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THE TOPE K A DAILY STAT E-LjjOJJR H A Ir
wEng. mm ITJie. Ravages of the Gypsy and T3 TC it, 5? II 10 Grown -tail Is 4T A- v' sas'V : xiw w ' xf PflMxr - , - . - -3 t T wkss&? : 1 twv yfx&cJi UV - - i: v-:r. , c j i22?-- 1 HH-n 'X r4 rvX ifXdxl Vv ! I VfoJTEIZ WEB3 Or THE OIT-E'rG-JL OAK BT FRANKLIN Tbat the crowning glory of the old towns In which their fathers were born those grand old elms which were planted mayhnp by their fathers own hands should actually, have their existence threatened by a vulgar Insect: this is too much for the equanimity of the New Eng land man and woman. The thought that In a few years ttie beautiful interlacing branches which cover the streets in wblcb they played as children shall be swept away with their grand old supporting bolrs, and the streets themselves become as bare and onbeautlful as those of a boom town this Inspires a kind of freniy. And yet for nearly 40 years the "gypsy" moth has been laying her eggs, her cater pillars Increasing In geometrical progres sion, until today the people stand aghast at their destructive work, and the legis lature has paused long euougb In Its granting of public favors to private cor porations to declare the gypsy moth a public nuisance." But the gypsy moth does not seem to mind legislative con demnations, and since It has been Joined In Its work of devastation by the "brown tall" moth, the area of Its operations has Increased In extent a thousandfold. Whole patches of beautiful woodland are so stripped of foliage by the end of June that they bear the aspect of November. Orchards are eaten clean of leaf and bud. destroying all possibility of fruit, and even the rugged white plue Is fed upon by these caterpillar pests until It withers nnto death, and stands blackened and stripped of bark as by a blast of lightning. Only those prairie people of the West who remember the years In which a cloud of grasshoppers darkened the sky and passed, leaving not a spear of grain to harvest: only such have any parallel by which to Imagine the destruction that New England now faces. The gypsy moth caterpillar will attack all fruit, shade and woodland trees, al though It sLows a preference for the apple, oak and elm. It will devour on occasion nearly every useful grass, plant, flower, shrub, vine. bnsh. garden or field crop that grows. Throujthout the already Infested portions of Massachusetts It swarms and drags Its loathsome length along the walk, upon the house fronts and verandas, and does not even leave the In terior of dwellings free from Its hated presence. It Is usually conceded that the natural ist Is a superior person. The nearer a man cornea to understanding natural ob jects and phenomena the more likely Is ho to confer some sort of lasting benefit upon the race. But no rule was ever formu lated without at least the concept of Its exception occurring to somebody; and so the naturalist who Introduced the gypsy moth from Europe Into this country is at present remembered only for the harm he has done. As far back as authentic records exist, the gypsy moth has been n destructive pest In the Old World, at times Increas ing enormously and disastrously, then for other periods decreasing, only to Increase again and renew Its extensive ravages. At the present time It Is most numerous nd destructive In Southern Russia. Cp to the year 1868 It was unknown In the western hemisphere. It was In that year the Insect was brought from Europe by an experimenter living In the town of Medford. Mass. The experiment of Its propagation In America was distinctly successful Numbers of the moths es caped from their captivity and spread Into many cities and towns of Eastern Massachusetts, and. Increasing enormous ly, became by 1S90 so serious a pest that the state began extermlnatlve work against them This was continued for 10 years and the propagation of the pest so hindered there by that the people forgot about It and re laxed their lgllance. No sooner, how ever, had the state ceased Its systematic operations than the moth began rapidly to gain headway, and today It occurs in enormous numbers over a vastly larger Moths xll . XxPVMx y-r -cxi xxx . r .m&& e - tiiijjt,.'!awwwMWj.Wr-.1 TirfirMfff,llL-U!jj!