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THE NATIONAL TRIBUNE: WASHINGTON, D. 0., THURSDAY, JANUARY 11, 1883.
RURL TOPICS, Some Practical Suggestions for Onr Agricultural Readors. It Is sometimes argued that it is "wasteful to apply manure on land during the winter months when the ground is frozen, because it cannot be covered, and therefore suffers great loss by exposure. Wo consider that it is very gener ally understood that the loss from manure cpread on the surface months before plowing is very slight, indeed. On the other hand, it has often been verified that better crops are pro duced on land which had been covered with manure for some time before plowing than on portions where the manure was plowed in as Boon as it was spread. The loss sustained from manure lying on the eurfaco is mainly in tho escape of ammonia, and as this results from fer mentation, its production is not apparent in cold weather in manure spread on the ground. The only loss which may become of any importance will bo in tho caso of heavy rains while the ground is frozen below so as to prevent the ab sorption of tho water, which will then pass off from the surface to tho lowest points, carrying with it the washings from the manure. In tho caso of undraincd clay soils, there will also bo danger of loss from surface washings. In ordi nary cases the losses will not overbalance the ad vantages. When tho ground is frozen the haul ing and'sprcading can be dono to great advant age ; and in manuring meadows and grass lands of any kind early winter is the best time for the work. In lauds which are properly under drained, either naturally or artificially, manure can bo hauled out and spread without appre ciable loss at any convenient timo. thite on dutch clover. (Trifolium repens.) Tho white or Dutch clover is abundant in pastures, woodlands, and on roadsides through out tho greater portion of tho United States. It is a valuablo pasture plant even on thin eoils, and is generally an ingredient in grass mixtures for tho formation of lawns, a purposo for which it is not well adapted, as it disfigures rather than beautifies a well-kept lawn. Its flowers are much visited by honey-bees, and honey gathered from its blossoms is said to be light colored and of fine flavor. It is sel dom sown as a crop in this country, but it fre quently takes possession of pastures, especially on lands where the commonly-cultivated kinds of grasses fail for want of nourishment. But though it is somewhat persistent on thin Eoils, it is most abundant and nutritious on good lands. Its strong and luxuriant growth is one of the best indications of a fertile soil. the cow-rrA. llgna Sinensis.) This is an annual climbing or trailing plant, & native of Asia and Africa. It is extensively cultivated in most warm countries for its seeds, which aro considered nutritious, and form a considerable portion of tho food of tho inhabi tants of some parts of India. There aro many varie'ties in cultivation, which vary in their habits of growth and productiveness. The pods of somo kinds aro cooked and eaten in tho green state like kidney beans; their flavor is eaid to be peculiar, but palatable; in India the ripe seeds are known as Chowlee; the pods are cylindrical and vary from one to two feet in length in tho several varieties. Many varie ties of this species are cultivated in the South ern States under the name of cow-peas. It is surmised that some of these, however, beloug to the closely allied genus Dolichos. The so-called cow-pea is one of the most valu able plants for plowing under as green manure, and it has been said that any laud susceptible of being plowed, no matter how barren it may have been, will grow the cow-pea and thus fur nish means for its renovation. For this pur pose it is sown in spring, as early as the ground becomes warmed, as it will not vegetate in cold Boil. The peas aro usually sown broadcast, at the rate of two bushels per acre, or less when the smaller seeded varieties are employed. The plants from this sowing will bo ready for plowing down about tho first of July, and the ground is immediately sown again in a similar manner. This crop is ready to be plowed un der in the fall ; it is customary, however, to save tho late crop for fodder, live stock of all kinds being exceedingly fond of it, and it is con sidered more nutritious than hay made from any of the grasses. For hay, it is cut when the Eeed-pods commence to turn yellow; if cut later it is difficult to cure without loss, as the leaves become brittle and fall off. Somo of tho varieties produce beans which aro esteemed for Boups and for baking, and these are usually planted thinly in cornfields after tho corn has somewhat advanced in growth, and when ripe, the beans aro gathered and dried for use during the winter. STALL FEEDING AND SOIL ENRICHMENT. It is known that where beet is cultivated for sugar, and the pulp economized in feeding cat tle, and the manure carefully saved and applied to the lands, that tho productive capacity of the fields has largely increased. The same re sult follows tho English system of feeding Etock with roots during winter. Large quan- 5fio nf thn liosf TiviTmrn urn t.lins nhtnmed. ! We may expect like results from the ensilage system of winter feeding, and tho increasing use of oil-cake, provided that plenty of straw is raised and used for bedding, and the manure carefully handled and judiciously applied; then wo, may expect tho fields to improve in their yield, instead of .gradually diminishing, as they are generally doing now. AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES. The National Grange, which has been in ses sion recently at Indianapolis, urges upon all the members of Granges everywhere to use every effort to make teaching of agricultural science and the mathematic arts the paramount object of the agricultural colleges of the several States. Unfortunately for the best interests at stake, this department is too often subordinate. It too often occurs that while these colleges re ceive a liberal patronage, a very small per cent, of those who attend them take the agricultural courses, notwithstanding they are established and supported at public expense to diffuse agri cultural education throughout tho respective States. They are, in too many instances, but little more than mere literary and classical schools, rivaling those which had been estab lished by corporate and private enterprises, and to the detriment of the great interest they are required to subserve. TALL-rLAKTED TREES. Trees which were planted in the fall should have the