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THE NATIONAL TRIBUNE: WASHINGTON, D. 0., THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 15, 1883.
RURiJL TOPICS, Some Practical Suggestions for Our Agricultural Readers. We were recently asked the question : " What is agricultural education in schools, and how does it differ from ordinary education?" Pat in this direct manner wo were rather puzzled, and in thinking tho matter over we were led into a train of reasoning somewhat as follows: Metaphysicians havo shown that there are certain faculties, or, as they express it, elements of knowledge, which must exist in the mind a priori, in order to our forming a judgment upon any subject or ohject. Tho agriculturist, above most others, must possess a greatly varied knowledge, in order to exercise a proper judg ment or approach to uniform success in his varied operations. Ho must bo conversant with the principles of cultivation, and before he can perceive tho rationale of his labors ho must have a knowledgo of tho laws the defi nite and unvarying principles of physical science so far as ascertainable. Tho field of study thus becomes one of immenso magnitude. How plants grow, how thoy feed, and what they feed upon; why somo arc fruitful while others are barren ; the exact specific relations that exist between them and the soil upon which thoy are growing, and the different de velopments induced by the unequal distribu tion of the elements of growth, are the subject matter of physiology a science that compre hends a knowledge of chemistry, botany, and tho greneral principles of natural philosophy. The constituents of soils, their numerous com binations, and the sources from which thoy have been produced, are taught by studying mineralogy and geology. it Economy of labor depends npon the skillful application of tho laws of mechanics. A Knowl edge of the laws or principles of hydrostatics and hydraulics is necessary before he can un derstand the science of draining lands, or pro vido for its proper application or execution. To guard against attacks of insects and repel those which may have found a lodgement in his crops, involves an acquaintance with ento mology, and the complicated influences of cli mate brings him in contact with meteorology and climatology. In short, there is no branch of knowledge but will contribute to his aid, and may be productive of suggestions applica ble to somo one or other of his varied pursuitB. Who can decide as to what is and what is not included in agricultural education, and its practical application to the cultivation of plants? BEilAKKS OX VEGETABLES. The following notes on vegetables are briefed from remarks of 13. P. Ware before tho Massa chusetts Horticultural Society: Beginning with squashes, a variety called Butman was said to bo of cxcellent.quality, but not very productive. The Marblehead squash is a selection from the Hubbard, is generally higher priced, but does not crop so well. The Essex is a cross between the Turban and Hubbard, and unites tho form and fine quality of the Turban with the good keeping properties of the Hubbard. It is a rapid grower and may be planted late, and thus avoid tho maggot It is the best early variety. As to cabbages, Fottler's Improved Brunswick was at one time tho best early cabbage, but it has gained in size but lost in earliness. The Stone Mason is the best -variety ever intro duced, making solid heads of excellent quality. The American Improved Savoy has a small Btump and large head, and has preserved tho fine quality of tho old Tariety. The Danvcrs carrot was originated in Danvers, as also tho Danvers onion, tho onion of tho world for general growth. Tho Long Orange carrot is too long, and the Early Horn not productive, but an intermediate variety has been intro duced, of which tho speaker had raised thirty five tons on an acre. Of sweet corn, the Mar blehead is tho earliest, tho stalks are small, and the ears are produced near the ground. Three or four varieties should bo planted at the same time, 60 that they would come in uso in succession, and in this way two plantings would bo enough for the season. Next after the Marblehead comes Crosby's Early, the Moore's Early ; and for late varieties tho Mar blehead Mammoth, the Burr's Improved, or Stowell's Evergreen. As to potatoes, tho Early Eose .may be considered as tho basis of all tho good potatoes that we have. Burbank's Seed ling is a better cropper, keeps well, and is of excellent quality. The Early Ohio is earlier than the Early Bose, and has tho requisites of a first-class variety. Tho Bell is probably the best new variety. Those who have tested it thoroughly claim for it better qualities than are possessed by any other. Concerning toma toes, ho places the Acme and Paragon ahead of any others for the table. With regard to peas, the American Wonder is a sweet, wrinkled j variety, and a great acquisition. For the ear liest green pea, Dan O'Bourke, or any of its class, is recommended; then American Won der, McLean's Advancer, and Champion of England for tho latest. Mr. Ware makes three plantings; the late ones aro quite uncertain, are apt .to