V. '. ,. 1
' ' juuru i i i .7iv .in " 1 1 menus.
Pressure for the promotion of civil offcials
for political reasons is bad enough, but
it is tenfold worse where applied on be-
ucuij. ui wie uincers or tne njmy or navy.
Every promotion and every detail under
I ho war ,1 ..,..,....-..-,., ....... t ... .. . . I . . 1
with regard to the good of the service and
to the capacity and merit of the man
himself. No pressure, political, social or
personal, of any kind, will be permitted to
exercise the least effect in any question
luuiuuuti ui ueuiii, aiiu il inert; is rea
own iJ uenevtj iiiaL sueu measure is ex
ercised at the instigation of the officer
twii ilcu, xi. vvui uc . Html ii mii.Lait:
afford to have rewards or duties distrib
uted save on the simple ground that those
who by their own merits are entitled to
the rewards get them, and that those
who are peculiarly fit to do the duties are
chosen to perform them.
It Should Be Reduced in Both Army
and Navy.
Every effort should be made to brin?
the army to a constantly increasing stat
of efficiency. When on actual service na
work save that directly in the line of
sucn service snouKl De requirea. xne pa
per work in the army, as in the navy,
should be greatly reduced. What is need
ed is proved power of command and ca
pacity to work well in the field. Con
stant care is necessary to prevent dry rot
in the transportation and commissary de
partments. Our army is so small and so much scat
tered that it Is very difficult to give the
higher officers (as well as the lower offi
cers and the enlisted men) a chance to
practice manoevers in mass and on a
comparatively large scale. In time of
need no amount of individual excellence
would avail against the paralysis which
would follow inability to work as a co
herent whole, under skillful and daring
leadership. The congress should provide
means whereby it will be possible to
have field exercises by at least a division
of regulars, and if possible also a division
of national guardsmen once a year. These
exercises might take the form of field
manoeuvres; or, if on the gulf coast or
the Pacific or Atlantic seaboard, or in the
region of the great lakes, the army corps
wnen assempiea couia oe marcnea trora
some inland point to some point on the
water, there embarked, disembarked alter
a couple of days' journey at some other
point, and again marched inland. Only
by actual handling and providing for men
in masses while they are marching, camp
ing, embarking and disembarking, will it
be possible to train the higher officers to
perform their duties well and smoothly.
liiJS iuisi,nrs D&B-r.
A great debt is owing from the public
to the men of the American navy. They
should be so treated as to enable them to
reach the highest point of efficiency, so
that they may be able to respond in
stantly to any demand made upon them
to sustain the interests of the nation and
the honor of the flag. The individual
American enlisted man is probably on the
whole a more formidable fighting man
than the regular of any other army. Ev
ery consideration should be shown him.
and in return the highest standard of use
fulness should be exacted lrom him. It is
well worth while for the congress to con
sider whether the pay of enlisted men
upon second and subsequent enlistment
should not be increased to correspond
with the increased value of the veteran
Much trood has already come from the
act reorganizing the army, passed early in
the present year. The three prime reforms
an of tnem or nterany mestimanie vaiue
are: first, the substitution of four-year
details from the line of permanent ap
pointments in the so-called staff divisions:
second, the establishment of a corps of
artillery with a chief at the head; third,
the establishment of a maximum limit
for the army. It would be difficult to
overestimate the improvement in the ef
ficiency of our army which these three re
forms are making, and have in part al
ready effected.
The reorganization provided for by the
act has been substantially accomplished.
The improved conditions in the Philip
pines have enabled the war department
materially to reduce the military charge
upon our revenue and to arrange the
number of soldiers so as to bring this
number much nearer to the minimum
than to the maximum limit established by
law. There is. however, need of supple
mentary legislation.Thorough military ed
ucation must be provided, and in addition
to the regulars the advantages of this
education should be given to the officers
of the national guard and others in civil
life who desire intelligently to fit them
selves for possible military duty. The
officers should be given the chance to per
fect themselves by study in the highest
branches of this art. At West Point the
education should be of the kind most apt
to turn out men who are good in actual
field service; too much stress should not
be laid on mathematics, nor should pro
ficiency therein be held to establish the
right of entry to a corps d'elite. The
typical American officer of the best kind
need not be a good mathematician: but
he must be able to master himself, to
control others and to show boldness and
fertility of resource in every emergency.