earth hilled up around the stem six inches or more in height; this will tend to hold them firmly in position during winter and protect the loots somewhat from frost and ex cess of water. In spring the earth should bo leveled as before and a few inches of course manure spread over the roots. This will pre vent drying on tho surface, prevent consolida tion by heavy rains, and keep down the growth of woods. MIUXINO RASPBERRIES. Somo years back tho pruning of raspberries was confined to cutting out the old stems and cutting a portion from the tips of those left for the crop; then these would be tied up to stakes as a support. But the modern practice obviate3 the necessity of stakes as a support, and tho plants are managed to that they are able to support themselves when loaded with fruit. Briefly stated, this is accomplished in the fol lowing manner: The first year's growth after planting is allowed to grow undisturbed. Tho second year two or more shoots will appear, and when these have reached to a height of two feet the tops of tho shoots are broken or cut off; this will stop their upward growth, but they will proceed to push out into side shoots or laterals in all directions, balancing and support ing the main stem very effectually. When growth has ceased and the leaves have dropped, these side shoots are cut bark so that they will be from 10 to 16 inches in length, according to their strength. This clipping is rapidly done by using pruning shears. At the same time, if not before, all the old canes which have fruited are removed; but many cultivators prefer to remove these old canes immediately after they have done fruiting, which allows more freedom to the young canes which are being prepared for the following crop. This removal is alto of moment in destroying many kinds of insects which have nests in the old canes, and which i.rc thus destroyed by burning all prunings as they are collected. VALVE OF WARM MILK IN DISEASE. Tl" duo of warm milk as a remedial agent in c uin disorders is mentioned and advo cated by high medical authority. It is stated tliat in the East Indies warm milk is used to a great extent aa a specific for diarrhoea. A pint every four hours will check the most violent attack. Tho milk should never be boiled, but only heated sufficiently to be agreeably warm, not too hot to drink. Milk which has been boiled is unfit for use. A Writer in the Medical Times communicates a statement of tho value of milk in twenty-six cases of typhoid fever, in every ono of which its great value was appar ent. It checks diarrhoea and nourishes and cools tho body. Pcoplo suffering from diseases need food quite as much as those in health, and muchmoro so in certain diseases where there is a rapid wasto of the system. While other food is rejected by tho stomach, and even loathed by tho patient, milk may bo craved for, and it is always beneficial to use it. Another medical au thority says: "Wo believe that milk nourishes in fever, promotes sleep, wards off delirium, Eoothes the intestines, and is tho sine qua non in typhoid fever. PROGRESS. In a letter from a farmer in Ohio we extract tho following : " We aro learning that thorough cultivation increases tho products of the land, and learning to adapt our cultivation to our crops, and that a smaller quantity well tilled is moro profitable and pleasurable than a largo quantity half cultivated or worked at in a care less, slip-shod manner. Wo arc also begin ning moro fully to realizo that tho farmer's best bank is tho manuro bank; that wo cannot expect to receivo much return for our labor in cultivating tho soil if wo never pay back to tho soil what we tako from it ; that tho business of impoverishing our goodly soil has been carried far enough, aud that it is high time in this respect to turn over a new leaf. Many, we aro glad to say, have already dono so, and although it will take years of judicious farming to make a very marked improvement, yet wo can but bo glad to see a progress in tho right direction. It will only require continued progress in thatdircctiou to demonstrate the fact that lands may be cultivated year after year, and yet all tho timo bo increasing in fertility and productiveness. Among all tho lessons which wo have learned, ono of tho most im portant is that of draining our fiat low-lands, which then becomo tho most productivo por tions or our land, aud which wcro formorly fertile in nothing but malaria and fevers." TIIE PERFECT MILK TAIL. The Prairie Farmer describes a device which is named as abovo, and which is a pail, milk stool, and strainer in one. Tho pail is mado somewhat liko a common watering-pot, only that the top is flat. It is made of tin plate, holds fourteen quarts, tho cover makes a seat for tho milker, and will bear a weight of two hundred pounds or over. The vessel is fur nished with a short spout, into which is in serted a wide-mouthed funnel, which receives tho milk. This funnel is inserted into tho spout by means of a rubber tube, which enables it to return to its position if removed by kicks or blows from tho cow. Tho height of tho funnel may bo gauged to suit different cows. NOTES AND EXTRACTS. A Digest of Information Collected From Tarlous Sources. BTATISTICS. Hon. G. B. Loring, Commissioner of Agricul ture, has submitted his annual report to tho President. The statistical division estimates tho following as the yield of tho present year: Corn, 1,635,000,000 bushels; wheat, 410,000,000 bushels; oats, 470,000,000 bushels; barley, 45,000,000 bushels; rye, 20,000,000 bushels; buckwheat, 12,000,000 bushels. EGGS IN WINTER. The natural tendency of all fowls is to pro duce eggs only in spring and summer, and our improvements in this particular are duo to good care, selection and improvement in breed ing. To make it comparatively easy to obtain eggs in winter some previous arrangements aro essential. Chicks of tho larger breeds should be hatched as early as tho middle of April, that they may obtain a good growth. The smaller breeds may do well enough hatched by tho middle of May. For winter layers hardy breeds with small combs aro best, as less liable to injury in extreme cold weather. All fowls require warm houses, from which cold winds are shut off aud much sunshine is admitted, so that the fowls may be comfortable. Plenty and variety of food and drink should bo always before them, or given at stated intervals, and should not be ice cold. Constant good caro is necessary if it is intended that they should lay eggs in winter. It is necessary to keop in mind that good substitutes for all tho fowls gather running at