mildew, yet it is worth while to try them, since nice green peas late in tho season are a greatluxury. Of turnips, the White Egg is the most reliable for a crop. It is a flat variety, and is better than the Purple Strap Leaf, though not quite so early. rHYLLOXEBA OB GRAPE LOUSE. Prof. A. J. Cook, of the Michigan Agricul tural College, gives in he Xew York Tribune 6ome of his observations, as follows: "The insect Phylloxera xastatrix, one of the plant lice appears on the leaves of the grape and forms galls, but ia this form it does little harm. Hardy grapes, like Clinton, often show these galls on leaves, and the vines continue healthy and vigorous. Another form of this louse works on the roots of the more tender grapes, like Iona, Catawba, and Delaware, causing tho plants to die. It is this form that has tormented the grape growers of Europe." If the Profes sor was better acquainted with the diseases of grapes he would not thus merely repeat the sayings of others. Tho Iona, Catawba, and Delaware arc not tender grapes in the vicinity of Cayuga Lake, tfor example,; in the State of New York. Yet, perhaps not two miles from that lake, or even a less distance, following the line of Pleasant Valley, in the low grounds, ho might call them tender, because there the mil dew attacks tho leaves. It is fashionable to attribute all grape troubles to phvlloxera, while, as a matter of fict, the only serious i drawback to grape culture arises from mndew and fungus growtlis, of which the phylloxera is mostly a consequence and not a cause. When mildew is prevented, or absent, all of our na tive grapes are equally hardy, so far as can be shown, in their several climatic localities, and it is only those persons who have no practical experience in grape culture, and having but a superficial knowledge of the progress of this industry, who continually intrude their crudo ideas and notions whenever they can find a plausible opportunity. HOGS AJTD OTUEB ANIMALS IX OKCHABDS. It seems to be a well-attested fact tljat frnit orchards where pigs, chickens and other kinds of poultry aro allowed to ramble at will are the least troubled with insects and produce the fairest fruit. The lnrva of the coddling moth, curculio, and similar insects which infest fruits, are kept in subjection on account of these animals eating tho injured fruits which fal from tho trees and by picking up stray bugs, moths and grubs. Wo " rcccutly attended a meeting of fruit growers where the subject of insects in orchards was discussed, and we were forcibly impressed with tho evidenco brought forward to show that where hogs aud poultry were allowed in orchards the fruit was com paratively free from insect injuries, and brought an advanced price in market on this account. Jn the application of remedies which in volves tho manipulation of each tree, cither by dusting powder over tho foliage or spraying with jtoisonous liquids, few farmers will give the necessary attention; but to fenco in an orchard and turn stock into it is so practicable aud economical in every respect that it can bo urgently recommended to tho attention of tvery farmer who hns a fruit orchaid of value. PLANTING TBEES. Where it is in contemplation to plant trees during the coming spring the holes should bo prepared as soon as it is practicable, or the land will admit ol working. It is of tho first im portance to havo tho soil well pulverized before planting. If a frost should occur after the nolcs aro prepared, it will havo a decidedly beneficial cflbct in loosening the soil at the sides and bottoms of them, and thosoil which hns been thrown out will also be benefited in a similar manner. It will also become dryer and consequently wanner, all of which will bo in favor of the treo when set out. Most of tho failures of spring planting are owirg to tho coldness of tho soil at that season, together with tho rapid advance of tho heat of the atmos phere; these conditions have tho effect of ex citing the buds into growth, and tho leaves expand and demand moisture from the treo, which becomes exhausted before the roots are sufficiently active to supply the demand, and when dry weather is long continued under these cirenmstances tho plants aro severely checked, and oftentimes succumb. Fall plant ing has advantages in this respect, in so far as at that season the above conditions of soil and atmosphere are, in the main, reversed. OBANGE CULTUBE IN THE AZOEES. About thirty years ago orange trees in the Azores were found to bo disappearing from somo unknown reason. It was observed that all tho trees affected produceed a very heavy crop the very year that tho disease appeared, the leaves became yellow and fell off, tho bark on the trunks and stems opened, and drops of a kind of yellow gum exuded. Many orangeries were quite destroyed, and opinions as to tho cause of tho disease were much divided. Seed ling trees were attacked as well as those which had been raised from layers the usual method of propagation in theso islands. It was discov ered that by removing every part where tho disease appeared that tho tree would revive; thoso past recovery wero dug up and burnt, As a .remedy, at