Laws Relative to' State Soldiers Are
Obsolete and Worthless.
Action should be taken In reference to
the militia and to the raising of volun
teer forces. Our militia law is obsolete
and worthless. The organization and arm
ament of the national guard of the several
states, which are treated as militia in the
appropriations by the congress, should
be made Identical with those provided for
the regular forces. The obligations and
duties of the guard in time of war should
be carefully defined and a system estab
lished by law under which the method of
procedure of raising volunteer forces
should be prescribed in advance. It is ut
terly impossible in the excitement and
haste of impending war to do this satis
factorily if arrangements have not been
made long beforehand. Provision should
be made for utilizing in the first volun
teer organizations called out the training
of those citizens who have already had
experience under arms, and especially for
the selection in advance pf the officers of
any force which may be raised: for care
ful selection of the kind necessary is im
possible after the outbreak of war.
That the army is not at all a mere in
strument of destruction has been shown
during the last three years. In the Phil
ippines. Cuba, and Porto Rico it has
proved itself a great constructive force, a
most potent implement for the upbuild
ing of a peaceful civilization.
No other citizens deserve so well of the
republic as the veterans, the survivors of
those who saved the Union. They did the
one deed which if left undone would have
meant that all else in our history wen for
nothing. But for their steadfast prowess
in the greatest crisis of our history, all
our annals would be meaningless and our
great experiment in popular freedom and
self-government a gloomy failure. More
over, they not onlv left us a united na
tion, but thev left us also as a heritage
the memory of the mighty deeds by which
the nation was kept united. We are now
indeed one nation, one in fact as well as
in name; we are united in our devotion
to the flag which is the symbol of nation
al greatness and unity: and the very com
pleteness of our nation enables us all, In
every part of tlie country, to glory in the
valor shown alike by the sons of the
north and the sons of the south in the
times that tried men's souls.
The men who in the last three years
have done so well in the East and the West
Indies and on the mainland of Asia have
shown that this remembrance is not lost.
In any serious crisis the United States
must rely for the great mass of its fight
ing men upon the volunteer soldiery who
do not make a permanent profession of
the militarv career: and whenever such a
crisis arises the deathless memories of
the civil war will give to Americans the
lift of loftv purpose which comes to those
whose fathers have stood valiantly in the
forefront of battle.
Wherever in Effect the Government
Has Been the Gainer.
The merit system of making appoint
ments is in its essence as democratic and
American as the common school system
itself. It simplv means that in 'clerical
and other positions where the duties are
entirely non-political. all applicants
should have a fair field and no favor,
each standing on his merits as he is able
to show them by practical test. Written
competitive examinations offer the only
available means in many cases for apply
ing this system. In other cases, as where
laborers are employed," a system of regis
tration undoubtedly can be widely extend
ed. There are, of course, places where
the written competitive examination can
not be applied, and others where it offers
by no means an ideal solution, but where
under existing political conditions it is,
though an imperfect means, yet the best
present means of getting satisfactory re
sults. Wherever the conditions have permitted
the application of the merit system in its
fullest and widest sense, the gain to the
government has been Immense. The navy
yards and the postal service Illustrate,
probably better than any other branches
of the government, the great gain in econ
omy, efficiency and honesty due to the
enforcement of this principle.
I recommend the passage of a law
which will extend the classified service
to the District of Columbia, or will at
least enable the president thus to ex
tend it. In my judgment all laws pro
viding for the temporary employment of
clerks should hereafter contain a provis
ion that they be selected under the civil
service law.
It is important to have this system ob
tain at home, but it is even more im
portant to have it applied rigidly in our
insular possessions. Not an office should
be filled in the Philippines or Porto Rico
with any regard to the man's partisan af
filiations or services, with any regard to
the political, social or personal influence
which he may have it his command; in
short, heed should be paid to absolutely
nothing save the man's own , character
and the needs of the service.