large in summer should bo provided and given daily. Cor. Country Gentleman. KEEPING STOCK. " Don't try to keep more stock through tho winter than you can feed well," was the advice wo heard a farmer give another lately. That was good counsel. Weed out your herds and flocks and discard those that are tho least prof itable to keep, from the boviues down to tho fowls. "The breed is in tho mouth," said a farmer whoso grade and native cows profitably fill tho milk pail, and ho was more than half right. Scanty feed and neglect with tho best of stock will bring tho profits down below tho maximum of results from good caro and feed ing of indifferent grades or ordinary native. Keep only what stock you can feed well. Lewislon Journal. CUEING REEF. Boil in four gallons of water four pounds of brown sugar, three ounces of saltpetre and ten pounds of salt, until all is dissolved ; skim as fast as tho scum rises. Put the meat closely in a barrel, and when tho brine is quite cold pour it on tho meat. The abovo quantity of brine is sufficient for two hundred pounds of beef. If dried beef is wanted, pieces may be lifted from the brine in about ono month and smoked. KEEPING WARM. Beforo an animal can lay on fat, the claim made by tho body to be kept warm must bo met. In proportion to the degree of warmth afforded to the body, in that proportion will there be a surplus of the food given which can go to increase tho fat deposit. An eminent authority, Dr. Playfair, said : " The food is fuel, the excrements aro the ashes, and the gases expired from the mouth are of the same com position as those which fly up tho chimney of a furnace." QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. Our Agricultural Editor's Weekly Chat With Ills Headers. G. II. Damon, Paw Paw Grove, 111., asks if cranberries can be raised successfully in north ern Illinois, and also what kind of soil is best adapted, and what variety is recommended. Wo would advise our correspondent to procure some of the small works devoted to the culture of this fruit; we can only state here that a soil always damp, such as peat or muck bottoms, should be selected to begin with, and it should bo so situated that the surface may be com pletely Hooded by spring water during winter and spring, and at the same timo be thoroughly drained at other seasons of the year. Briefly, the preparation of the ground should embrace the removal of all wood, brush, and surface herbage; it is next covered with from four to eight inches of clean sand, and the vines aro planted from a foot to twenty inches apart; growers differ in their opinion with regard to distances apart, also as to depth of sand, and in other details. "Can you tell mo tho cause of my pears cracking just before they ripen, and what! can do to prevent it?" .1. C. 11., Uarrisburg, Pa. Ans.: The cause is attributed to fungus growth on the surface of the fruit, which destroys and dries up tho skin, which then cracks as tho fruit swells; the same result is seen in mil dewed grapes and gooseberries. We cannot ad vise as to its prevention, further than to stato that pears growing in sheltered and protected places, such as city yards hemmed around by buildings, do not have cracked fruit. John II. W., Illinois, who asks about shelter ing orchards and fruit fields, such as those oc cupied by strawberries, grapes, raspberries, Ac., may be assured that he will find it will repay him well to plant cloie hedges of Norway spruce judiciously through his grounds, run ning them, as far as possible, at right angles to prevailing winds. The one great want in most fruit-growing districts issheltcr and protection. "Can the Chinese potato be profitably grown in this State, and where can roots bo pro cured?" E. It. A., Southern Arkansas. Ans.: Tho Chinese potato may bo ordered from any of tho large seedsmen, but wo do not know what is meant by growing it profitably. If it means commercially profitably, then we would answer, No. Wm. Young, Sherman Co., Neb., is informed that to procure documents, and all matters dis tributed by the United States Agricultural De partment, he should apply to tho Ecprcsenta tive in Congress from his district. WOMP'S WORK, Home, and How to Make It Beautiful and Happy. A correspondent has asked for some helpful notes on color in dress, and in reply we think wo can do no better than give an outline of a book written somo timo ago by W. aud G. Audsley. In tho preface to a reprint of this work tho publisher says : " This little work, by the broth ers Audsley, has been received with such appro bation in England, and has been acknowledged by leading artistes and modistes to be so cor rect, that its reproduction in this country can not fail to extend tho domain of good taste and a knowledge of harmonious arrangement of colors. In this belief tho work is submitted to his countrywomen." Tho authors start out with the assertion that it is not tho material worn, but tho judicious choice of colors which indicates tho truo lady. Beauty is often diminished by au imiroper selection and arrangement of tho hues of tho dress, while an increase of the natural charms may always be secured by the artistic applica tion and groupiugof harmonizing tints. "And first," continues the writer, "it is necessary in tho choico of colors for every lady to consider carefully which best suit her own complexion. In a general way wo divide complexions into the blondes and tho brunettes. Blondes, again, aro either fair or ruddy; and brunettes pale or Jlorid. Tho fair blonde has a delicate white skin, light hair, ranging in color from golden huo to yellow or orange brown, and eyes of gray or light blue. This type, in periods of buoyant health, may havo slight tones of rose on the cheeks, and a richer tint on the lips. In tho complexion itself, roso-color or red may bo wanting. It may be that tho hair should havo a moro decided hue, or, if its own huo be objec tionable, a change for tho better is desirable. All this can bo accomplished by tho proper selection of color in dress. "Of all colors for the dress, green is most favorable to the fair blonde, because it imparts to the delicate flesh-white of tho complexion a tint of red, forming by union au agreeable rose color. Dclicato green is most suitable, being a good contrast both to tho faco and hair, espe cially if the hair bo golden, or incline toward orange. Thus we see that tho most becoming colors to associate with green are red, orange, and gold color. Green and gold form a rich harmony. A scarlet is moro agreeable with green than a crimson-red; but if a red inclining ' to crimson bo used, orango or gold coior should bo added. "Green may bo associated with shades of itself, but the combination is not effective unless enlivened by other harmonious colors. A green bonnet is suitable to tho fair blonde; it may havo a small proportion of roso-color in its trimmings associated with white, and a white feather. Too much white, however, with green produces a cold ellect, and thoretbro does not aid the fair complexion to the desired degree. Orange or gold may be substituted for pink ; so also may red ; but neither must bo placed in juxtaposition with tho faco. A small proportion of orango in a greon bonnet is to be reconiniended.