first, tho trees wero highly manured and heavily sheltered, but without any advantage. Now it is acknowledged that thorough drainago is at tho foundation of suc cessful orange growing; that next to this, trenching to a great depth is essential; and, thirdly, that manure must bo applied, but with discretion. Although .the disease still con tinues to somo extent, the orange gardens now look very prosperous. Tho thick shelters have been thinned out, andtho trees composing them aro not allowed to grow high. Propagation by layers has been abandoned, and good kinds aro grafted upon seedling stocks. KOHL BABI. This is also called the turnip cabbage. It is generally assumed to bo a variety of tho com mon cabbage, but in culture and use it is more nearly allied to the turnip. It receives its name from a protuberance or swelling in tho stem abovo the surface of tho ground. Some times theso swellings reach considerable sizo, so that the crop will bo as bulky as that of an averago yield of turnips. For table use it is best for eating when the bulb is about the sizo of a hen's egg. At this period of growth, if it is cut into pieces and well boiled, the flavor is between that of the artichoke and parsnip. It is largely grown in somo countries as winter food for cattle, and has the reputation of being as nutritious as turnips, and also that, unlike tho turnip, the kohl rabi imparts no taste to the milk of cows which aro fed on it. The cul ture of this plant is in all respects similar to that given to cabbago. CHEAP SILOS. We have in a former paper mentioned tho success of keeping green food in a cheap silo. Wo see it stated that Dr. W. A. Pratt, of Elgin, 111., tho owner of one of tho largest herds of fine cattle in tho country, says that tho feed from his silo comes out in excellent condition and pleases his stock. His silo is one of the cheapest of the cheap kind. It is simply an excavation in a soil naturally well drained. It cost but a few dollars, yet answers him as well as though he had expended a thousand dollars in brick and cement work. NOTES AND EXTRACTS. A Digest or Information Collected From Y&rlous Sources. There is a constant and increasing demand for forest products, and a growing necessity for the prevention of the wholesale destruction of woodlands by fires. As a matter of dollars and cents, we cannot afford to have forests burn. The actual losses from this source are truly enormous. The census for 1830 will soon teach in larger figures tho extent of this de struction. Inl8S0 there weronearly 14,000 acres burned over in Massachusetts alone. In Penn sylvania, where the lumber interests are second to.Michigan, the losses for the same year were abovo $3,000,000. Forest fires not only destroy the trees, but burn up tho fertility of tho soil, which is a greater loss than the wood. If only a part of tho wood alono was destroyed, the same kind of trees would continue to grow; but when swept clean of everything it requires ages to bring back the same kind of conditions and tho same kind of trees. For example, in case of the white pine the most valuable for est tree in New England weeds spring up on the burned soil, followed by brakes, and later by willows, &c. In this way tho Boil is again clothed with vegetation, and after generations the pines may again come in. Forests are sub ject to many dangers, but fires lead tho list. There is now very little inducement to plant trees, and this will continue so long as public sentiment is such that authors of forest fires are not responsible for their destructive work. Capitalists will not risk money in New Eng land in forest growing when it is open to such destructive influences. Forest fires could be much reduced in number by proper precautions. Locomotives originate the larger part of the forest fires. These should all be provided with spark consumers. A legislative act to this ef fect is needed. Another should provide that all parts of trees loft in tho woods should be gathered and carofully burned. A criminal act is also needed for tho punishment of all who shall maliciously set fire to growing wood. It is still more important that public opinion bo educated. A full understanding of tho forest question is the best guarantee that the woods will bo protected and receive the attention that they deserve. Prof. C. S. Sargent's lecture on for est jircs. THE SUGAR CBOP. The season has been unusually favorable for the growth and maturing of sugar cane, and one of the largest crops of recent years is as sured. Tho Department returns of results have not yet been received, as it is yet too early to obtain full data of the manufacture. The indi cations, however, favor an aggregate of tho Louisiana crop exceeding 200,000 hogsheads of sucar, probably not les3 than 250,000,000 pounds. t Tho sorghum experiment has resulted tho present season in the production of a good grade of sugar, manufactured at an apparent profit, in three factories, one of which produced 319,000 pounds, and in experimental production of small quantities at several points in the North west. The aggregate will exceed 500,000 pounds. Beet sugar has been made successfully for