The administration of these islands
should be as wholly free from the sus
picion of partisan politics as the admin
istration of the army and navy. All that
we ask from the public servant in the
Philippines or Porto Rico is that he re
llect honor on his country by the way in
which he makes that country's rule a
benefit to the peoples who have come un
der it. This is all that we should ask and
we can not afford to be content with less.
The merit system is simply one method
of securing honest and efficient adminis
tration of the government; and in the
long run the sole justification of any type
of government lies in its proving itself
both honest and efficient.
The consular service is now organized
under the provisions of a law passed in
lS5ti. which is entirely inadequate to ex
isting conditions. The interest shown by
somany commercial bodies throughout
the' country in the reorganization of the
service is heartily commended to your at
tention. Several bills providing for a new
consular service have in recent years been
submitted to the congress. They are based
upon the just principle that appointments
to the service should be made only after
a practical test of the applicant's fitness,
that the promotions should be governed
by trustworthiness, adaptability and zeal
in the performance of duty, and that the
tenure of office should be unaffected by
partisan considerations.
The guardianship and fostering of our
rapidly expanding foreign commerce, the
protection of American citizens resorting
to foreign countries in lawful pursuit of
their affairs, and the maintenance of the
dignity of the nation abroad, combine to
make it essential that our consuls should
be men of character, knowledge and en
terprise. It is true that the service is
now. in the main, efficient, but a stand
ard of excellence can not be permanently
maintained until the principles set tortn
in the bills heretofore submitted to the
congress on this subject are enacted into
It Is Time to Treat the Red Man as
an Individual.
In mV judgment the time has arrived
when we should definitely make up our
minds to recognize the Indian as an in
dividual and not as a member of a tribe.
The general allotment act is a mighty
pulverizing engine to break up the tribal
mass. It acts directly upon the family
and the individual. Under its provisions
some 60.000 Indians have already become
citizens of the United States. We should
now break up the tribal funds, doing for
them what allotment does for the tribal
lands: that is. thev should be divided
into individual holdings. There will A be
a LiaillllOll pei iuii uuiuig wxi.ii
funds will in many cases have to bi held
in trust. This is the case also with the
lands. A stop should be put upon the
indiscriminate permission to Indians to
lease their allotments. The effort should
be steadilv to make the Indian work
like anv other man on his own ground.
The marriage laws of the Indians should
be made the same as those of the whites.
Tn the schools the education should be
elementary and largely industrial. The
need of higher education among the In
dians is very, very limited. On the res
ervations care should be taken to try to
suit the teaching to the needs of the
particular Indian. There is no use in at
tempting to induce agriculture in a coun
try suited onlv for cattle raising, where
the Indian should be made a stock
grower. The ration system, which is
merely the corral and the reservation
svstem. is hiehlv detrimental to the In
dians. It promotes beggary, perpetuates
pauperism and stifles industry. It is an
effectual barrier to progress. It must
continue to a greater or less aegree as
lona- as the tribes are herded on reserva
tions and have everything in common.
The Indian should be treated as an indi
viduallike the white man. During the
change of treatment inevitable hardships
will occur: every effort should be made to
minimize these hardships: but we should
not because of them hesitate to make the
change. There should be a continuous re
duction in the numbers of agencies.
In dealing with the aboriginal races few
things are more important than to .pre
serve them from the terrible physical and
moral degradation resulting irom tne
liquor traffic. We are doing all we can
to save our own Indian tribes from this
evil. Wherever fcy international agree
ment this same end can be attained as
regards races where we do not possess
exclusive control, every effort should be
made to bring It about.
I bespeak the most cordial support from
the congress and the people for the St.
Louis exposition to commemorate the
one hundredth anniversary of the Louis
iana purchase. This purchase was the
greatest instance of expansion in our his
torv. It definitely decided that we were
to "become a great continental republic,
by far the foremost power in the western
hemisphere. It is one of three or four
great landmarks in our history the great
turning points in our development. It Is
eminently fitting that all our people
should join with heartiest good will in
commemorating it. and the citizens of St.