- " Z.yi!Ha!MaajMt)MiiBwiiMMMw territory than It Infested when It was first attacked by the state. The gypsy moth, like all insects of Its class, exists under four different forms during the year. The eggs of the moth are laid In July and August in a yellow ish, hair-covered mass, averaging about one and one-half Inches long and about three-quarters of an Inch wide. To the eye the egg mass resembles a small, tightly stuffed, oval, huff-colored cushion, but during the winter the color often fades to a dingy white. In this mass the eggs, to the average number of about 500, are closely packed with yellowish hair from the body of the female moth. An individual egg is scarcely as large as a plnhead, salmon-colored when first laid, but turning dark In the course of a few weeks. The eggs batch about May 1. and each mass or "cluster" yields a swarm of small caterpillars, the bulb of which become fully grown by midsummer. Gypsy moth caterpillars of any age are decidedly hairy. Their beads are large In pro portion to their bodies, this be ing especially noticeable when they are young. When mature they have a dusky or sooty colored body. Along the back, counting from the bead, which Is marked with yellow. Is a double row of blue spots, followed by a double row of red. This double row of spots may be seen very distinctly on the back of a gj psy moth caterpillar which has attained length of au Inch and a half or more. There are five pairs of blue spots and six pairs of red. No other New England larva bas this double row of red and blue spots along Its back. Until the caterpillar grows to the length of on Inch and a half, however. It does not always show these spots very distinctly. The mature gypsy moth caterpillar not Infrequently attains a length of three Inches. When fully grown, usually In July, the caterpillar spins a lew threads of silk as a supporting framework, casts Its skin . and changes into a pupa. or. as It is some times called, a chrysalis.- The pupa Is dark reddish or chocolate In color and very thinly sprinkled with light, reddish hairs. Unfortunately, it resembles closely the pupae of certain other moths found Id New England, and cannot be Identified at a glance except by naturalists or experts. The thinly sprinkled, light reddish hairs are, however, characteristic. From about July IS to August 13 the winged moths emerge from the pupae, the date varying according to the season mod the period of pupation. The male moth Is brownish yellow, varying to greenish brown Id color. Be bas a slender body and expands about one and a half Inches and files actively by day with a peculiar zigzag flight. The female moth la nearly white, with numerous small black mark ings. She is heavy-bodied and sluggish and expands about two lDches. The fe male does not fly; otherwise the spread of the pest over the entire country would be Inevitable, and no doubt would have been long since accomplished. After mating the moths live but a short time. They take no food: all damage to follow Is done by the caterpillars. The female dies after depositing her ega mass. It is thus during tha caterpillar stage that the moth spreads chiefly. While they do not crawl very far from the place In which they hatch, except when there Is a scarcity of food, they have the habit when small and young of spinning down on their silken threads from trees and fall ing on vehicles and other moving objects, and are thus carried from place to place. Electric cars, pleasure and business ve hicles, bicycles and automobiles are thus media for their transportation. It is for this reason that the state In Ita Initial warfare on the pest devoted Its energies chiefly to trees and woodlots and orchards adjoining the highways and their moving vehicles. The caterpillars often crawl upon vehicles standing In an Infested spot, and when the same are moved extend the Infested area. The egg clusters them selves may also be transported by any of the numerous objects upon which tliey are laid. Freight cars that have stood upon sidings near Infested foliage for a period long enough for the laying of the eggs In their crevices or sheltered angles may even thus transport the pest over long dis tances, and It Is quite possible that the moth has not yet revealed the Infection. From Angust to May the egg masse may be found In places near where the moth emerged from the pupa case- In laying, the female moth chooses tree trunks, the under sides of limbs, sheltered crotches and holes In trees, hollow trees or crevices in or under rough bark. The egg clusters are also found on shrubbery, buildings, scattered and heaped rubbish, barrels, boxes and similar objects stand ing out of doors, woodpiles, stoneptles, fences, walls, bowlders and the like. They have been found upon an Immense va riety of objects, and occasionally are seen In almost any situation tbat Is not too remote from vegetation. The tend ency Is to deposit the eggs on the lower or Inner surface of the object, but when the moths swarm In one place, as they sometimes do, they disregard all rules, and their egg masses may be found plentifully In plain sight and out and in all sorts of places, even inside buildings. From May to August the caterpillars may be found In various stages of growth, diminishing rapidly In numbers after-the middle of July. In' the spring the small ones appear on the foliage, feeding prin cipally on the under side of