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rHE TOPEKA DAILY STATE .JOURNAL-
Centenary Henry W.LonafPllow. the Sinner Whose Melodv Penetrated All Quarters of the Habited Globe and Made American Poetry a Thing it r 1 " wm$L Mm - t-a l, . - - aorni v u Itgie Itoase.F Cambridge HomC.in Winter L Mf Ml iLTHOUGH February is the least among the months in point of duration, it is especially dis tinguished in holding within Its narrow span the natal days of four of the most eminent Americans who have ever lived Washington, Lincoln, Lowell and Longfellow. Two of these birthdays are national holidays, and although it is not likely that the others will be put on the nation's calendar of festivals, it is proper at least that the centenary of the coming into humanity of the two great poets should be recog nized. Such now is the one hundredth an niversary of the birth of Henry Wads worth Longfellow, the first American to honor Westminster abbey and its coveted poets' corner in the possession of a tribute to his fame as a singer. This distinction was not bestowed on him without discussion. There were those among Britain's literary contin gent some of them potts who had been dwarfed by the American's pre eminence who dissented vigorously. Home of them were unwilling that any Amer can should find a place In that jealously guarded pantheon. A few were ready to admit a representative American man of letters, but would not accord the supreme distinction to Longfellow. Emerson was proposed as a substitute. But the opposition did not prevail. A loud popular clamor arose in Great Britain against rejection or even hesi tation. It was made evident as never before that the dead p et's fame was universal among English speaking peo ple all over the globe, and especially in England. No other singer, living or dead, had made furh a genuine im pression on an unpoetic generation. The American minstrel piped his way into the Valhalla to which no Ameri can hero had ever found entrance. Those who sit in judgment and dis criminate sagely between genius, tal ent and mere clever adaptability may not share the popular belief in regard t ) Longfellow's poetic supremacy, but tho English speaking public has set tied the point long ago. It is true, of course, that the expert definition of poetry is not held by the multitude. The marks of genuineness that fit it for the hypercritical ear are not rec ognized by the untutored. The techni cal perfection that Is so satisfying to the man who has mastered the puzzle of versification is lost on the masses. It is the melody, the song that sings itself, that finds its way to the heart of the people. Mysticism and thoughts requiring elaborate explanation even when expressed in prose do not be come more popular when clothed in rhyme. The philosophy and occultism that are the property of the few do not appeal to the uncaring many. The ab struseness of the Brownings is not the secret of their charm for the general reader. It is their earlier and less in volved verse that won the confidence of the multitude, and their later lapse into language not "understanded of the people" could not alienate them en tirely. A few poets very few, indeed have caught the trick of wedding melody to deep mental activity, of concealing the most subtle philosophic speculation be neath the garb of simplest melody. Wordsworth was master of this art, and Longfellow was skilled in it. His verse never lost the charm of melody or the convincing force of coherency. No poems ever penned by the hand of mortal require fewer footnotes. Longfellow must have mastered the technicalities of verse making at a very early age. He entered Bowdoin at the age of fifteen, and during his four years' stay in Brunswick he wrote many short poems, fourteen of which were printed in the Boston Literary Gazette and attracted wide attention. He did not publish his first volume of poetry until 1839, when he had arrived at the mature age of thirty-one, but the collection included four of these ju venile efforts "Hymn of the Moravian Nuns," "The Spirit of Poetry," "Woods In Winter" and "Sunrise on the Hills." Most poets who have risen to fame have fought exceedingly shy of their earlier work and have regretted bitter ly lack of foresight that sent them' Into print. Not so with Longfellow. After more than a dozen years of opportunity to pick flaws in his youthful and in itiatory attempts he and his friends saw no difficulty in putting at least four of them between covers. The test of time has proved that there was no mistake. There is little of the uncer tain touch of the beginner in these first specimens of his handiwork. From which it may be inferred that the poet knew his business from the beginning and also that he was pre pared to take advantage of that knowl edge. Beyond the fact that he was de- Wi ill ft V-ffv :H i j tm s urn t '.:?! it". 1 1 m e,,i U will WW?"