Louis, of Missouri, of all the adjacent
region, are entitled to every aid in mak
ing the celebration a noteworthy event in
our annals. We earnestly hope that for
eign nations will appreciate the deep in
terest our country takes in this expo
sition, and our view of its importance
from everv standpoint, and that they
will participate in securing its success.
The national government should be rep
resented by a full and complete set of
The people of Charleston, with great
energv and civic spirit, are carrying on
an exposition which will continue through
out most of the present session of con
gress. I heartily commend this exposi
tion to the good will of the people. It
deserves all the encouragement that can
be given it. The managers of the Charles
ton exposition have requested the cabi
net officers to place thereat the govern
ment exhibits which have been at Buffa
lo, promising to pay the necessary ex
penses. I have taken the responsibility
of directing that this be done, for I feel
that it is due to Charleston to help her
in her praiseworthy effort. In my opin
ion the management should not be re
quired to pay all these expenses. I earn
estly recommend that the congress ap
propriate at once the small sum necessary
for this purpose.
The Pan-American exposition at Buffalo
has just closed. Both f-om the industrial
and the artistic standpoint this exposition
has been in a high degree creditable and
useful, not merely to Buffalo but to the
United States. The terrible tragedy of
the president's assassination interfered
materially with its being a financial suc
cess. The exposition was peculiarly in
harmonv with the trend of our public
policv. because it represented an effort
to bring into closer touch all the people
of the western hemisphere, and give them
an increasing sense of unity. Such an
effort was a genuine service to the entire
American public.
Smithsonian Institution and Libraries
Recommended For Consideration.
The advancement of the highest inter
ests ot national science and learning and
the custody of objects of art and of the
valuable results of scientific expeditions
conducted by the United States have been
committea to tne omiinsonian hibulu
tion. Tm furtherance of its declared pur
pose for the "increase and diffusion of
knowledge among men" the congress
nas irom time to time given it otner im
portant functions. Such trusts have been
executed by the institution with notable
fidelity. There should be no halt in the
work of the institution, in accordance
with the plans which its secretary has
presenter, ror tne preservation ul wie
vanishin races of great North American
animals in the National Zoological park.
The urgent needs of the National Museum
are recommended to the lavoraoie con
sideration of congress.
Perhaps the most characteristic educa
tional movement of the past 50 years is
that which has created the modern public
library and developed it into broad and
active service. There are now over 5,hX)
public libraries in the United States, the
product of this period. In addition to ac-cumulatine-
material, thev are also striv
ing by organization, by improvement In
metnod and by co-operation to give
greater efficiency to the material they
hold, to make it more widely useful, and
by avoidance of unnecessary duplication
in process to reduce the cost of its ad
ministration. In these efforts they naturally look for
assistance to tne leaerai liorary, wnicn,
though still the library of congress, and
so entitled, is the one national library of
the United States. Already the largest
single collection of books on the western
hemisphere, and certain to increase more
rapnily than any other through purchase,
exchange and the operation of the copy
right law, this library has a unique op
portunity to render to the libraries of
this country to American scholarship
service of the highest importance, it is
housed in a building which is the largest
and most magnificent yet erected for li
brary use. Resources are now being pro
vided which will develop the collection
properly, equip it with the apparatus
and service necessary to its effective use.
render its bibliographic work widely avail
able, and enable it to become, not merely
a center of research, but the chief fac
tor in great co-operative efforts for the
diffusion of knowledge and advancement
of learning.
For the sake of good administration,
sound economy, and the advancement of
science, the census office as now consti
tuted should be made a permanent gov
ernment bureau. This would insure bet
ter, cheaper, and more satisfactory work,
in the interest not only of our business
but of statistic, economic and social sci
The remarkable growth of the postal
service is shown in the fact that its reve
nues have doubled and its exieriture
have nt-arly doubled within twelve years.
Its progressive development compels con
stantly increasing outlay, but in this per
iod of business energy and prosperity its
receipts grow so much faster than its ex
penses that the amount has been steadily
reduced from $11,411.77M in 1M7 to $3..'3.727
in 1H01. Among recent postal advances the
success of rural free delivery wherever
established has been so marked and act
ual experience has made its benefits so
Plain that the demand for its extension
is general and urgent.
