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6q THE NATIONAL TRIBUNE. -i fe. V&s B! I Softtersr iSommunitditniUn G.MiKSuund, ItiTi., Seyt. 3, 1$S0. Editor of The National Tribune : Dha.r Stii : I am so much gratified to rend your vary interesting paper, as it monthly comes to hand, thtit t fool a pleasure in now panning ydu, what 1 think, will be some entertaining reminisences of tho war. I went, ovor to Springfield, Illinois, in tho spring of 1801 just about the time our soldiers woro being sent to Cairo to guard that important point. Govornor Yates, or "poor Dick Yates," as ho was familiarly called, at that time, was Govornor, lie was a noblo follow, but tho madden ing cup drove him to his grave. Frequently I was brought into association with him; a more devoted, patriotic man never lived. General Fuller nl that time was Adjutant General, and one day I noticed a spnro-huttt, modornto siscod man in his office writing, whom I had not soon be fore. I asked who it was, "Why," said ho, "that is daptain Grant, from Galena." Ho appeared to bo fre quently iu and out of tho ofllce, and 1 learned ho had something to. do with parties of recruits who wore arriv ing at Springfield. Then the "Twenty-first Illinois In fantry was camped out near Macon, Illinois, and one day Governor Yates informed me there was great disaffection in tho regiment, with its commander, Colonel Goode, and that ho had resigned his position. ' Whom to appoint, " said tho Governor, " I could not at onco determine, but in a day or two I commissioned Graut, for ho appeared to bo well qualified." In a week or two, having run over from Springfield to Quincy, I noticed passing to their camping ground, a new regiment. It dragged slowly along, the boys looked weary and were covered with dust. " What regiment is that ?" I inquired of ono of tho sol diers. " Twenty-first Illinois Infantry," was tho reply. Grant had marched them the.qno hundred miles from Springfield to Quincy, in place of sending them on tho cars. The regiment was only in camp a day or two at Quincy when it wont over to Missouri to fight tho bush whackers and sccesh there . Grant soon worked down tho rivnr with lifa rnp-imont and lauded "at Cairo. Bon. M. Prentiss was thou iu command there. He had been mado a Brigadier General, but Grant's commission ante-dated his and tho latter took command of the post. Tho expedi tion down tho Tennessee having been decided on, Grant -was placed in charge of it. His forces took Fort Donald son, where ho became a Major-General, and tlion his for tunes rose rapidly. Now, I often wonder what would have been our mili tary fortunes if Col. Goode had not resigned command of tho Twenty-first Illinois Infantry, and Governor Yates lind not annotated Grant in his stoad. By the way, I should mention that Yates told me, ho gave Grant tho place against the wishes of all the captams m the regi ment they said ho was ff a new man and wo do not want him." " But," remarked Yates, " I know there was good stuff in him." On what apparently trifling incidents, often hang tho fate of a nation. Wishing much success to Tins Tjubune aud its work in behalf of tlio rights and iuterests of all ex-soldiers, I am if you do romombor, I ask you to follow mo closely as 'TH upoums. Enfilading bur linos their flro sw$H down scores attempt to doscribo what subsequently transpired as I a,tf Ovory discharge, yet wo did not falter. I doubt if any roniombor the events and as history has recorded them man thought of going back Wo gained tho high ground tTuoksoif h corps of tho rebel army occupied the lino of J on, a level with the top of tho cut; fchqii wo saw tho rebel tho abandoned ludepondont railroad; his loft resting iu tho infaudry tho trap into which wo had fallen. For tho first vioiuity of Sudloy's Mills, and his light to tho north and i time during our charge our rillas rang their notes of west oC Groveton. Longstroot waS inarching down to death; for tho first timo siuco wo slartod from tho wood unite with him from tho direction of Thoroughfare Gap, wo realized the fullness of our danger, his column forming, with that of .Jackson, an obtuso Tho rebel infantry poured in thoir volleys, aud wo woro anglo. Between Jackson and Lougstroct, howovor, when ' scarce a dozen foot from tho muzalos of thoir muskets, tho battle of iho 30th began, thoro was a small gap, thus Oh, it was terrible 1 Down went Galpin, Kceso, iuehle, leaving tho right wing of the army of the former exposed Stewart, Benjamin all from my own company of thirty to a flank attack from the Union forces; but tho rebel men killod; clown wont Bunnell, llaslor, Savage. Thomas. -w m r-T 1 -j -. . i 1 . .jerroms, uertoimori, ana scores oi uravo men until a perfect winrow of dead and wounded marked where valor had como to stay; down wont your humble servant and leader had foreseen his weakness, aud strongthoned his position by massing his artillery at tho point of threat ened danger. Tho Union forces woro within