the leaf. As they grow they cast, or molt," their skin seveial times, and these molted skins are characteristic signs of the presence of the moth. As the caterpillars acquire size their protective instinct leads them to begin to feed only at night and during the day seek shelter generally In cluster on the shady side of tree trunks, beneath large limbs, under rough or loose bark. In holes In trees, under fence rails. In walls, stonubeaps, rubbish piles In short. In any accessible place affording shelter from discovery. This habit of the caterpillars of feeding at night and hiding; during the day has suggested one means for their destruction, especially In orchards and upon shade trees. All one has to do Is to f..ruish a good and convenient place In which they may hide, and then slaughter them In the broad day, when they may readily be seen h- uncovering their prepared refuge. As good a way as any, and one which bas been quite extensively followed In Mas sachusetts, Is to tie a short skirt of bur lap upon the bole of the tree, and If a very large tree on some of the larger limbs as weh. When the daylight comes the cater pillars leave off feeding on the tender leaves and crawl to the trunk of the tree In long processions. Finding the burlap, they crawl under It and compose them selves to rest through the beat of the day, until their enemy, man. comes along, lifts the burlap skirt and scrapes them off the tree trunk Into a pan for burning. B:it to dress all the trees In the Infested district with burlap skirts and attend "to them dally would require the services of hall the population of New England. That Is merely a way to protect certain trees after the eggs have been batched. There are great acreages of brush and sprout land In which the pest also breeds, and no burlap method would here avail. When such a plot becomes Infested there Is but one thing to do clear It and burn It. and thus destroy the eggs. But the burning must be well done. As the eggs with stand the rigors of the New England win ter, so are they nls- remarkably resistant to fire. An intense beat applied directly to the clusters Is rcaulred to kill them. Where low cost woodland and unim proved tracts of brush are extensively In fested, and it is not desired to save any of the young saplings. It is sometimes thought wise to burn the ground over with oil after the brush Is cleared, to de stroy eggs scattered in cutting. If It Is desired to save the saplings they require to be carefully gone over, after the brush Is cleaned out nnd burned, the egg clus ters searched out and destroyed by paint ing with a mixture of creosote. To scrape them off would not avail; It would simply scatter the eggs. Then, this labor ac complished, the trees must be sprayed in the spring with a solution of arsenate of lead to kill the young caterpillars, and burlapped through the summer to kill those which escape the spraying. The labor that must actually be performed, which must be persistent and never-ending If the pests are to be kept from dis astrously multiplying, not: , to speak of their possible ex termination,' .Is enough to stagger the man who owns a few acres of orchard or woodland. But the gypsy moth does Dot ravage alone. Early In the 90's another variety of pest of the same general character was Imported Into Massachusetts, sup posedly in a shipment of roses from Hol land. It was the "brown-tail" moth. This Insect, although slightly differing In Its habits from Its predatory companion. Is every bit as destructive, and in some lo calities bas been distinctly more so. Som ervllle, Mass., has the honor of letting loose this pest upon the country. In Eu rope It has long been a pest of fruit and shade trees, and Is called the "common caterpillar." In America It began its feeding almost wholly upon fruit trees, but within the past five years it has adapted Itself to the taste for various species of forest trees, notably the oaks. In the spring, as soon as the buds unfold, the young caterpillars begin to feed, and, where they are numerous, completely strip the tree, however large. When the food supply gives out they swarm along fences and walks In search of foliage. Unlike other caterpillars, most of which may be handled with Impunity, when the caterpillar of the brown-tall moth comes In contact with human flesh there Is pro duced a most severe and painful nettling. This is due apparently not to any poison ous secretion In the hairs, but rather to the finely barbed and brittle hairs them selves, which enter and break off In the flcBb. So severe Is this affection that in many cases In Massachusetts people have been made distinctly 111 by it, and as it swarms 1u some places In Immense num bers In the vicinity of the house, which it frequently enters. It may often be touched inadvertently. The egg mass of the brown-tall