Newspaper Page Text
"TO CARE FOR HIM WHO HAS BORNE THE BATTLE, AND FOR HIS WIDOW AND ORPHANS."
ESTABLISHED 1S77. WASHINGTON, D. 0., SATOKDAY, APP.IL 22, 1882. NEW SERIES V01" I., N- 36. CUMBERLAND GAP. "THE GATEWAY TO THE CONFEDER ACY" THREE TIMES CAPTURED. Its Occupation ly Gen. George IV. Jlonran Closely Imesteil by Ccn. K. Kirlty .Smith Short Itatlons Communications Cut Off. Flanked A Hard JIarch to tltc Oliio Hirer. By G. C. Kniffin. continued. The critical condition of affairs in East Tennessee allied loudly for immediate action. General Braxton Bragg superseded Beauregard in command of the Army of the Mississippi, and finding no disposition mani fested by the major-general in command of the United States forces in his front to dis turb the repose of his arnvy, he dispatched General J. P. MeCown -with his division, 3,000 sirens, to Chattanooga, where it arrived I on the 6th of July. Meantime the Governors of Georgia and Alabama had been untiring in their efforts to organize regiments and push them to the front. The gradual ap proach of General BucH's army was regarded as a perpetual menace upon the southern end of the Valley, while the presence of a heavy co-operating force at Cumberland Gap, under Morgan, rendered it impossible for General Smith to reinforce the garrison at Chattanooga. Large quantities of arms were shipped to the latter place from the A-arions arsenals by orders from Richmond, and the arrival of General MeCown increased the effective strength of the army of East Ten nessee to fully 23,000 men. With the excep tion of this division few of the regiments had seen service in the field and were sadly deficient in drill and discipline. Generals Buell and Morgan had each in turn pleaded with the Government for cavalry. The former needed it to guard his long lines of communications back to his base of supplies at Louisville, and Morgan not only required it for that purpose, but for operations in his front. ' I might as weil be without eyes as without cavalry," he wrote General Halleck, but all without avail. This arm of the service had been fostered and encouraged from the outbreak of the rebellion by the confederate government, and at the period to which this sketch refers many cavalry leaders -who afterwards won. renown at the head of brigades and divisions were fleshing their maiden swords in forays far to ihe, rear of the Union armies. Forrest, Wheeler, Morgan, Scott, Dibrcll, Alston, and numer ous other daring Spirits had rallied to their standards thousands of bold men who, at tracted to this career partly through an inherent desire to ride a horse and partly through the freedom from military restraint almost universally inseparable front that arm of the service, became the terror of out posts, quartermasters, and sutlers. Their reports always record victories, they made no mention of defeats. They were never together long enough to be counted, conse quently made no returns; never mustered for pay or clothing, they collected that from the country through which they passed. At a conference held at Chattanooga about the 24th of July, between Generals Bragg and Smith., it was agreed that the latter should use his entire force, including McCown's division, and two brigades, under command of General Cleburne and Col. Preston Smith, to operate against General Morgan at Cumber land Gap, at the same time securing the co cjeration of General Humphrey Marshall, whose force of o,000 men still remained where General Garfield had driven it, in undisturbed occupation of the country be tween Abingdon and Pound Gap. This ar rmgcn.ent left Bragg with an effective fir '!i:th of about o0,000 veteran infantry in Luclf.s front at Chattanooga. His force was being constantly reinforced by the arrival of new regiments and recruits, and the numer ical strength of both Bragg's and Smith's armh-s was materially increased by a force not lxrne upon adjutant-general's returns, known as partizau rangers or guerrillas. ri bt .r principal occupation was hanging Un ion men. robbing country stores, and in a gen eral a terrorizing the country, until finally, by unhcrsal petition to the confederate gov ernment, that august body repealed the lav.' that authorized their enlistment. Many of th- atrocities attributed to the confederate en airy were committed by this roving band-it i. It was a gang of this character, under u Captain"' Gurley, who murdered