tho anglo thus formed, and to t.ho south aud oast of it, thoir lines facing west and north. Now for a more particular description of tho ground upon which the battle was fought : Tho high ground to tho wost of Groveton was hold by tho ouomy, (tho extreme right of Jackson,) thus commanding tho Warronton pike. The railway to which I have alluded runs in noarly an eastorly aud westerly direction, aud, like all graded roads, presents sometimos an embankment sometimes a cut. Imagine, if you can, a heavy piece of timber, out of which dead and wounded; for twenty minutes, and then omerges an embankment or "fill" of some twouty or yet alive and able to do so received orders to fall thirty foot in height, flat on top, aud which, running west- We who fell tho dead, the dying, and tho disabled ward perhaps a hundred and twenty yards, terminates in a cut of from eight to ton feet deep and about tho samo width at tho bottom, which cut continues on iu the samo direction for about two hundred yards aud then tends slightly to tho northward, debouchiug upon tho open elo vatod ground. Now imagine yourself standing upon tho southern edge of this cut, midway between tho timber wheuco tho embankment issuos and tho slight northward bend where tho road-bed debouches on tho open plain, many more, until tho 13th could count nearly half of its members lying beneath its Hag. And tho regiments to our right and loft fared no bettor. For twenty minutes tho shattorcd remnants of tho 1st brigade hold the slope swept by a hunioauo of death, and each minute seemed twenty hours long. For twenty miuutos tho bullets hummed like swarming bees, and tho parched herbage was nourished by streams of gore from gallant hearts, while the accursed railroad cut began to fill with rebel those back, -held tho Hold. Tho rebels came, helped mo up and bore mo back a short distance whore all our wounded, somo 1,800 men, were gathered undor guard, and thoro until tho 3d of Septombor I lay in agony, men dying almost hourly for want of care. On tho 3d I started for Controvillo to be paroled, and crossed tho fated field Our dead boys lay there as they fell, stark and ghastly; aud the toars came to my oyes as 1 passed along tho lino and recognized ono and face the south. Lpon your left you have woods cross- aud another and bade thorn good byo forevermoro. ing the railway at right angles aud extending in a direct That was long ago ; but yet now, as I write, the old lino for six hundred yards, forming ono side of a parallel- times come back to mo in all their freshucss, and through Yours very truly, T. R. W. Late Tenth 111, lnfuntry. The Battle of Groveton or Second Bull Hun. 4 The following vivid aud graphic description of this battle," or rather the part borne in it by one corps, has been written by a soldier friend. It will be read with interest by every Union soldier : I shall never forgot tho magnificent panorama magni ficent but at tho same timo terrible that burst upon my sight as I reached tho high ground soutjh of the Warronton pike, on my way to the battlefield of tho 80fch of August, 1802. You who were with me remember it ; and now, as you read, there rises up before you a vision like this : Bolow you, winding sluggishly along on its way to Bull Run, a small stream ; just beyond, parallel with its course and crossing the Sudley Springs road, in which rou stand, at right angles, tho Warronton pike. Beyond this, aud to your left a mile or little less, a cluster-of buildings or Groveton ; and then, stretching from those buildings far around to the right and across your path, you behold a .high, rolling, open plateau bounded on tho farther sido by ,a ridge dotted with cannon. Beyond this ridge, about midway between Groveton aud the Sudley Springs road running on straight before you, -tire seen tho roofs and chimneys of Mrs. Dogan's house. To the right of tho Sudley Springs road, embowered in xm orchard interspersed witjh a few forest trees crowning a lofty eminence, you seo rising up the lonely chimneys of the floury IIousc fitting monuments of the first battle oram; in your irom, ruuum uum eusu iu wost, auuuuei p?cce of timber, free from underbrush on tho sido nearest you, and say three or four huudred yards from loft to right, forms the second side; and tho railway Hue at your back makes the third sido. Tho remaining side, to tho west, is open rolling country, except that whero tho line of the road makes tho bend toward tho north there is on the southern side, aud at right angle's to it, a small ravine fringed with bushes and stunted trees. From your feet toward the south tlio grouud falls slightly for fivo or six yards, and then drops away more rapidly till it forms an elevation or ridgo, upon which you staud, of some fifty feet in height. From tho foot of this declivity it stretches out into a level plain, crossing which you ascend a gentle, oven slope to the timber, which, as already observed, faces tho cut. Now turn directly about and you