some what resembles that of the gypsy, but It Is seldom laid upon a tree trunk or any where save on the underside of a leaf. It Is smaller and more elongated than the gypsy egg cluster, and of a brighter, reddish-brown color. But here comes in a radical difference In habit. The eggs of the brown-tail do not batch until August. One would conclude from this that the caterpillars could do little damage, being born after the foliage bas practically served Its purpose and Is ready to turn sere and wither, and they do cause but little damage the year in which they are born. When they first batch they feed for a while on the upper surface of the leaves, but soon commence the work of spinning their winter webs. In making the web a number of leaves are drawn together, and a tenacious silken thread is woven about them. The web Is grayish In color, composed of dead leaves and silk, and Is very hard to, tear apart. Each web contains about 250 caterpillars, and varies In length from four to six Inches. With the approach of cold weather the caterpillars enter the web and close the exit holes. Then Is demonstrated the ct range phe nomenon of a caterpillar "wintering over" i - '. "ft - . jg A - , SiXX! ::XX" 1 V S.Z ing the following spring to complete its when only one-quarter grown and emerg Ilfe history. The extremes of cold In New England do not seem to affect these in sects adversely. They emerge in the spring usually early in April eat first the buds and then the blossoms and at tack the foliage of fruit trees as soon as It develops. The full-grown caterpillar is about two Inches In length, with a broken white stripe on either side and two con spicuous red dots on the back near the posterior end. Stripping the foliage of one tree, they go to others and continue to eat until full grown, when the cocoons are spun within the leaves at the ends of the branches. The moths are pure white on the wings. The male Is slender-bodied, while the fe male has a conspicuous bunch of brown hair at the tip of the abdomen, from whence the name "brown-tall moth." B. " the male and female brown-tall moths fly mainly by night and are greatly attracted to lights. As In the case of the gypsy moth, all the destructive work of the brown-tall Is done by Its caterpillar which, unlike the gypsy moth caterpillar, habitually feeds by day. It has, how ever, the same "spinning-down" habit and so travels extensively by the way of moving vehicles. While the gypsy is best destroyed in the egg, the brown-tall is most accessible in the caterpillar web. The winter webs or nests containing the hibernating cater pillars are conspicuous objects at the tips of twigs from October to April. These webs may be sought out and re moved by the use of pole shears or long handled pruners, and then carefully col lected and burned. When a light snow Is on the ground the work of web Jo structlon can be best carried on as when the web Is brought down by the shears It Is not apt to be overlooked upon the snow. Where tall trees are infested two men, one to point out the nests from the ground and the other to cut them oft, can work to best advantage. The female winged brown-tall moth. "A (if '? if . t iJ J 2 t VX!U T .x tOX' Buying Antiques for Selling. In this practical age there are few people who are not glad to take advan tage of the opportunity to add to their Incomes should the occasion ocenr. And for persons who keep their eyes open there are many channels at the present day in which any man or woman may, if so inclined, turn their energies to profits. Perhaps one of the best of these lies In the securing of many kinds of antiques and art treasures In demand by collectors which are to be found In very large numbers all over the country If only one knows where to look for them. The most likely places of all where this kind of thing Is to be found are In the out-of-the-way villages, and It Is no exaggeration to say that a number of priceless relics are In existence at the present moment In humble cottages, al though their owners are quite unaware of the value of their possessions. The fine eld grandfather clock Is such a fa miliar feature oi the cottage's kitchen that most persons will scarcely attach much value to this article. Tet, In fact, there Is a very real demand amongst dealers for this relic of a bygone age. With a few trifling ex ceptions these big clocks are not manu factured at all at the present day, so that any "grandfather" which one may come across is almost certain to be really an old one. Good specimens In working order. If the case be of some solid wood, such as oak or rosewood, will sell for $100 easily, and the value Is a good deal enhanced if the clock has an engraved brass face. . It is quite possible that anyone might come across one of the finest decorated grandfather clocks. These were made