three successive seasons in California, at one factory. The Maine factory, which was in ope ration three years, producing in one season 1,200,000 pounds and in another 1,000,000 pounds, was obliged to suspend operations for want of beets, which farmers, inexperienced in sugar-beet culture, thought they could not af ford to produce at the prices, viz, $5 to $0 per ton, the average production being ten tons par acre. The season has been favorable for the pro duction of a good quantity of sorghum sirup, and the reports concerning quality indicate gradual improvement in the methods of defeca tion and clarifying. There has been a marked increase in area in some sections of the South and West. From Jlcporl of the Commissioner of Agriculture for 1SS2. THE CUKCULIO. Speaking of the curculio, Prof. Riley says the plum curculio is found and easily shaken down from the tree, while tho apple curculio hangs on and 13 dislodged with tho greatest difficulty. The plum curculio transforms in tho. ground, the apple curculio in tho fruit. Insects of this character can bo trapped by laying pieces of. bark or wood around tho trees early in spring. The curculio will gather under them, and can be easily destroyed. The work of tho curculio is principally done during tho night; thoy work some also in daylight; but many more can be caught by the shaking-down process at evening and early in the morning. Shaking is the great and only efficient remedy yet discov ered, and if faithfully performed onco a day, from tho time tho fruit is formed until it is ripened, will probably save, in most seasons, more fruit than would be profitable to leave upon the tree. Ho recommends tho same treat ment for peaches also, whore the curculios pro vail. BITTEE MILK. Bitter milk is a matter of frequent occurrence every fall and winter, or soon after tho cows are off from grazing. It is caused first by bit ter herbs in the hay, such as May weed, Johns wort, &c, and also by tho use of too much over ripe food, such as straw, corn stover, or late cut hay. It never occurs when cows aro fed on good food, and aro thriving, or even holding their own and are kept comfortably warm. GKAZING WIlKATl A Texas farmer, by turning his sheep in his wheat in the autumn, and allowing them to graze during tho winter and spring when the soil was in condition, says : "The last piece of wheat I grazed will mako twenty-fivo bushels to tho acre, aud it would havo made more, but? it wa3 badly damaged by tho worms. Now, I don't think my wheat was materially injured by grazing, and yet my whole lamb crop was raised on wheat." Ex. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. Our Agricultural Editor's Weekly Chat With HLj llesuers. Is it absolutely necessary to prune or shortrn tho branches of trcos at transplanting? Amateur, Troy, K.Y. Ans.: All depends upon tho amount of roots which are secured; if all the roots are preserved, theoretically there would be no need to pruno the branches. It is always a safe thing to thin out tho weak branches or shoots, and at the same time shorten the long shoots, when a tree is removed, but tho exact extent of top pruning will bo guided by tho condition of tho roots. There is decidedly less risk of loss when the tops aro well cut back. I nojice that it is advised to put half an ounce of sulphur under the roots of strawberries, which wJl keep away white grubs. IVry opinion is that grubs and the like pay no attention to sulphur applied in that way. I have seen them covered nil over with it without caring for it; and even if they wero to cat it what harm would it do them ? Ans.: Wo consider your opinion correct. John C. Jarvis, Jr., X. 11 The uso of Paris green a3 you propose will bo of no value. Poisons of this kind ars only useful in tho de struction of leaf-eating caterpillars, bugs, and beetles, but have no effect upon insects that live only upon tiie juices of plants. To destroy bark lice, wo find nothing at onco so simple, cheap, and efficient as to whitewash tho aflected parts. J. Dorscy, Md. The results of experiments seem to show that it makes no differenco which end of a Post is set in tho ground. Tarring tho bottom ends of posts is an advantage if tho posts are well-seasoned and dry beforo tho applica tion ; otherwise, it is not so valuable. The last ing property of woods depend somewhat upon tho soil upon which they havo been grown. THE FAR WEST, And the Jinny Inducements it Oifers to Settlers From tho East. Last November a lettor appeared in The Tribune from Mr. Theodore Hoagland, of Palouso City, Whitman county, Washington Territory, in which was given n description of the Territory. The article attracted wide atten tion among ex-soldiers, and sinco its appear ance Hr. Hoagland has received many letters of inquiry, which, owing to want of time, ho tc grets ho is unable to answer. In lieu of it, however, ho sends us tho following further de scription, in which is embodied answers to the questions usually asked. "It would require a volume" he says, " to givo a full description of Washington Territory, distinctly pointing out both its good, and bad features. Parts of it are mountainous, parts of it