-wheu tho eyes of the wearer aro blue. A few shades of red, orange and yellow green (autumnal tints), when not too d-..-, improve a green bonnet. These shades may bo introduced in the form of leaves. DurJ; green is not so favarablo to tho fair blonde as delicate green ; being so dark in comparison with tho complexion, it neutralizes its own influence that is, as a green it gives its complementary color, red, and as a dark color it reduces tho complexion by decided contrast. All dark colors have tho latter effect on fair complexions. Blue is highly favorablo to tho fair blonde, as it imparts an orange tint which agreeably com bines with the dolicato white and flesh tints of the complexion. The fair blonde has naturally traces of orango color on tho skin, and an in tensifying of this natural tint is in most cases very pleasing. Tho blue used must bo light, and not too positive. As blue is tho perfect contrast of orange, it agrees well with golden or orange-brown hair. For this reason, a bluo head-dress is remarkably becoming on light hair. To give proper value to bluo by gaslight, a littlo white or very palo blue is required in juxtaposition. The most suitable bluo for tho headdress of ladies with very fair hair is sky blue. A light bluo bonnet, for the reasons given, is very suitablo to tho fair blonde. It may be trimmed with whito or black, and small por tions of yellow, orange, straw-color, or stone color, but must not be ornamented with purplo or pink flowers, for both form harmonies with blue, and aro unsuitable for fair complexions. A iurquois-blue bonnet may bo trimmed with fawn, gray, drab or nankin. Tho colors par ticularly to bo avoided by the fair bloudo aro yellow, orange, red and purple. Tho latter may be used in its light shades of lilac, but is even then trying to the complexion, although not to an important degrco if separated from positive juxtaposition by an edging of tulle, or similar trimming. "Tho injurious influenco of lilac is much lessened when associated with its harmonizing colors, such as cherry, scarlet, light crimson, gold, or gold-color. On no account must green be coupled with lilac, as it forms a positive dis cord. A small proportion of light purplo is agreeable in a head dress for light hair, but must not bo placed near tho skin. "Xcutral colors accord well with a fair complex ion; when not too dark, they, as a rule, give value to tho natural complexion; when dark, they reduce the tono by contrast. The best neutrals for tho fair blonde aro gray, fawn, slate, drab, and some shades of brown. If black bo as sociated in trimmings (such as narrow ribbons, braided woik, or lace) with any of tho abovo colors, it has a tendency to heighten their ef fect, especially by gaslight. This is caused by the power which black has to absorb light, par ticularly artificial light. Jllack is highly favor able to a fair blonde who has a considerable amount of healthful color, because it increases tho rose of tho complexion. It has a somewhat disadvantageous cfl'ect on pale skins, bleaching them by powerlul contrast. Io delicate color can be associated with black without appearing lighter in tone. "To remove tho gloomy or combro effect of black, colors should be added in trimmings, such as the following: blue, cherry, drab, mul berry, or lilac. Cherry and lilac should be used very sparingly for fair complexions. White is suitable with black, but is cold and harsh un less some color be added. Bed used with black gives it a rusty tinge. "A black bonnet agrees well with a fair com plexion, and may be ornamented with whito and rose-color, or with white alone. Bosc must be kept well away from the skin. White feath ers aio a great improvement to a white bonnet. Whito is similar in its effects to black; it heightens the natural rose of the face by con trast, and increases the paleness of a palo skin by powerful reflection. Whito is suitable to every complexion which has an agreeable nat ural tone, but perhaps to none more so than to the fair blonde with a healthful color. Small quantities of bright colors may be added to a white dress with plcu-ing effect, and they will not injure the complexion if kept low down and well grouped. While increases tho paleness of a pale skin; this iniluencu may be neutral ized by the introduction of green or blue. "A whito bonnet, when made of semi-transparent material, such as tulle, crape, or ajro phane, is suitable to this type, and may bo or namented to advantage with whito and bluo flowers. A MOTHER'S DUTIES. Henry Ward Beecher tells of a mother who took up alone the burden of life when her hus band laid it down. There was but littlo prop erly, yet out of her penury, by her planning and industry, night and day; by her willingness of love; by her fidelity, hho brought up her chil dren, and the world now has six men, all of whom are like pillars in tho temple of God. In com menting on her heroism, Mr. Beecher says: "Do not read to me of tho campaigns of Caisar; tell mo nothing about Napoleon's wonderful exploits ; I tell you that, as God and the angels look down upon the silent history of that wo man's administration, and upon those men building processes which went on in her heart and mind through a score of years, nothing exte rior, no outward development of kingdoms, no empire-building, can compete with what she has done." This littlo story brings to our mind a sentiment which Ave havo somewhere read: "Pi evidence throws about us an intricate net work of circumstances, influences and respon sibilities,' from which we cannot honorably es cape, and before wo aro ready to begin the'sur vey of life's pathway, it is already marked out for us, aye, ami footworn in somo directions wo never meant to follow." If our mothers would realizo how often their own experience has vorified tho thought contained in this sentence, they would probably foel more eolemiily tho obligation to begin as early as possiblo to culti vate among