? &wm&i0&?M dm, I If voted to nature in all its varied forms and loved a modicum of solitude for the thoughts it brought him there was lit tle of the typical poet about the young Maine student. He realized the value of an education, and he did not let the divine afflatus distract him in the pur suit of it. The poetic fire that may have burned in ' his inner nature did not conflict with the New England pru dence and thrift that are part of the original equipment of him who is .a native of the Pine Tree State. Upon his graduation he was , not quite nineteen at the time Longfel low did not give himself unreservedly to the business of verse making, as might have been expected from a man who was a poet and who knew his power. He had shown himself to be of such a studious temperament that the trustees of Bowdoin asked him to accept the chair of modern languages which they were about to establish. It was offered to the young poet on the condition that he should spend three years abroad In study and travel. Bowdoin was only what the witty Dr. Holmes dubbed a "fresh water" college in those days, and the salary was the paltry sum of $1,000 per annum, but Longfellow did not hesitate to accept a post which was so much to his liking. His progress during his three years' residence in Europe was wonderful, but It was not a poetical advance. He ac- Longf ellow's Birthplace, Portttvnd.Me. quired a working knowledge of sev eral languages and made the acquain tance of many persona who were of great service to him in after life. One of them was 'Washington Irving, who was then attached to the American legation in Spain, and was putting the finishing touches to his "Life of Co lumbus." At the expiration of the European visit Longfellow returned to Maine and at once entered upon the duties of his professorship. He acquitted . himself admirably, so well that just before he had reached the age of twenty-eight he was invited . to fill the . chair of modern languages in Harvard. This was doing exceedingly well, and . the young man realized it. He had mar ried meanwhile, and the responsibilities of married life had broadened his am bition. The new position involved an other visit to Europe and, accompanied by his wife, he sailed in the spring of 1835 for London. Previous to this he had published "Outre Mer," a volume of sketches of his first tour, and it had given him some reputation, especially in England. During all these years he had written absolutely no poetry. A few months later, while in Ger many, he had . the misfortune to ' lose his wife. Even then his grief did not show itself in poetic expression, as it must have done in a less well disci plined young man who was a poet. He completed his year of study and then began his work at Harvard, becoming a lodger in Cambridge at the old Craigie house, which afterward became his own property. It was here that he permitted his poetic genius to resume its activity. First came "Footsteps of Angels" and the "Psalm of Life." They were recog nized immediately as the work of a master hand. A year later he publish ed his novel, "Hyperion," which added greatly to his reputation. His "Voices of the Night" followed, and it estab lished his rank as one of the American poets from whom great things were to be expected. The young poet-professor woke up to find himself famous. Liter- Bust In Westminister Abbey ary Boston had set the seal of approval on his work, and the lovers of genius were ready to do him homage. Then he married Miss Appleton, bought the Craigie house and settled down into the career of never failing literary prosperity which was - inter rupted only by his passing from the earth. No man ever had more friends or more enjoyable ones. The world did not hesitate to accept him as one of Its most promising singers, and in time the old Craigie house became the center of poetic expression in the coun try. There was no history of struggle and failure of appreciation. There was appreciation enough to turn the brain of a less well balanced poet, and there were golden dollars In abundance. It seems that Longfellow - never ex perienced the annoyance brought by unmarketable literary wares. "The Skeleton In Armor," one of his shorter poems, did not quite meet the approval of the readers of a Boston periodical, and the Inimitable Sam Ward, who was a stanch friend, indignant at the hesi tation, took the manuscript to the edi tor of the Knickerbocker magazine and almost forced him to pay for it the highest price that had ever been paid for a short poem. Later the sama de voted friend took the manuscript of the "Hanging of the Crane" to Robert Bon ner of the New York Ledger and ob tained a check for -$4,000 for it. The poem contained only. 200. Jines.. . If there had been any doubt as to Longfellow's power. to reach the popu lar heart It was dissipated by the ap pearance of "Evangeline." Its beau ty of diction and simplicity of treat