will perceive that on the opposite side of the road-bed tho ground slopes gently upward until it has attained an elevation of three or four feet above that whereon you staud, aud then Gradually and evenly falls away to heavy timber a couple of hundred yards distant, thus forming a ridge parallel with the cut, and a commanding position overlooking tho grouud described as lying to tho southward. Upon this ridgo on tho day of battle, about thirty-six guns Im pounders at a point where tho embaukment lerminates in the open lieiu, six guns nowiizors oi uie same car bre, the same distance in rear of the cut, (midway b tween xhe timber and the bend in the road,) and four guns just beyond the bend but masked from troops approach ing in front by tho small ravine already-mentioned. Be hind these guns lay tho main body of Jackson's army, and the cut and ombankment in front of thorn wore occupied by a heavy force of his infantry. Behind the timber in rear of this formidable position, was stationed on elevated ground the remainder of tho rebel artilery, which, when the Union forces advanced, shelled them over tho heads of the confederates. , I have thus hastily sketched tho position of the right wing of Jackson, and will now briefly point out that of the left of our own lino confronting him. In tho strip of timber running parallel with and about six huudred yards distant from tho abandoned railroad, lay the 1st brigade, 1st division of tho Fifth Corps, composed of the ISth ! Massachusetts ou tho left, oxteuding westward to the open field, the 13th Now York, "Rochester regiment," next, then the 25th New York, 2d Maine, 22d Massachusetts, and 1st Michigan, the latter extending into tho timber running north up to the ombankment by about one com nanv. This brigade numbered about l.ouO men. Farther to the west but deflecting toward iho south so as to face jn the direction of Jackson's extreme right and from whence Lougstroct was expected, and partly crossing the Warrenton piko, stretched tho other troops of the corps, some 4, 500 men. I have been thus particular in describing tho general situation in order that the movements following may bo more clearly understood. Henceforth I will more espe cially follow the fortunes of my own regiment and brigade. of Manassas. ! . " " V, , r, "UL T -" i " ,V 7i . ... 1 . . .. .Hero and thoro the prospect is varied and its beauty ' 1UW umuK-uuinuuu uiu ui tuu gUua uiuwuiuu wio enhanced by solitary trees, or small clusters of them, lift-j ciest of the ridgo before us, except those of the lour ing their leafy crowns in air, while life is given to the ! pwcea .screened from view by tho ravine m our front and a picture by moving columns of blue coats, glaficing bayo-1 httie to our left. Just before us, along tho edge of the Sets, galloping horsemen, and all the pomp and panoply of I !$TT Flfi fcjw.wv. .v ,. v w. w-. .wmvmw ? -VVH n"-J ivsww ww the loug vista of eighteen years that fatal Held rises up to view. In my mind's eye I seo tho c.mnon orownod crest, the long waving lines of bluo as they advauco to the charge, the Hags, the gleaming steel, thr scroaming grape, tho rattling musketry, tho shrill commands, the groans of agony, the cries of pain, and sadder far, I seem to behold once more tho facos of comrades upturned to the bluo sky but iuto whose oyes tho falling sunshine sheds no golden light. Ah! language cannot describe my feelings as tho past returns, bringing with it the terrible, bloody scenes of that fateful day. Do the Lying Suffer Pain? People do not like t think of death. It is an unpleas ant subject, but it constantly obtrudes itself, aud there has been much speculation as to whether mental or phys ical pain attend the final act. Observation teaches us that there is little paiu of either kiud in dying. Experience will como to us all one of these days, but it will come too late to bonefit those who remain. It seems to be a kind provision of nature that, as wo approach the dreaded event, our torror diminishes, and the coward and hero die alike fearless, indifferent, or resigned. As to physical pain, Dr. Edward II. Clark, iu "Yissions," says: "Tho rule is that unconsciousness, not pain, attends tho final act. To tho subject of it, death is no more painful than birth. Painlessly we como ; whence wo know not Pain lessly we go; whither we know not. Nature kindly pro vides an anaesthetic for the body whon the spirit leaves it. Previous to that moment, aud in preparation for it, ros piration becomes feeble, generally slow and short), often accomplished by long inspirations and short expirations, so that tho blood supply is less and less oxygenated. At the same timo the heart acts with corresponding debility, producing a slow, feeble, and often irregular pulse. As this process goes on, tho blood is not only driven to the head with diminished forco and in less quantity, but what flows there is loaded more and more with carbonic aoid gas, a powerful auasthe.tic, the same