their children the noblest and strongest parts of their characters, in order that, when the test-timc,comes, these children, grown perhaps into men aud women, may bo found standing ready, with lighted lamps and buckled armors. Madame Guyon was accus tomed to say that, if sho had twenty daughters, each should acquire somo occupation by which she could earn her own livelihood, and, as it is well known, it was the custom among the Jews, oven of the highest rank, to mako their sons proficient in somo trade or profession. Tho social phases of American lifoaro peculiar. Tho man who is a millionaire to-day may be a beg gar to-morrow,and American parents surely will do well when they teach their children to honor every form of honest labor, and when they givo them such a mental and moral equipment as will best fortify them for that battle, which, in one guise or another, awaits them. THE SEWING-ROOM. Dainty wall-pockets are made by securing tho edges of two .Tapaneso fans with satin rib bon, quilled or plain, and ornamontiug with satin bows. A pretty mnntel lambrequin consists in em broidering a scattered design upon tho material which covers the board itself, as well as upon tho bagging. Such a design in raised work in flowers has a natural appearance, as if the blos soms had been scattered loosely and left there by accident. Near tho town of Norrkoping, Sweden, an enterprising company has begun tho man ufacture from wood of a thread to be used for crochet aud sewing purposes. This fac tory now produces, at a much lower price, thread of as iino quality as Clark's thread. It is wound into balls by machinery, worked either by hand or steam. Ono miuuto and twelvo seconds aro required for the pro cesses of winding and labeling. Tho balls aro packed in card-board boxes, generally ten in a box. Japancsomats, of slik or of crimp paper, bor dered in satin, plush or velvet of some rich, dark shade, mako pretty wall-banners. The samo kind of mats mako very effectivo trans parencies. Tako a piece of glass the size of tho mat. Clear American glass will answer the purposo ; ground glass gives a better ellect, but is moro expensive. Secure tho edges of tho mat to the glass and incloso a framo which will givo a good relief. A' very pretty framo may be mado of a band of bronzo paper, about one-half an inch in width. Placed upon an easel, such a transparency makes a pretty aud convenient lamp-screen for tho study-table. THE KITCHEN. Lemon Cream Pudding. Four tablespoonfuls of fine sugar; tho yolks of four eggs. Beat well together. Add tho juico and grated rind of one largo lemon, and two tablespoonfuls of hot water. Simmer the mixture until it thick ens, then remove from tho firo, and stir in the whites of four eggs, beaten stiff, with two table spoonfuls of sugar. Eat cold. Sponge-Cako Pudding. Boil ono pint of milk; while hot, beat into it ono pint of stalo sponge-cako crumbs. Add tho yolks of three eggs and ono cup of grated cocoanut; stir in gently the whipped whites of three eggs. Bake slowly three-quarters of an hour. Eat with whipped cream. A Quickly Mado Dessert. Peel ono dozen fresh oranges of delicate fiber; put into a glass dish of good height alternate layers of the or ango and desiccated cocoanut, sprinkling each layer lightly with sugar; finish tho top with the white of an egg beaten to snow with a tablcspoonful of powderod sugar. Flavor with almond or vanilla. Hominy Fritters. Two cups of cold, fino hominy, ono tablcspoonful of melted butter, ono tablcspoonful of sugar, half a teaspoonful of salt, two well-beaten eggs. Stir tho butter into tho hominy, which must be worked smooth, and add tho salt, sugar and eggs. Make into flat cakes, roll in flour and fry brown in sweet suet. Apple Croutes. Pare, halve and core good smooth apples ; cut slices of bread without crust to fit tho flat side of each apple ; dust the applo all over with sugar, a littlo nutmeg or cinna mon. Arrange these on tho slices of bread in a pie-plato ; bake in a moderate oven. The ap ples will retain their shape, and if pooled with care or curved lightly in shells or other fanci ful designs, mako a very presentable dish. OUR LETTER-BOX. Aunt Helen: Wo send you many thanks for your kind New-Year wishes, aud add a scrap of information concerning " Opulin." This sub stance has already excited much artistic inter est in England and on tho Continent, and thero ladies havo long been accustomed to uso it in the decorations of their homes. Opal in is de scribed as a transparent material, tinted and colored to suit the tasto and wishes of all who appreciate inexpensive decoration. Its brill iancy has led to tho suspicion that it is mado of opals, but this is a mistake. Although rival ing theso gems in luster, it contains none of them in combination. Tho combination is as yet a secret with the manufacturers. Unlike cathedral glass, full of irregular aud cumber some joinings, which render a closo inspection of it anything but a pleasure, opalin resembles artistically colored oiled silks, pleasant to tho eye, agreeable to the touch, and fascinating to tho sense of tho beautiful. Tho rosult of its manipulation by the skillful fingers of a lady of taste, is a successful combination of the beau tiful in art applied to homo decoration. In tho process there aro needed: scissors, roller, sponge, and the good tasto and cunning fingers of an artistic housewife. The designs aro painted on paper; they aro of medkeval and modern patterns, and aro varied and beautiful. The glass used is tho ordinary window glass. Messrs. Copperthwaito it Co., J Tome-furnishers and Interior Decorators, J'. O. Box 2G-1G, New York, furnish glass and designs, together with circulars containing concise information con cerning tho use of opalin. It is said that when tho sunlight plays upon a window that has been treated with this material, the room is filled with a glow so exquisite as to bring to mind the beautiful effects often seen in Euro pean cathedrals. "A friend of the Tribune" begs that somo friendly pen will send a paragraph on screens. Another writer asks for a recipe for light, digest ible buckwheat cakes, and also a recipe for genuine Boston brown bread. 