ment captivated the - entire English speaking world. It was a stroke of great good fortune that the-poet hap pened on so popular a theme and so exquisite a setting, and he was always ready to acknowledge his indebtedness to Hawthorne," to whom the subject was suggested by a friend. Hawthorne, however, was not attracted to it and yielded it willingly to the poet. . In 1S61 Longfellow experienced his second great sorrow, . which was oc- r . .,. f iljlj I no f -wm MM 't'h-' I tit1 m""li i i I f - -' I ' v ,ii!i! m ilia n 'JV'3 f Mi" -The Old Clock- H on casloned by the death of his wife from injuries inflicted by fire. There was not a note of pielody from the olj Craigie house for" three years. Then the poet resumed the interrupted sons and kept on singing to the end. jr . GEORGE H. PICARD.. - STENOGRAPHER'S ENGLISH. ,. In some stenographic systems an ar bitrary sign may stand for one, two or even three words. Sometimes the mis translation of one of these signs leads, to funny results. "The deed shocked the nation to the heart core" was what was said, and the typewriter evolved, "The dead shocked the notion to the hard car." "The rumor was but transient, though," was hardly recognizable as "The ram mer was trains end through." A rear end collision was evidently inthat girl's mind. "As manna fed the Jews" was Ingeniously- tortured by another young woman into "As mamma fed the jays." Yet she was a Sunday school teacher. "Plays, creeps and laughs, the Inno cent," crooned the man one day, mouth ing the opening lines of some projected baby verses.- When the typewriter tap ped out "Plays craps and leaves, the innocent," he scanned her visage close ly. When "But she held Jake too dearly for that, and so passed on" was dic tated, ard It came out, "But she held jacks, two. drawing for that and so passed one," would it have been unjust to credit the, girl at the machine with an -elementary knowledge of gambling 1 Success. . INGENIOUS LOCK. A Jamaican inventor has constructed a remarkable combination lock that seems likely to 'defy the most expert lock picker. The combination Is ar ranged in four sets of letters, twenty four letters in each, and each lettei represented by a figure. It can be set to a sentence in almost any modern language, one letter being 4aken from one set, one from another and so on. The person who would open the lock must first know whi't letter each fig ure represents and then what language the sentence is in. The Scientific American considers that one trying to pick the lock would have to work ovei 96.000,000 years at the rate ' of sixty numbers a minute before arriving al the correct combination. & &?e Remarkable Facial Expression of Tkeodore Roosevelt T l HE face is the mirror of the soul," and those who make a study of the matter will find that the sentiments, the in- :elligence and the instincts of an in Sividual are shown clearly by the vari us expressions which at different "NOW. RUN AWAY, CHILDREN." times rest on even the most impassive countenances. Strictly speaking, there may be "no art to find the mind's con- struction in the face," but ' it may be .affirmed quite as truthfully that there Is no art that will conceal the thoughts that are behind our facial expressions. Physiognomy may not have arrived at the dignity of a science, but It is cer tain that we are all physiognomists ifter a fashion. It is intuitive, ap parently. Long before the child is able :o express himself in language he reads he faces of those in whom he Is inter ested. He is as expert in divining ac rurately the sentiments of his mother r of his nurse as she is Inexpert in . oncealing them. All animals seem to , Ave this instinctive faculty in some gre, Mankind is influenced largely by this instinctive physiognomy. The study is a fascinating one, and the circle of those who are pursuing it is widening daily. There is such an infinite variety. Faces seen today are as different from those seen yesterday as will be those seen tomorrow. Every human face is a new study, and no two are precisely alike. It is interesting, for Instance, to distinguish between persons who have created their own intelligence and " fey CLINCHING A POINT. those whose intelligence has created them. Those who have systematized the study of facial expression know that there are in all countenances the origi nal indications and those produced by modifying circumstances. Such, for example, are sickness, age and trouble. Most men when undergoing emotion of any kind find it extremely difficult to control the outward expression. They are so absorbed with what is going on within that they have no time for the observation of exterior manifestations. They are conscious that they are giving expression to their feelings In a series of countenance changes, but they do not realize how eloquent that facial ex pression has become. There is a wide range between the type of countenance on which every inner impulse Is registered faithfully and that whose sphinxlike immobility reveals nothing. The latter type is rare in civilized society. . Savage races are endowed with a more or less volun tary power of maintaining an un changing facial expression, but it is likely that their capacity in this di rection has been overestimated. There is the widest diversity among the vari ous manifestations of the Caucasian Msr.i-5.