Colonel Robert MrX'ook while sick and riding in his ainMilanr on the march northward from the Tennessee about this time. When not Cuajred in indiscriminate plunder, tjii: iv.i:ti;:a:-: kaxgkks were employed its guards at military posts, t!ius relieving regular troops for service in the field. One of the first acts of General i Smith after it had liectt definitely ascertained that General Morgan had zmi designs upon Ku'willc, was to imk for mi ardent $$tose to take emnajami at (littttanoqp. In r y t: to bin request, Ju!i 24tu, thai Gen. IxlbtKr Imj relieve! from duty in this de ,-,.; iimmI and an flit lent ofljctr be ordeml in fmiu.nit of the troojw at Chattanooga," Bi.gadvi-Geaeral H. lletfi nra ordered to that pM!t. The arrival of Gen. MeCown rl;-d General Hrth, who then assumed cii.uiutnd e:' oac of Smith's divisions. Gcsi. Je ,i J I. Morgan's brigade of cavalry was fi v into XcntttcLy in July to destroy the j , r ,, communication southward from i 1 ;.-wile ami Cincinnati. Forrest was e rI r' d to operate in Middle Tennessee on the line of the Nashville and Chattanooga iLi'Iroi'd, and Scott, with the remainder of iuw tsiAalry, was placed in observation of the country along the vcctern border of the department. (These expeditions will form the subject of separate chapters.-) Morgan took Kentucky Iry surprise and captured, as he reports, seventeen towns anel parolcel most of the United States troops on duty in the State, remaining there until the arrival of th confederate army in August. Forrest cap tured Murfrccsboro and its garrison, after a sharp fight by one of the regiments, but was unable to indict more than temporary injury upon the railroad. Stupendous preparations were at once begun for the invasion of Kentucky by the confederate troops under Bragg and Kirby Smith. On the 7th of July General Smith wroto General Stevenson, in command of the troops in front of Cumberland Gap, apprising him of an early movement upon Gen. Morgan's rear, with the intention of forcing the evac uation of the Gap or a battle. Gen. Steven son was instructed to make all the necessary inquiries as to the practicability of moving a force over the mountains at Big Creek Gap on the route by which Morgan hael entercel Powell's Valley. If his inquiries proved tho feasibility of the project it was determined to send a sufficient cavalry force to destroy the depots of supplies supposed to exist at London and Flat Lick, and if attacked to make its escape via Pound Gap. Whilo tho confederate generals were thus putting forth TIIEIIt MIGHTIEST EFTOKTS to render their position in East Tennessee secure and to place its permanent occupation beyond the possibility of danger by assuming the offensive, General Morgan had not been an idle spectator of the events transpiring in his front. The success of his operations re quired an increase in his force. Stevenson had taken a strong position between the Gap and Morristov.n, with his flanks extending around into Powell's Valley above and be low Morgan's position. On the loth of July two of his regiments snrpriseel and captured two companies of McLin's regiment of Ten nessee cavalry, and on the same day two deserters from Col. Honk's regiment carried intelligence to Stevenson that Gen. Spear's brigade had left tho Gap on an expedition against London to burn tho railronel bridge at that point. This produced an order from Smith to draw his lines more closely around the eastern entrance to the Gap. Morgan had been untiring in his appeals for rein forcements. Four days after his occupation oftheGaphc had telegraphed his situation to Secretary Stanton, offering, if two more brigades of infantry, two regiments of caval ry, and a battery of artillery were added to his command, to SWEEP EAST TENNESSEE from Abingdon to Chattanooga: General Halleck, busy with his scheme for opening the Mississippi River, telegraphed Morgan not to move without orders. He had crossed the mountains on short rat ions and subsisted his army in Powell's Valley, which was now picked like a bone. His forage trains re turned empty, and on the 23d of July, not withstanding the most rigid economy in tho use of subsistence stores, thej' were reduced to little over a month's supply at half rations. The artillery horses literally starved to death. On the 10th of August Morgan tele graphed Secretary Stanton and Gen. Buell i "I have about three weeks' supply." In