aro hilly, parts timbered, parts prairie, and- parts level. The hilly land, near tho mountains is the best Foil. Tho level land, though rich, is generally moro or les3 gravelly. Somo parts are adapted to stock raising almost exclusively, others almost exclusively to agriculture, and still others to both. Wheat, oats, barley, ryo, potatoes, tur nips, rutabagas, carrots, parsnips, onions, beets, peas, and many other things can bo raised in abundanco. No irrigation is needed. Corn, pumpkins, squashes, cucumbers, melons, beans, tomatoes, and tender vegetables are liable to be cnt down by the frost almost any time in tho summer. Somo years they are raised vcrysuc ccsifully almost anywhere, and in favored localities are raised quite successfully almost any year. The winters are sometimes severe but no ono of the seven winters experienced by myself was as severe as winters ordinarily are in central Hlinois. Plowing has been done this winter up to the loth of December. The country, go far as I know, is everywhere well watered. Timber is plentiful in some places, but scarce or altogether lacking in others. It is very healthy. I have never heard of any fever or ague, but diphtheria has at several times been prevalent and fatal in Walla Walla Valley, which is one of tho best frnit regionB in the world. Somo think the country abovo Snako River will yet be as good. Others doubt it. The majority of the people living hero think there is no better country on the globe, a few think there is no worse. Wo havo 'the North Pacific railroad, and many othera aro projected, which will sooner or later bo built. Government land can be had by going some distance from timber. It will all in time bo very valuable. Unimproved railroad land, I am informed, can bo bought at from three to seven dollara per acre. "Unimproved Govern ment land in private hands a little higher. Im proved deeded land ranges all the way from five to fifty dollars por aero, the price depend ing upon the locality, the amount and kind of improvement and the quality of tho land. Any description of this country, however accurate, would bo sure to mislead, a wrong interpreta tion being certain to be put upon the language used, for the simple reason that it is unlike any other country on the face of tho earth. To all old soldiers I say, you must run your own risks, as you used to when you went into battle." A subscriber at Grange ville, Idaho Territory, writes us : " There are fovr ox-soldiers in this vicinity, but moro aro coming in, and there is talk of organizing a Grand Army Post here soon. This is a magnificent country It is a high rolling prairie, with black, rich soil, and pro duces the finest grains and vegetables in tho world. It is also a fine stock raising region, and large herds live on the range the year round. This is the natural home of timothy. It grows on lop of the mountains, down the slopes, and in fact everywhere. The climate is nearly as mild as California, and wo raise fruit of nearly every kind. I should bo glad to hear from any old soldiers who would like to settle in this country." D. L. Greene, Grangeville, Idaho Territory. m The Thrto-Lpjgeil Jim. From Vie Boston Herald. Mr. .Tames Barnes, keeper of a light-house,s near Westport, on Lake Champlain, is a pen sioner of the Government, having lost his leg during the late war. A group of four men was in tho trenchps during tho artillery engage ment. They were lying on the ground, chat ting and smoking, out of the reach of direct fire. Suddenly a. shell exploded over their heads and so seriojisly injured three of the men that it necessitated amputation of the left login each instance. The Christian name of these three men was the same, James. The fourth man, who was untouched, though lying hard by, wa3 not named James. Mr. Barnes is in com munication with his comrades, who always call ono another tho " three-legged Jims." Where Knives Wero Srarco. From Uic Panama Star and Herald. Passengers on the Peninsula and Oriental steamer JIalwa wero placed in a strange predic ament recently. An Indian kni re-cleaner on board got drunk, tied all the table-knives (up ward of 600 in number) round his waist, and jumped overboard. Tho ship was stopped and turned round, but all efforts to rescue tho un fortunate man with the much-needed table knives were unavailing, and the passengers wero compelled to cat with penknives and other substitutes until the vessel reached Alex andria. X Valentine. By Elizabeth Cumings. The fierce winds blow, And the drifting: snow Has buried the garden, And hidden the wall, And the moon in the sky With her great white eya Sees snow on the hilla And tho mountains high. But the winds may blotr, And the snow may fall ; 1 don't mind the weather "When we are together. For if 1 could waken a bobolink, If I could gather a sweet grass pink, The song nor the flower Would not be ns sweet As the gift of love Hay at your feet; For I love you true , As tho sky is blue; Though I'm most sixty And you're only nine, My dear little, Sweet little Valentine. Wide AtcaJzafor February. m Consumption Cured. Dn. R. V. Pikece: Bear Sir Death was hourly expected by myself and