-. I 1 r i ii k.'U(4 ;-V.-- m v It 'II I l - ii i sm.-L i ii r-w i T r "THAT'S A GOOD ONE! race. Those of Saxon origin are reput ed to be less telltale in their facial changes than those of southern Europe, but it is also the popular belief that the Latin races succeed best in con cealing their emotions. The orientals are most adept of all in baffling curi osity as to their actual mental employ ment. The subiect of facial expression has been made very interesting in this country by the popularizing of photog raphy. Never before has it been possi ble tj obtain so many -and such, a va riety of expressions furnished by a single individual. Nowadays a man who has arrived at any eminence is photographed in all his moods and ex pressions. The very annoyance that he feels in the presence of the snap shot man is reproduced with madden ing fidelity.. Go where he will and as he will there is no unfailing security. It is only in an absolute monarchy, like that of Morocco, that even the sover eign is proof against the camera fiend. It is leze majesty to photograph the sultan of Turkey without a permit, but it is no longer a capital crime. The president of the United States Is the legitimate prey of the snapshotters. Like Kaiser Wilhelm and King Ed- 3 ft VERY WELL SATISFIED. ward, Mr. Roosevelt is not discom posed in the face, of the most formid able battery of Cameras that may be trained on him. He seems to be ob livious and goes right on furnishing a variety of facial expressions that tax the resources of the modern camera, no matter how heavily it may be loaded. He is the possessor of a singularly re sponsive set of facial muscles, and even in repose his features are eloquent of the mental operations that are going on within. . It has become quite a fad to collect these multifold photographic revela tions of the president's facial expres sions, and the "Roosevelt face album" has made its appearance. The series begins as long ago as 1889, when Mr. Roosevelt was appointed civil service commissioner. Between that period and the present the Roosevelt expres- 1" i V ! s f :": .-z7 1A V V .if Li if THE VERY LATEST POSE. sion has been captured many hundreds of times, and the collector who is in possession of an unbroken series has something not only valuable, but com prehensive. The Roosevelt physiognomy is In no way reminiscent of , Greek art, but it is not devoid of a certain wholesome at tractiveness, and it is always interest ing. Perhaps the least known expres sion of the rugged and rather pugna cious face is that of repose. That is because inaction is an infrequent con dition with the president. About the nearest approach to it that appeals in the collection Is a snapshot secured while the victim sat on his veranda at Sagamore Hill in all the luxury of a flannel tennis costume, book light lit erature, perhaps in hand. Several snapshotters have caught the president napping, but in no instance is there is u 7' IN A PENSIVE MOOD. evidence of repose save in the closed eyes. The facial muscles are contorted In striking confirmation of the theory that sleep is not a perfect Interruption of the mental faculty. The section of the presidential face collection labeled "Campaign Expres sions" is especially characteristic. They are so telltale that it is almost possi ble, with a dozen or more of them spread out before one, to divine the subject of the discourse and something of its treatment. It is equally Instruc tive to make a study of the snapshots secured - during a- presidential : tour. a complete series in the precise order in which they were taken. There Is such a series illustrating the executive face during one . of the annual, expeditions into the wilderness in quest of big game. Properly arranged, according to sequence, this group is a picture story k rtS". f f I 1 1 "DEE-LIGHTED TO SEE YOU!" that needs no words to make It intelli gible. Another series is Illustrative of the president's Panama tour. Several of the snapshots were captured during the first visit to the great ditch, and they are vastly more enlightening than words. : , - JOHN C. WORTH. A SCOTCH CENTENARIAN. Scotland's centenarians numbered 4f in 1901. One man, named Matthew Fowlds, of Farwlck, near Kilmarnock the,hun5redth anniversary of o s birthday last month in his natlv. village, where he has spent the whol. k h.iS-"re The "markable Thin about lum Is that he Is still a skillful hand Lloom weaver and looks good for another twenty, years at least.