Tt is just that the great agricultural
population should share in the improve
ment of the service. The number of ru
ral routes now in operation is 6.009, prac
tically all established within three years
and there are 6.000 applications awaiting
action. It is expected that the number
in operation at the close of the current
fiscal year will reach S,0o0. The mail will
then be daily carried to the doors of 5,
700,000 of our people who have heretofore
been dependent upon distant offices, and
one-third of all that portion of the coun
try which is adapted to it will be cov
ered by this kind of service.
The full measure of postal progress
which might be realized has long been
hampered and obstructed by the heavy
burden imposed on the government
through the intrenched and well under
stood abuses which have grown up in
connection with second-class mail matter.
The extent of this burden appears when
it is stated that while the second-class
matter makes nearly three-fifths of the
weight of all the mail, it paid for the last
fiscal year only $4.2:i4.44o of the aggregate
postal revenue of $111,631.13. If the pound
rate of postage, which produces the large
loss thus entailed, and which was fixed
by the congress with the purpose of en
couraging the dissemination of public
information, were limited to the legiti
mate newspapers and periodicals actually
contemplated by the law. no just excep
tion could be taken. That expense would
be the recognized and accepted cost of a
liberal public policy deliberately adopted
for a justifiable end. But much of the
matter which enjoys the privileged rate
is wholly outside of the intent of the law.
and has secured admission only through
fWi evasion of its reouirements or through
lax construction. The proportion of such
wrongly included matter is estimated by
postal experts to be one-half of the whole
volume of second-class mail. If it be only
one-third or one-quarter, the magnitude
of the burden is apparent. The postoft'ice
department has now undertaken to re
move the abuses so far as is possible by
a stricter application of the law; and it
should be sustained in its effort.
History of the War and Ita Results
Owing to the rapid growth of our
power and our interests on the Pacific,
whatever . happens in China must be of
the keenest national concern to us.
The general terms of the settlement of
the questions growing1 out of anti-foreign
uprisings in China of 1900, having been
formulated in a joint note addressed to
China by the representatives of the in
jured powers in December last, were
promptly accepted by the Chinese gov
ernment. After protracted conferences
the plenipotentiaries of the several pow
ers were able to sign a final protocol with
the Chinese plenipotentiaries on the 7th
of last September, setting forth the
measures taken by China in compliance
with the demands of the joint note and
expressing their satisfaction therewith.
It will be laid before the congress with
a report of the plenipotentiary on behalf
of the United Stages. Mr. William Wood
ville Rockhill, to whom high praise is
due for the tact, good judgment and en
ergy he has displayed in performing an
exceptionally difficult and delicate task.
The agreement reached disposes in a
manner satisfactory to the powers of the
various grounds of complaint, and will
contribute materially to better future re
lations between China and the powers.
Reparation has been made by China for
the murder of foreigners during the up
rising, ar.d punishment has been inflicted
on the officials, however high in rank,
recognized as responsible for or having
participated in the outbreak. Official ex
aminations have been forbidden for a
period of five years in all cities in which
foreigners have been murdered or cruelly
treated, and edicts have been issued mak
ing all officials directly responsible for
the future safety of foreigners and for
the suppression of violence against them.
Provisions have been made for insuring
the future safety of the foreign represen
tatives in Peking by setting aside for
their exclusive use a quarter of the city
which the powers can -make- defensible
and in which they can if necessary main
tain permanent military guards; by dis
mantling the military works between the
capital and the sea; and by allowing the
temporary maintenance of foreign mili
tary posts along the line. An edict has
been issued by the emperor of China pro
hibiting for two years the importation of
arms and ammunition into China. China
has agreed to pay adequate indemnities
to - the states, societies and individuals
for the losses sustained by them and
for the expenses of the military expedi
tions sent by the various powers to pro
tect life and restore order.