3Irs. Garfield's Homo Lire. Tho widow of Gen. Garfield is now living in her new homo in Cleveland, Ohio, a plain, uu pretcntious, but cheery and attractive house. The mother of tho late President and tho wife of Dr. Boyuton aro spending tho winter with her. Sho is said to be now looking much better than sho has beforo since her bereavement, although marks of age, caro and sorrow aro fixed upon her faco. Sho is often visited by artists competing for tho $10,000 pri'o offered by tho Ohio Legislature for tho best bust of Garfield, who seek her approval of their work. When ono of them called on her a few days ago, writes a correspondent who accompanied him, Mrs. Garfield gave tho bust a quick, sido long glance, and then approaching it closer looked atitsteadilyand in a most critical man ner for several moments. Then she spoko : "It looks far more liko Stanley Matthows," and then, afteranother inspection : "No, I can't say that it resembles the General to any great ex tent," and tho disappointed artist sadly with drew. A Wish. By Margaret Vcley. If I could find the Little Year, The Happy Year, the Kind Now Year If 1 could find him setting forth To seek the undent truck I'd bring him here, tlie Littlo Your, Like a pedlcr with hiu pack. And nil of golden brightness, And nothing didl or black, And all that heart could fancy, And all that life could lack, Should he your share of the pcdler'fl ware, When he undid his puck. Tho best from out bis trcasuro A smile of youru would coax, Anil then Ae'd speed him on his way, At midnight's fading strokes; And hid him hurry round tho world, Ami serve the other folks! Tho L'ntrnncn to tho Catacombs is not moro forbidding than a mouth dis mantled of teeth. This disfigurement is, in most instances, tho consequences of a want of attention to them in youth, but is happily preventive, with SOZODONT, used, as a stump speaker onco urged his auditors to vote, "early and often." This staple- article- is a thoroughly reliablo means of rendering tho teeth ornamental and serviceable. Tho press and medical profession indorse it, PRISON EXPERIENCES, Little Ked Cap's Personal Eccollections of Andersonville. Continued from last tree!:. Andersonvillo now resembled nothing so much as a dead sea. There was daily less ebb and flow than in any other community on tho faco of the globe. Even tho exchange of visits between friends had ceased, and, in deed, so crowded had tho stockade become that it was almost au impossibility to pick one's way through tho tortuous paths which served as the solo meatis of communication be tween different parts of the prison. Yet hor riblo as was tho condition of tho prisoners, they could not be seduced from their devotion to tho old flag by any inducements which the confederates wcro able to oiler. There was at this time a great scarcity of mechanics in tho confederacy, and a pri-oner who was master of any ordinary trade would have found no diffi culty in obtaining a release on parolo to work for tho rebels. Indeed, scarcely a week passed in which an effort was not mado to engage skilled woikmen for somo purposo or other. Shoemakers wcro most in demand, and next, blacksmiths, machinists, molders and metal workers generally. The managers of the Tredegar Iron Works of Richmond were brazen and persistent in their efforts to seduce iron workers to enter their employ, for, as the majority of tho prisoners were masters of trades, it would have been of immense benefit to the confederacy could it have induced them to work for it. The machinists alone could havo been of more real service than a whole brigade of troops, for the slcnderness of tho confederate resources was primarily due to a lack of tho skilled labor necessary to their de velopment, and nowhere could there have been found a finer body of skilled workmen than in the thirty-live thousand prisoners incarcerated at Andersonvillo. But all solicitations to this end wcro treated with the scorn they deserved. Tho usual jcply to such invitations was: "No, sir; I'll siJSSy in hero till I rot before I will assist the confederacy in any shape or form." In the month of August a shoemaker from Ma con visited tho stockade for the purpose of secur ing workmen for tho confederate shoo factory. He prosecuted his search without success until ho had reached the centre of the camp on the north side, Avheu somo of the shoemakers who had gathered around him, apparently con sidering his propositions, seized him and threw him into a well. He was kept there a whole day. When Wirz heard of this occurrence he became- greatly enraged, and declared that no more rations should go in the stockado until the man was delivered up at tho gate, safe and sound. This, of course, had the desired effect, and ho was surrendered. ENLARGING THE STOCKADE. The stockado was so crowded at this time, as I havo already said, that it was almost impossi ble to move about in it, and even tho confed erates saw that it would bo impossible to make room for any new prisoners without an enlarge ment of tho enclosure. They accordingly set to work to build an addition on tho north side of the stockade, making tho total area about twenty-seven acres, or ono aero for every seventeen hundred prisoners. The stockado was still shamefully crowded, but the new en closure was a great improvement over the old, and those who moved into it were much better off than those who remained behind. On tho completion of this addition the palisado which separated it from tho original enclosure was fortunately left standing, and it was at once attacked by thousands of prisoners, armed with such tools as they could lay their hands on. By tho next morning not only had every inch of the palisado above ground disappeared, but that below had been dug up, and there was not enough of the eight hundred foot wall of twenty-livo foot logs left to build a firo to cook breakfast with. The value of the wood was so great that thousands had worked tho entire night to secure as much of the cov eted treasure as possible. Ono afternoon in August, some time after this, an incident occurred which alarmed Wirz very much. A violent rain storm came up. Tho water fell in torrents, and it seemed al most as if tho heavens had opened to deluge the earth. Tho littlo creek running through tho camp soon became a roaring torrent, aud presently large gaps were made in the stockado on both the west and east sides. Wirz detected tho breaches at onco and ordered two guns fired from tho headquarter fort. The signals rang out angrily, and tho guards rushed out and formed in front of tho gaps to prevent an out break if ono should be attempted. The prison ers, however, were more taken by surprise than tho guards, and were not in a condition to profit by tho opportunity until it was too late. The storm accomplished great good in another direction, however. It swept away a great deal of filth aud left the camp much more wholesome. The water in tho creek had be-, come indescribably bad. It was already unfit for uso when it entered