order to save the artillery and quartermas ter's horses which had not already suc cumbed to starvation, Colonel Garrard, Sev enth Kentucky infantry, was ordered to mount 400 of his men and with Maj. Mun day's cavalry proceed to Lexington, Ken tucky, and reinforce the command at that place then threatened by John Morgan. Such was the condition of things when Gen. Smith wrote the following letter: " H'd'q'ks Dept. of East Tennessee, " Kxoxville, August 11, 1862. "Mr. President: "General Bragg's advance arrived at Chat tanooga on July 21th. Some two weeks yet must elapse before his movement to East Tennessee and the mobilization of his army will be perfected. In tho meantime I shall operate against Morgan, and on Saturday night will cross the mountains in two col umns. Gen. lleth, with the subsistenco train and artillcry,moves by Big Creek Gap on Bar boursville, Kentucky, with 6,000 infantry. I shall move by Rogers's Gap on Cnmbcrlanel Ford. General Morgan, with less than 7,000 effectives, occupies Cumberland Gap. His position is impregnable, but he draws his supplies from the bluegrans region, through one hundred miles of a rough and exhausted country. On Saturday night Gen. Stevenson, with his division, 9,000 strong, closely invests the Gap from the south. On Sunday my infantry column debouches at Cumberland Ford. "Monday morning Heth should reach Bar boursville. Nine hundred cavalry, with a battery of mountain howitzers, under Col. Scott, leaves Kingston to-day, and should strike Morgan's communications at London, Kentucky, Sunday. Should my movements lie comprehended by General Morgan he will probably fall back into Kentucky. My eouiae is then to pursue rapidly ind ovcr wliolm him liefore he reaches the bluegracs region. Should my movo upon his commu nications be successful it becomes K qnestion of supplies; if short of provision?, he must starve or surrender. If I find he has abund ant supplies, two plans present themselves: to invtt his position regularly, or to mnvo into Kentucky. The latter is, In my mind, tho true Klicy, and I have urged upon General Bragg his consent to my adopting it. It is tle lxddest and most brilliant in its reenltn; it effectually invests Morgan while it tarns Buell's communications, and if Kentucky bo as ripe for the move as all reprenontniioiiH indicate, it must involve the abandonment ef Middle Tennessee by tho Federals. Politic ally, now is the time to strike at Kentucky. .Delay loses the golden opportunity and the fall finds the people powerless and a large army between us and the waters of the Ohio. I can move on Lexington with 10,000 men and still leave Stevenson with a sufficient force in front of the Gap, able either to bold Morgan in check or to pursue, should be follow me into Kentucky. You will find incloscel a letter from Duke, tho man of John Morgan's regiment. It is but one of many representing the condition of affairs in Ken tucky and is interesting. Buckner should be sent here. His name is a division in any movement in Kentucky. General MeCown should be placed in temporary command of tho department, and the line of policy to be pursued should be marked out for him. When the frontier has been disembarrassed of Morgan's commanel the conscript law should be enforced and 10,000 able-bodied men who have been so long protected in their rights by this government should be made to stand shoulder to shoulder with its defenders. If the leading Union men have the alternative of becoming alien enemies or supporters of the government, and at the same time the conscript law bo enforced, l believe a large proportion of the fighting population of East Tennessee will be with us, and thoso who run away will be a happy riddance. I have just received a letter from Gen. Bragg. It sanctions my move on Ken tucky, but the delay which it necessitates is to be regretted. My advance is made in the hope of permanently occupying Kentucky. It is a bold move, offering brilliant; results, but will be accomplished only with hard fighting, and must bo sustained by constant reinforcements. In conclusion. I must again urge the importance of having Buckner with this column. There is not a Kcntuckian of influence or a single Kentucky regiment with the command. I feel the great responsibility of my position, and having only the good of the country at heart will cheerfully work in this expedition as a subordinate to Buckner, G. W. Smith, or any one who, as commander-in-chief, could better advance the interests of the cause. E. Kikby Smith, " Maj.