Under the provisions of the joint note
of December, 1900, China has agreed to
revise the treaties of commerce and nav
igation and to take such other steps for
the purpose of facilitating foreign trade
as the foreign powers may decide to be
The Chinese government has decided to
participate financially in the work of bet
tering the water approaches to Shang
hai and to Tienstin, the centers of for
eign trade in central and northern China,
and an international conservancy board,
in which the Chinese government is large
ly represented, has been provided for the
improvement of the Shanghai river and
the control of its navigation. In the same
line of commercial advantage a revision
of the present tariff on imports has been
assented to for the purpose of substitut
ing snecific for ad valorem-duties, and an
expert has been sent abroad on the part
of the United States to assist in this
work. A list of article to remain tree
Nearly everybody seems to be taking Prof. Mdb
yon' Cold Cure whenever a cold appear!. It
relieves the head, nose, throat and Iuurs so quickly
that a cold need no longer be a forerunner of fcrippe,
diphtheria or pneumonia. A vial of the Cold t ura
is like a life insurance policy. Every one of his
remedies is as sure. Mostly 2;c. vial. Guide to
Health frr. Mnnvon. New YorV and Phi'aHr'phia
of duty, including flour, cereals and rice,
gold and silver coin and bullion, has also
been agreed upon in the settlement.
During t hese troubles our govern merit
has unswervingly advocated moderation,
and has materially aided in bringing
about an adjustment which tends to en
hance the welfare of China and to lead
to a more beneticinl intercourse bet wei a
the empire and the modern world: while
in the critical period of revolt and massa
cre we did our full share in safeguarding
life and property, restoring order and vin
dicating the nationn I interest and honor.
It behooves us to continue in these paths,
doing what lies in our power to foster
feelings of giod will and leaving no effort
untried to work out the great policy of
full and fair intercourse between China,
and the nations. on a footing of junl
rights and advantages to all. We advo
cate the "open door" with all that it im
plies: not merely the procurement of en
larged commercial oimortunities on tin!
coasts, but across to the interior by tlm
waterways with which China has been so
extraordinarily favored. Only by bring
ing tne people ot China into peaceful and
friendly community of trade with all the
peoples of the earth can the work now
auspiriouslv begun be carried to fruition.
In the attainment of this purpose we nec
essarily claim parity of treatment, under
the conventions, throughout the empire
for our trade and our citizens with thoso
of all other powers.
Money Fraudulently Obtained From
Mexico Should Be Paid Back.
We view with livelv interest and keen
hopes' of beneficial results the proceeding
of the Pan-American congress, convoked
at t he in vita t ion of Mexico am! now sit
ting at the Mexican capital. The dele
gates of the United Ptatt s are under the
most liberal instructions to co-operate
with their colleagues in all matters prom
ising advantage to the great family of
America n commonwealths, as well in
their relations among themselves as in
their domestic advancement and in their
intercourse with the world at lare.
M y predecessor eommunica tt d do the
congress the fact that the Weil and i.t
A bra a wards atra inst Mexico have been
adjudged by the behest courts of the
country to have been obtained through,
fraud and perjury on the part of the
claimants and that in accordance with thtt
acts of congress the money remaining in
the hands of the secretary of state on
these awards has been returned to Mexi
co. A considerable portion of the money
received from Mexico on theso awards
had been paid by this government to the
claimants before the decision of th
courts was rendered. Mv judgment is
that the congress should return to Mexico
an amount equal to tne sums thus aireauy
paid to the claimants.
The death of Oneen Victoria caused the
people of the United States deep and
heartfelt sorrow, to which the government
gave full expression. When President Mc
Kinley died our nation in turn receive 1
from everv Quarter of the liritish culture
expressions of grief and sympathy no
sincere. The death of the Kmpress Dow
ager Frederick of Germany also aroused
tlie eenuine svmnathv of the American
people: and this sympathy was cordially
reciprocatea Dy it rmany wneu r.- in e--dent
was assassinated. Inde. d. from ev
ery quarter of the civilized world we re
ceived, at tne time or ine prrsiuriu
death, assurances of such grief a nd re
gards as to touch the hearts of our peo
nip Tn the midst of our affliction we rev
erently thank the Almighty that we are
at peace with the nations of mankind :
and we firmly intend that our policy shall
be such as to continue unbroken these in
ternational relations of mutual respect
nd firood will.
White House, Iec. 3, 1901.
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