tho stockade, and im mediately oiff entering it was still further con taminated. The oozy seep at the bottom of the hillsides drained directly into this shallow, sluggish stream, a yard wide and about six inches deep, and heated by tho scorching rays of the sun. Yet all tho prisoners were forced to wash in this foul stream and obtain their supply of drinking water from it. It' is truo that somo of the more fortunate had wells, thanks to their own energy in overcoming ex traordinary obstacles, but no credit is due the confederates for this, since they did not mako tho slightest effort to provido these necessities of life. Tho wells wero generally dug with case aud pocket knives and half canteens, to a depth of from twenty to thirty feet, and tho dirt was pulled up usually in pantaloon legs, al though every device was used for the purpose. This work had to be done at great risk too, for tho unwalled sides wero liablo to cave in at any moment and smother the digger to death. Not only did the confederates refuse to furnish boards with which to wall tho wells and buck ets to draw the water, but they did all in their power to prevent tho wells from being dug, and made continual forays to capture the dig ging tools. Tho great majority of the prison ers who went to the creek for water went as near as possible to tho dead-lino on the west side where the creek entered the stockade, in order to avoid tho filth as far as possible, and men were always to be seen there struggling for their turn to tako a dip. In tho strugglo fre quently some poor fellow would bo forced so closo to tho dead-lino as to excite tho suspicion of tho guards, and tho first warning tho poor unfortunate wretched prisoner would receivo would be a shot from their rifles. Moro wicked and unjustifiable murders wero never committed than these. It was about this timo that tho prison was visited with a inovidontial dispensation. Ono morning tho camp was astonished beyond measuro to dis cover that during the night a large, bold spring had burst out on tho north side, about midway between tho swamp and the summit of tho hill. A GODSEND. It poured out its grateful flood of pure sweet water in an apparently exhanstless flow. This was truly a Godsend. Old Wirz, Winder and their allies wcro powerless to contend with na ture. The news spread like wild-firo through out the stockade, and thousands flocked at onco to seo tho miracle. Tho rush for tho water was so great, indeed, that tho polico had to tako chargo of the spring, and every one was com pelled to await his turn to fill his vessel. Every morning shortly after daybreak hundreds could be seen standing thero in line. 1 notico by tho reports of comrades who havo revisited the stockade of recent years that the spring is still flowing, and is held in pious veneration by the negroes in tho neighborhood. After roll call every morning thousands of sick gath ered at tho south gate, where tho doctors made, somo pretense of affording medical relief. Groups of three or four comrades could be seen staggering laboriously under tho weight of a blanket in which they wero canning a dis abled and dying comrado from somo distant part of tho stockade; others, unable to walk and having no comrades to carry them, crawled painfully along on their hands ami knees. Every form of iutense physical suffering that it is possible for disease to induce in tho hu man frame was visible at these daily parades of tho sick of tho prison. Wo had become accustomed to daily scenes of horror, but tho spectacles presented at these gatherings were such as no amount of misery could accustom ono to. A limited number of tho worst cases wero admitted to tho hospital each day, but as the building could only accommodate about one-quarter of the sick in tho stockade, new patients could only bo admitted as others died. And, indeed, it seemed certain death to send a man thero, for three out of every four who en tered the hospital never left it alive. Tho ofll- cial report shows that to be a fact. About tha only medicine- that those inside tho stockade received was a handful of sumach berries, pre scribed for those who had the scurvy. Tho berries might have dono some good had there been enough of them, and their action assisted by proper food. As it was, they were probably nearly if not wholly useless. The hospital it self was a wretched affair, and yet it was a vast improvement on the stockade. It covered about five acres of ground bordering on a creek and inclosed by a board fence, around which, tho guards walked, and was situated a little southeast of the stockade, a few trees affording a pretty fair shade. There were tents and flies to shelter part of the sick, and the beds in theso were made of pine leaves. Streets and alleys had been laid out. and the place was kept rea sonably clean and orderly for Andersonville. There was also a slight improvement in tho food. Bice was furnished the inmates, but in too small quantities, however, to accomplish much good. If it had been served in sufficient quantities, it might have promoted the recov ery of many who were dying from dysenteric diseases. HOSPITAL HORRORS. The sick were compelled to wear the samo ragged garments, filled with vermin, that they had worn in prison, and neither baths nor tho ordinary toilet conveniences were furnished them. The medicines themselves were scanty and crude. The few who recovered did so al most in spite of fate. The world never before saw such misery as wa3 witnessed in that hos pital daily. The official statistics tell the story. There were o.TO!) in the hospital in August, and during that month the deaths numbered 1,1S9; nearly every other man died. The" percentage- of deaths was even much greater after this date. The gaugrene wards afforded some piteous spec tacles. At times the whole hospital rang with the agonizing screams of the sufferers. The rebel doctors at the hospital resorted to whole sale amputation as a check to gangrene, and two or three hours every morning were devoted tho work. Belief was generally soon found in death. During my term of imprisonment at Ander sonville, I noticed one thing, which I gladly mention, and that was tho beneficent work of the Masonic order. It was the sole recognition on the part of any of our foes of our claims on humanity. The churches of all denomina tionsexcept that of good old Father Hamil ton ignored us as wholly as if we were not in existence. The rebel Masons, however, inter ested themselves in securing details outside tho stockade, in tho cook-house, tho commissary, and elsewhere, for such of their brethren