-Gen. Commanding. "To His Excellency Jefferson Davis, " President C. S. America." Carrying out this plan of operations the movement commenced on the 1 0th of August. The divisions of Churchill and Cleburne, 6,000 strong, under Smith's immediate com mand, crossed the mountains at Rogers's Gap. Marching nearly sixty miles in fifty hours over that difficult route, the column reached Barbonrsville on the 18th, capturing an empty provision train and its guard of fifty men. The Third Tennessee infantry, sta tioned at London, separated on the advance of Scott's cavalry, one battalion, under Colonel L. C. Honk, reaching the Gap and the other retiring in the direction of Rich mond. I loth's division crossed at Big Creek Gap and joined Smith on the 22d. The first act of General Smith after reaching the road in rear of General Morgan was to send him a flag of truce demanding surrender. Morgan replied curtly: "If General Smith wants this place he must come and take if." Mor gan telegraphed the Secretary of War on the same day: "Smith cannot remain in my rear three weeks, while I can hold this place live weeks with my present command;" to which Halleck replied: "IavUI see that you arc soon reinforced." But bread and meat were now more needed than men. General Smith, allured by the syren song of the rebel popu lation in the bluegrass region, turned the head of his column towards Lexington, leaving the way open for Morgan to follow him, but effectually blocked by Stevenson in the direction of Knoxville. On the 30th of August Smith met and defeated two brigades under commanel of Generals Manson and Craft at Richmond, after which exploit he pushed on to Lexington, arriving there on the 3d of September. Humphrey Marshall, who from the Pisgah of Pound Gap had cast many a longing glance toward the promised land of Central Kentucky, plucked up courage to enter the State. Bragg, tnrning the left flank of Buell, marched across the mountains far to the west of Cumberland Gap, and tho 25th of September found all these forces concentratcel in Central Kentucky and Buell's army at Louisville and Nashville. General Morgan held the Gap as long as there was any need for holding it. The passage of full 50,000 men into Kentucky from East Tennessee by other routes than that leading through it had demonstrated the tisclessness of its further occupation and the questions of its safe evacuation and of a practicable line of retreat now became para mount subjects for investigation. In the hope that Smith would meet a force that would defeat and drivo him back, Morgan blockaded the gaps through which he had pnsseel over the mountains with the purpose of attacking him whilo engaged in removing the obstructions. On the 12th of September the quartermaster reported that the mules could no longer be fed. They were the sole reliance for removing the artillery. Tho men hael been "WITHOUT IlEEAD TOIi SIX DAYS, anel the scanty supplies of other rations wero being husbanded with the greatest care. In his front lay Stevenson's army of 0,000 men, strongly intrenched in a semicircle just be yond the range of his guns. To the rear was Kirby Smith with an army of 10,000 occu pying the only practicable road to the Ohio River. The' condition was indeed perilous. If ho held his position, from which indeed Stevenson showed no disposition Jo dislodge him, until compelled by hunger to capitu late, 12,000 stand of arms, thirty-two. can non, and an immense quanti ty of ammunition would fall into the hands of I he enemy. A conncil of war held on the Mill decideel that there was no alternative to final surrender but iuimedifttc evacuation. There was but onq rontu to the Ohio River which presented any prospect of avoiding Smith's army, and that lay through a mountainous wilderness, des titute of supplies, and in the summer season often for a space of twenty or thirt' milcr; without water. Over this rugged road Mqrf gaxi determined to march his army, wot as an "disciplined mob, but as a compact "army, ready at any emergency to meet any force that could be sent against it. On the night of the 10th of Aug'ist Colonel John Cobuin, with his trust' regiment, the Thirty-third Indiana, two companies of the Seventh Ken tucky, nnd the Ninth Ohio battery, left camp in charge of n large supply