about 150 years ago, and the particular feature about them Is that the cases, al though manufactured In England, were sent out to the Far East to be enriched with " mother-o'-pearl and generally dec orated. These are very much wanted at the present time, and such a clock In good preservation would sell easily for several hundred dollars. One word of caution may be given to the speculator In grandfather clocks. At all costs avoid "grandfathers" which only go for 80 hours; there are many of these about, and altnough they are old. yet they are worth very little. Many kinds of candlesticks commonly wan iv mil; t - X X like the male. Is a strong, swift flier, and can carry ber eggs long distances before depositing them. For this reason tha brown-tall has spread much farther from its point of introduction in Massachusetts than has the gypsy. In Its flight It Is often aided by strong winds, and la also transported on steamboats and In electric and Bteam cars, to which it la attracted at night by the lights. The brown-tail Is already known to have spread at least as far northeast aa Eastport, Me., and as far south aa Cape Cod. To the west it has been found at Amherst, Mass. The eastern portion of Massachusetts from north to south la now quite solidly Infested, although less so south of Boston, and the moth, doubt less, exists in many communities In and out of the state from which It baa not yet been reported. It is evident that the extermination or suppression of these pests can never be successfully accomplished by leaving the matter to Individuals. Unless a parasite can be found to prey upon and destroy the eggs of these moths end the State of Massachusetts Is already experiment ing with a tiny fly which It Is hoped may perform this useful service it will require the persistent action of the peo ple collectively as a state as well as In dividually as citizens to make any head way whatever against the present whole sale devastation. If the mania of the small boy for the collection of birds' eggs could be diverted Into as ardent a liking for the discovery of the nests of the gypsy and brown-tall moths, the New England lads could render a distinct and wholesome service; but the lack of rari ery in the sport would probably mean lta speedy desertion. Meanwhile It Is a condition which eon fronts New England and not a theory. If the trees are to be saved, the labor must be expended to save them, even If It presses Into the service of moth catching the small boy as well aa the small boy's parents. adorn the mantelshelf in the cottage. These, if of brass, are not worth very much, even though old. The searcher should keep bis eyes open for those known aa "Sheffield" make. These are always In good request, especially If the shape Is elegant. This kind of candle stick was aa a rule made of copper and then plated with silver, and the red color of the former metal may be generally discerned at the worn edges. If not, a tiny portion of the article scraped with a penknife will reveal the nature of the ma terial underneath. The mere fact of tbese Sheffield candlesticks being in a dirty oo ad dition does not take away from the veins at all and. Indeed, Is likely to enhance It as being in some cases a sign of grc-t age. Of course, violins are rather difficult things for the amateur buyer to valne, and before speculating to any extent It la wise to engage In some small course of study aa to the various makers. Still, one cannot go fax wrong in risking two or three dollars on any old violin. Not so very long ago an old violin was mentioned in the London papers aa hav ing been picked up at a country auction sale for about $2. This turned out to be a "Paganlnl." Of course. It sold easily afterwards for an Immense sum running into thousands of dollars. It may be Instructive to mention tbat the name of the maker of the violin of repute Is usually to be seen on the Inside of the case, looking through one or other of the curious "8" shaped holes which appear on the face of the instrument. The appraising of the value of pictures Is a thing of Itself, but a little study of the works of some of the great painters will soon give the treasure-hunter suf ficient knowledge to prevent being done. Most particularly one iould be on the lookout tor small water-color paintings by such a man as Mason, for Instance. Tbese are often somewhat Insignificant to look at. and yet worth a great deal of money. A case In point la that which happened to a friend of the writer's. A small water-color picture about six Inches square was picked up for $2. The lucky buyer discovered It was by a cele brated painter and sold It to a dealer la London for $200. It Is known that there are a large number of Turner's pictures In various parts of the country, and the same might be said of many other famous artists. ' - mri'