among the prisoners as would accept such favors; and frequent presents, in the way of food and es pecially vegetables were sent in to those who could not get outside on parole, as well aa material with which to build tents. Some who made themselves known before death, even re ceived burial according to the rites of the order. I remember quite well, when I was living in tho camp of the Twenty-sixth Alabama, that tho Masons belonging to that regiment made every effort they could to insure tho comfort of their brethren in the stockade. Doctor White, and perhaps other surgeons, belonged to the fraternity. THE EACK OF FOOD. An abundance of rebel testimony can ho pro duced to sustain the statement that the suffer ing at Andersonville was chiefly due to a lack of sufficient nutrition and proper medical treat ment. Tho old adago says, " Hunger is tho best sauce for poor food;" "but hunger failed to render tho detestable stuff we received at An dersonvillo palatable, and it became so loath some that very many actually starved to death, becauso they wero unablo to swallow or retain the nauseous dose. Nature protested, by a re bellion of tho taste, against any further use of such food. How needless was this restriction of our rations to cornmeal and especially meal so wretchedly prepared is conclusively shown by the facts of tho case. It would have been very little extra trouble to havo sifted our meal, aud, in fact, wo would have gladly done it ourselves had wo been supplied with, tho proper utensils. It would have been aa little trouble to have varied the rations with green corn and sweet potatoes, of which there was then a bountiful supply in the vicinity. I have recently been shown a history of Ander sonville, written by a confederate officer, in which it is stated that the prisoners in the stockado drew the same rations that the guards did. This is a downright falsehood. When I was in the camp of the Twenty-sixth Alabama I drew exactly the same ration that each sol dier in the regiment received, aud I know that the guards drew better rations in every respeefc than the prisoners, while Wirz and his family live'd on the very best the land afforded, as, in fact, did all the confederate officers at Ander sonville. On several occasions, in company with Louis Jones, of the Twenty-sixth Alabama, I took dinner with tho farmers in tho neigh borhood of Andersonville, and I noticed thatJ they had an abundance of good food and excel lent crops for that section uf country. Indeed, I believe they considered Wirz and Winder's treatment of tho prisoner? in the stockado an outrage on civilization. They were certainly very kind to me, and deplored the condition of affairs in the prison very much, though they did not dare to express themselves within the hearing of the officers. They wero thoroughly in sympathy with the confederate cause, huts were humane people. If Wirz had only pro vided a few wagon-loads of roasting-ears and sweet potatoes, he could have banished every traco of scurvy from tho camp, and saved thousands of lives. Any day that tho rebels had chosen they could have gotten a thou sand volunteers, who would havo given their solemn parolo not to escape, and gone any distanco into the country to gather the potatoes and corn and such other vegetables as were readily obtainable, and bring them into camp. Whatever else may bo said in defense of the Southern management of military prisons, the death of seven thousand men from scurvy, in tho middle of summer time and in the midst of an agricultural region, must forever remain impossible of explanation. To be continued. The First Gnu or tho Kebellion. On tho 1st of May, 1SGG, Major-Geueral Thos. J. Wood, commanding Department of Missis sippi, headquarters at Vicksburg, asked permis sion to send to Washington, as a trophy of the rebellion, a small cannon, formerly belonging to tho city of Vicksburg, then in his possession, and represented as that from which tho first hostile shot-was fired during the late war. Per mission was granted May 10, and the gun was forwarded, in charge of a guard, with tho fol lowing letter from General Woodgiving ita history : Headquarters Dep't or Mississippi, VicKuri:n, July 5, 1S66. Sir: I have the honor, in compliance with author Itv from von of Mav 10, to forward, in charge of Sergeant W. D. Ilalieck and Privates O. IT. Lemli, J. K. Thomas, and Hen. Clark, Second battalion, Fifteenth l S. infantry, a small 1-poundcr cannon, formerly the nropertyof the city of Vicksburg, with the following historyof the gun, as furnished to mo by Mr. 1 loraco Miller, attoruey-at-hiw, firm of Mar shall A: Miller, of Vicksburg: "This was tho first gun fired in the cause of tho rebellion. J lircd it myself at a steamer passing Vicksburg, hound for New Orleans supposed to have arms ami ammunition on board belonging to the United States. This filing took place several days before any guns were tired at the United States forts or troops' either at Charleston or I'oiisacola." I have the honor to request that it may be placed nmong the relio of the rebellion preserved nt Wash ington. The men s-ent in charge of it are awarded this honor for meritorious conduct, sobriety, and general deportment and ability as soldiers. I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant. Titos, j. Wood, Maj.-Gen. Vols. Hon. E. M. Stanton, See. of War. In ono of the papers published by tho Eng lish Salvation Army, some grotesque advertise ments occasionally appear. Here aro three of them: "Wanted: A violin to be used in tho service of the Lord. Whoever has ono idle send it on. Wanted: Soldiers who havo the interests of the heavenly kingdom at heart to lend money at fair interest to build halls. Wanted: Somo one to build largo halls and reut them to the Salvation Army. Consumption Cured. An old physician, retired from practice, hav ing had placed in his bunds by an East India missionary tho formula of a simple vegetable remedy for the speedy and permanent cure for Consumption, Bronchitis, Catarrh. Asthma, and all throat and lung affect ions, also a positive and radical euro for nervous debility aud all nervous complaints, after having tested ita Avonderful curativo powers in thousands of cases, has felt it his duty to make it known to his suffering fellows. Actuated by this motive and a desire to relieve human suffering, I will send free of charge, to all who desire it, this recipe, in German, French, or English, with full directions for preparing and using. Sent by mail by addressing, with stamp, naming this paper, W. A. No yes, 149 Forcer's Block, Rochester, . N.Y.