train, and took the road toward Manchester. On the following dajr Lieutenant-Colonel Gallup, of the Fourteenth Kentucky, was sent under flag of truce to the enemy's lines with dis patches to General Stevenson relating to exchange of prisoners, five hundred of whom had been captured by Morgan's troops in the frequent incursions made in Stevenson's Hanks and upon Smith's rear. An answer was requested on the following morning. While the officers of Stevenson's pickets, mellowed b' frequent potations from the flask that the genial Kcntuckian had not forgotten to cany with him, were listening to the recital of marvelous plans which his commanding general had in view for the capture of East Tennessee, an accidental fire at the Union camp attracted their attention. As the lurid flame .shot upward, rising above the crest of an intervening ridge, they eagerly inquired its meaning. Gallup was equal to the occasion, and ascribed it to the burning of brash on the side of the mountain. The explanation was accepted, and the flag of truce returned to camp. After dark the regular pickets were withdraw n. and Colonel Gallup undertook, with 200 men, the delicate and dangerous duty of holding the narrow defiles that flanked Poor Valley Ridge. Spear's brigade, with Foster's battery, was sent to take position facing Baptist Gap, and to remain in lino of battle until the entire command had passed Cumberland Ford. While Carter's and Baird's brigades were leaving their position, sharp firing in front indicated that Gallup was guarding the abandoned camp from too close inspection by the enemy's pickets. The nigh t was dark, and the difficult descent was lighted by TIIE GLARE OF BURNING BUILDINGS. The road leading through the Gap. had been previously mined, and the rear of the re treating column had no sooner disappeared than Captain Patterson exploded the mines, and gave the remaining buildings to the iiames. Colonel Gallup held the confederate pickets at bay until ncarlj' dawn, when he cautiously withdrew his men, passed through the Gap, and applied a match to the fuse that blew up the powder magazine. A ter rific roar reverberated far beyond the lines of Stevenson's army, which was instantly formed in pursuit, but the road had been rendered impassible for artillery, and, act uated by a wholesome respect for Morgan's PavcJtts, he wisely abandoned it. Morgan reached Manchester, forty miles distant, with his entire command and-sixteen pieces of artillery, marching by two routes, on the 10th'. John Morgan's confederate cavalrv hovered upon his flanks and rear as he moved via Brownville to Proctor, thirty miles, and, passing the column, burned a mill and destroyed all the forage and sub sistence stores at the latter place. He then moved in advance of the column to Irvine. From Proctor two routes led to the Ohio Kiver, one via Irvine and Mt. Sterling to Maysvilic; the other, via Hazel Green, West Liberty, and Grayson, to Grecnupsburg or Catlettsburg. The first -named route, although the nearest and best, led to General Smith's right flank, and connected with Lexington and Paris by gooel turn pike roads. Abandoning this route General Morgan struck boldly into the mountains through narrow elefiles anel along unfre quented bridle paths. Calling upon his troops for the exercise of the loftiest heroism, they responded with a display of discipline that has rarely been equalled. The inarch to Hazel Green from Proctor, twenty miles, was made in two columns, the routo of one being along a ridge almost destitute of water, and of the other through ravines where the. road had been obliterated by mountain tor rents in the spring and still remained almost impassible for artillery. Patterson's engi neers, who accompanied Baird anel Carter, worked almost incessantly in repairing the road. The two columns reached Hazel Green nearly simultaneously, where one day's rest was allowed, the men in Spear's and BeCoursey's brigades being famished for want of water. Information of the evac uation had reached Kirby Smith promptly, and on the 18th the commanding ofiicer at Richmond received instructions to send out a cavalry force to scour the country between Irvine and Booneville, and send reliable information with regard to Morgan's move ments. On tho same day he wrote Bragg that Morgan's line of retreat would probably bo via Irvine and Mt. Sterling, and on the 19th ordered John Morgan to