as thutdeiived from charcoal. Subject to its iulluenoe the nerve oeutors lose consciousness and sensibility, apparent sloop creeps ovor the system; then comes stupor and tho end." The Russian Soldier. active warfare. From the cannon on the crest beyond are shooting out sheets of flame and curling wreatliB of vapory smoke; and yet farther away, just in lroiit of tho heavy timber whose lofty tops here and there shows above the embattled heights of Groveton, are othor guns from which the bolts of death como flying over the marching columns, bursting high in tho air or falling down, mayhap, at your very feet. Overall this inspiring and pulse-thrilling speotacle bends heavon's blue canopy, flecked with light fleecy clouds, through which the golden, burning rays of a midsum mer's sun fall gently down, shimmering through tho foli age of tho trees, glancing lightly upon the rippling waters , and gleaming with a feverish, fitful light upon tho weap ons oi. irieuuK auu wumou, it and us a wagon road. But I will not dwell longer upon these, details. The order came for us to advance. The 1st brigade was to open the couflict by storming the height. We left tho timber and began climbing the fence. Tho robel guns in sight opened upon us with grape and canister, while from beyond, the heavier batteries of the enemy sent a porfoet tempest of shot and shell upon our devoted heads. "We passed down tho slopo iu splendid order, our ranks closed up and our alignment al most perfect. Wo lost men it is true, but the gaps were filled. Wo kept our front, but a shortened lino evidenced our losses. Wo reached tho level ground, through tho center of which, parallel to our lino, rau a ditch or" dead-furrow Across it wo wont, leaving Tho great cause of the success of tho Russian soldier lies in his almost unbounded pationeo and endurance. The men havo marched and fought aud slept in snow aud ice, and forded rivers with the thermometer at zero. They had no blankets and the frozon ground precluded all idea of tents: tho half woruout shelter tents that the men had used during tho .summer were cut up to tie around their boots, which were approaching dissolution; and although an effort was made to shelter the men in tho huts in tho villago, yet always half of them had to sleep out in tho open air without shelter. Thoir olothing at night was tho samo as the day, and it differed from that of thesummeronly iu the addition of an overcoat, woolen jacket and woolen mu tiler for the hoad. Their food was one pound of hard bread, and a pound and a hall oi tough, stringy beef driven along tho rond; they wore forced to carry six aud eight days' rations ou thoir backs, in addition to an extra supply of cartridges in their pockets ; thoro wab more than one instance whero tho men fought well, not only without breakfast, but without having tasted food in twonty-four hours. There was not a single caso of insubordination; tho men wore usually in good spirits, and the number of stragglers on thd march was far loss than during tho boat of summer. -- You remember, my comrades of the Fifth Corps, how many on tho way; on, on wo pressed to the foot of tlio WO marCIieO ClOWU UHO lUU vauuy, uuiuaa two ouuiiiu somo of us stopping to fill our canteens by tho wayand up the opposite slope beneath the dropping shells from the enemy's guns. You remember when wo reached the lino of our artillery. You can each doubtless seo oveufaow in your mind's eye our line of battle crossing theJfWarroiiton piko in tho vicinity of Groveton on tho left, and extending around in an irregular semicircle to the right until it crossed the Sudley Spriugs road. declivity, and all tho while the heavons rained death from bursting shell; all the while tho rebel skirmishers and sharpshooters poured into our ranks tho leaden hail. Whon we reached the level tho guns in our homed iato front no longer able to do us harm, coasod belching forth their deadly missiles, and as we began to climb tho steep ascout wo thought the day was ours. Half way up and onward with a rush and a hurrah wo dashed. But aias 1 our hopes were short lived. From our loft within a hun dred yards of us, the guns hitherto kept concealed opened Beauty. It is difficult to say what constitutes beauty in women, or what is its real criterion. Tho Sandwich Islanders estimate women by thoir weight. The Chinese require them to have deformed feet and black teeth. A Girl must bo tattooed sky-bluo and wear a noso-ring to satisfy a South Sea Islander. African princes require thoir brides to havo thoir teeth filed like those of a saw. And thus goes tho world, tho criterion of boauty differing hugely with differences of latitudo and longitude; "A Dutchman who married his second wife soon aftor the fuuoral of his first, was visitod witlua two hours sere nade iu token of disapproval. lie expostulated patheti cally thus : "I say, poys, you ought to be ashamed of yourself to bo making all dish noise von dero was a funeral hero so soon."