assuino com mand of all tho cavalry in that vicinity. Stevenson was ordered to pursue Morgan's retreating forces, provided thoy moved to wards Lexington, but in case they took auother route to use his own discretion his object being to join the main army in Cen tral Kentucky. General lleth was directed to hold his division in hand ready to movo at a moment's notice when Morgan's route should he ascertained, anel to push his cav alry towards Marysville. Humphrey Mar shall was ordered to hurry his inarch toward iit. Sterling, and connect with John Morgan, who, not caring to risk an encounter with his namesake, was keeping out of his way. Notwithstanding all these precautions, noth ing was dono to intercept Morgan's march. General Heth remained at Paris, and Hum phrey Marshall near enough his hole at Pound Gap to crawl into it in case of danger. John Morgan, with Cluke's and Chenault's regiments, was busy in front of the advancing column, felling trees across the roads. The poor, barren country through which they marched was swept clean of every edible ; but very little was found; the men wero on the point of starvation, and sixty miles of a rough, barren country lay between them and the Ohio. Every bridge was burned in their front, anel tho half-famished men were obligeel to cut roads throngh the woods to fords, or rebuild tho bridges. General Mor gan hael wisely brought with him his train of implements, and was well supplied with saws, axes, spades, block -and -tackle, and abundant rope. A fallen tree was ejuickly sawed in two by relays of willing hands accustonieel to labor in that wooded coun try, for the Kentucky regiments were on their native heath, and the men of the Four teenth Kentucky were marching past their homes. That they did not desert is highly creditable to their eliscipline. At one place a narrow defile, heavily blockaded, woulel have demoralized a less well-equipped com mand, but in half a day Patterson's engi neers hael, a road constructed arounel it, and a shower of minie balls was the first inti mation that Morgan's troops, who were rest ing in fancied security beyond it, had of the presence of their indefatigable antagonist. From Hazel Green to the Ohio River each day Avas a repetition of tlic scenes above mentioned. A quick volley from an over hanging cliff, a burned bridge, immense trees font feet in diameter lying across the narrow road, shoes worn out, anel flinty roads markeel by blcciling i'oct ; but through it all the heroic soldiers, famishing and worn down with fatigue, bore their privations Avith the most sublime fortitude. On the 3d of October the weary troops came in sight of the Ohio River. At the sight of the majestic river, beyond whose silvery bosom the Ohio hills rose grandly against the sky, the men set up an exultant shout. The long, hard march of over two hundred miles Avas ended. To be continued. HOW GREEK BACKS ARE MADE. None of the public institutions at the capi tal, remarks the Washington correspondent of the Atlanta Constitution, has the fascina tion of the Bureau of Printing and Engrav ing. It is here where greenbacks the prettiest anel the finest money in the world are made. When you enter the Bureau you are politely bowed to a sitting room, whete you register your name and occupa tion, if you have any. In a few minutes a guide comes and calls i " This way, please." Every morning a heary box of a vehicle, looking like a huge iron safe on vrheels, trundles from the Treasury over to the Bu reau, bringing the paper destined to return as money. Every one. of these myriad sheets is counted at the Treasury anel charged to the Burean. Every one must be returned in perfect money or even if spoiled by some unlucky accielent. The careful account thus begun continues through the many hand lings of .that-precums jiapor, guardingt every avenue of fraud, making every human being Avho touches it honest as tho conductor's bell-punch is honest, because it is impossible to be otherwise. In a room on the first floor are the engrav ers, about a score of them bending under mellow, milk-white shades, patiently put ting features, expression, grace, and language into the resisting steel. On tho walls hang some rare specimens of their cunning. A finished money plate is a Avork of art, and would cost about $1,500. The Government pays skilled engravers so well that counter feiting loses much of its charm. The great vaults in this room hold the plates, and there they rest every night. The locks are set so that they cannot be opened until se'cn o'clock every morning, and then only by the presence and aiel of three officials, each Avith a eliflerent key. Up stairs avc see tho plates in use on a hundred engraver's presses. The men run the presses while the girls lay the paper in place and take it away with tho clear im pression on it as it smokes from the heat necessary in the process. The pressmen are paid by the piece, and some of them acquire a wonderful dexterity. They are required to pay the girl 1.25 a day out of their wages, but I saw ono Avho hael ?o.50 left for himself on an average day's work. Every turn of tho lever on the press registers, anel at the day's close each pressman has to ac count for every sheet ha has handled. The nioncy is printcel four bills on the sheet. After being nnrabersd and receiving the seal it goes to another room, Avhere it is counted again anel placed in a drying ma chine very much like a patent peach dryer. When thoroughly elry the sheets of four bills each are put under a pressure of six or eight tons, and this givo3 a new bill its independ ent stiffness, so that it wants to get right out of your pocket. The bills are then severed and dono up in packages cf one thousand each. These arc carried to a room where the final count takes place. All the best counters are women. Most of them are paid by the number, anel seme of them have fingers of wonderful limberness. One woman is pointed out to everybody. She has a national reputation. She can count a thousand bills in six minutes, the fastest time on record, and in all the millions shohas counted has never made a single mis take! When the money is finally counted it goes to the vaults, and thence to the. Treasury. - .I . i. I. SHOULD HOT BE FORGOTTEN. Heads of Depaitmcnts, superintendents of public buildings, anel commandants of nay yardf, &e., should keep in vi w tho law of tho land, as laid down iu tho Revised Statutes, Sec. Hot, to wit: Sec. 1751. Perrons hounrahiy tliichoracrf from ihe military or naval scrvieeliy reason of Ulsuoilitii result ing from wounds or sitknet's inrurrul m the lin- of duty, shall lie preferred for appoftdtiuihts to civil ajjlns, jirocidtd Ikey arc found to posresn the business cn pacilu ntecssary fur the proper discharge of the duties of such ojjlcts. Tho next section is not mandatory in its character, but is a good reeom.meudr.tion that ought to be kept in vicAV by all good citizens. Sec. 17.V). In grateful recognition of ihc sircices, sac rifices, and suffering of persons hon'oral ly discharged from the military and nut at service of the eountiy, by reason of ironnds, dUcase. or tha expiration of tcrnir of enlilnutd. it i resnec'fidly rrconnnended to bankers, merchants, manufacturers, mechanics, i Jamters, and pertoni ciigugcu in mlui,lrial pur 'stiiis, to give them Ihc preference for appointments to remunerative situations 7id employments. A K0BLE WOMAN'S WORK IMPORTANT CAMPAIGNS THAT WERE PLANNED BY MISS CARROLL, Her Karly Literary Work in the Can-c of the Union. The Campaigns oT Forts Henry and lionet son anil rittsbursr Lr.n!inj Hsr Plan of tho Tennessee Cam paign Adopted Iiy Pres ident Lincoln. The war power of the United States and of the confederacy had, in November, 1861, elrifted into tAvo great armies, the one east and the other Avcst of the Appalachian rango, Halleck in Missouri, anel Buell in Kentucky, commanded the Western armies, under orders from the General-in-Chief, McClellan, who commanded in person the army in front of Washington. Before each lay the revolted States guarded by armies and fortifications under command of Beauregard in the East, and Johnston in the West. The Mississippi offeree! the natural highwav through the Avestern portion of the confederacy, but its banks bristleel Avith hostile guns of calibre sufficient to elestroy any fleet that had tho hardihooel to attempt the hazarelous A-oyage. Buell's objccti-e point AA-as East Tennessee, anel his plan of campaign Avas via Nashville,, through Middle Tennessee, and thence to Chattanooga, while occupying Cumberland Gap with a strong force to prevent incursions upon his rear from the east. Halleck, contending with Price anel McCul lough in Missouri, hael turned a deaf ear to Buell's request for co-operation to enable him. to gain a foothold south of the Cumberland. The great elesignof the GoAernment with re garel to all these armies was the capture of Richmond by McClellan, the occupation of East Tennessee by Buell, and the descent and occupation of the Mississippi River by Hal leck. All Avere idle except the latter, who Avas opposeel by an enemy intent upon the occupation of the State of Missouri, and Avhose actiA-ity gaA'e him no rest. The dan ger cf foreign intervention Avas imminent, the creelit of the Government at so low an ebb as to appall the stoutest heart in Con gress. A great anel elecisive victory, aceoni panieel by the permanent occupation of a large portion of the territory claimed by the confederacy, was elemaneleel as an earnest of the ability of the United States Government to subdue the rebellion, before men Avho hael money Avould exchang6 it for Uniteel States bonds. The Treasury- Avas bankrupt, anel the daily expenses of maintaining the army av.os $2,000,000. Months had passed Avithoufc a victory to the Union arms. Every recon noissance wasjnot as if dictated by an Omnis cient eye by a force sufficient to driA-eit back. The hospitals Avere iilleel Avith sick anel dying soleiiers. There seemed a total lack of national leadership. Suggestions in steael of orders weie issued to department commanders. Gloom hael taken possession of Congress anel the War Department, Avhile the Treasury, dependent upon the success of the army, contained A'ast heaps of bond3 Avhich it freely ofiereel at the rate of 33 cents on their face value. Upon this night of gloom arose the radiant face of a Avoman. She entercel the War Office and handed to Colonel Thomas A. Scott, the Assistant Sec retary of War, a plan for a military cam paign entirely original in conception, which Avas eagerly embraced and orders issueel for its execution. The capture of Forts Henry anel Donaldson, TolloAved by the Sliiloh cam paign anel the capture of Corinth, necessitat ing the evacuation of Memphis, was tho result of the splendid strategic ability of Miss Anna Ella Carroll. Her plan embraced nob only the occupation of Tennessee, but that immediately upon the capture of Corinth the army should push forward to Jackson, and thence senel a strong column to Yieksburg, freeing the Mississippi from conftderato control throughout its entire length. Tho services of this eminent Avoman a grand daughter of Charles Carroll of CarrolUon hail been early directed to the importance of saving her native State to the Union. A strong secession element in the State, count ing upon boldness and quickness of operation to seize the State and thrust it into the con federacy, foresaw the imnen?e advantage of inclosing the National Capital with hi tho boundaries of the coafcdeniev. Fortunately for tho Union the easka3 of the legislature were biennial, ami the patri otic Governor, Hon. Thonnw A. Ilicks, re fused to convene it in extra swsioit. Whilo the public mind was in a chaotic state, remly to be influenced by tlse strongest minds, a pamphlet appeared without signature, enti tled ' A Reply to 1 Ion. John C. Breckinridge." It wasso masterly in relation. so convincing in argument, and so eloepient in its pleading for the Union, as to cause the United States Goa--crnment to publish and hvsue thousanels of copies. Governor Hicks ordereel large ejuan-. tities. and distributed them broadcast through the State. I fe afterwards attributeel the success of the Union cause in Maryland to the arguments contained, in this paper. In Dccnber, le-'o'l. a more elaborate Avork appeared, entitled "The War Power of the Government." This wan -the first clear state ment that had appeared of the ability of tho. Government to capo Successfully Avith secesy sion. It was hnmeeliately examined, ap- v proved, ami its publication ordereel by the Government. It was distributed broai'c sb and served more than any other publication of the time to restore the Availing confidence of the people. Both these pamphlets Avere written by Miss Carroll. In November, 1SG1, she visited St. Louis, and saw the battle-torn Seventh Iowa as it filed by her Avindow on its way from the bloody field of Belmont to Benton Barracks. The heart of the noble Avoman thrilled at the sight, but she saw, as few etiel then, but as all now do, the utter nothingness of results as compared Avith the sacrifice of life. In pursuance Avith her plan, she set about obtaining information as to tho S ---