friends. My physician pronounced my disease consumption, and said I must die. I began taking your "Discovery" and "Pellets." I havo used nine bottles and am wonderfully relioved. I am now able to ride out. ELIZABETH THOBNTON, Montonso, Ark. WOMAN'S WORK, Aunt Helen's Home Talks Tabbie's Table Our letter-Box, &c. We continue from last week our Bketch of the home-life of tho Athortons: Tho November fire crackled merrily, and tho shaded lamps flooded the library with their soft, rosy light, as tho family took their places on tho next Tuesday evening, in evident ex pectancy of a talk from Aunt Helen. Without prelude tho latter opened a littlo scroll and began to read: "' Tho angel and apostlo of tho coming revelation must bo a woman indeed, but lofty, pure, and beautiful, and wise. ' Thus wrote once Sir Arthur Helps, and tho gifted Frederick Robert son, commenting upon this passage in its proper relation, said: 'I think it would shed a kind of setting light and glory upon the death-beds of those whoso aspirations have been high and whoso work in this world is done, if, as they go out of it, they could see somo such hopo for tho race coming in, as at the dawn of a former salvation, hearts old and worn with hopeless expectation cried, " Lord, now lettcst thou thy servant depart in peace." Meanwhile, tho hopo of a flash of illuminating light, coming suddenly, yet by degrees, like the lightning from the electricity which has gathered through tho summer months, slowly, and from a wo man's heart, is a very precious thought, and one which so harmonizes with my own dim anticipations, that I mean to let my mind dwell on it much; for it is well to occupy ono's self with a noblo hope.' Theso two thoughts have always been to me full of beauty and in spiration, and it seems to mo that if this 'hope' for the coming race, is to bo anywhere realized, it must be in that domain where wo man is only truly herself that is, in her home. In tho broad and self-annihilating interests of a homo, the shyness, tho self-consciousness, and tho littlo uncertainties which form a large part of the make-up of every sensitively organized woman, disappear, and in their place comes the fine poise of a matured selfhood. Within her own home woman finds tho essential condi tions for her own development ; hero sho finds her centre, and hero will sho also find tho means through which she may come to bo that 'anticipated hope for the coming race.' Here, then, where so much is found, should much bo given, and in forming a homo every woman should aim to mako it un outlet for all that is highest in her own character; she should make every object in it a confession of her own spiritual nature of her love, her faith, her inviolable uprightness. There should be here, first of all, a religious atmosphere not an ob trusive, dogmatic religion, that is always put ting itself into words and protests, but a quiet, purifying influence, as if God wero a sweet thought which wore always wrapped about ono, stimulating one to all helpful endeavors. Every homo should bo an unconscious educa tion in all that is honest, noble, and courteous to each who may live within it. And scarcely secondary to these moral and spiritual princi ples are the material aspects of a home. Among these, perhaps none will be of so much import ance as pure air. Nervous depression, ill nature, headaches, and, :ts physicians have proved, scrofula and scrofulous consumption are some of tho evils which follow in tho train of imperfect ventilation. Both science and ex perience havo proved that the body is nour ished as much by air as by food, and a prudent housekeeper will let tho fresh out-door air sweep through her house at least once during tho day, whether the weather be warm or damp and cold. The best time for this is in tho morning, after the breakfast-fumes have hidden themselves in the crannies and corners, and the best part of the cofleo has boiled itself away and found lodgment in the top of the house. Sitting rooms and sleeping-rooms should be supplied 'with means for the constant egress of bad air and, ingress of fresh air. For this, an open fire-place in winter is best, but when this is impracticable, a good method is to have an opening at top and bottom made in a flue, and a similar opening on the opposite side of the room. Into every room tho sunshine should como and go as it will; a home ought to bo a temple of light, rather than a graveyard vault. The walls should be hung with such pictures as will ap peal to the highest sentiments of the beholder, and educate him in tho noblcstdeeds and events of the centuries. There should be plenty of books, too, and engravings, and photographs, chosen and distributed in such wise that all who come may feel at onco that the home which they havo entered is familiar and sincere. There should bo music n the home, for nothing so refines tho heart, soothes ill-nature, and rounds down the corners of human character, as melody. And flowers should not ba lacking. A conservatory is like a little congress of choice, genial spirits. It would bo well, if thero could be ono in every home, and it tho children could be taught to cultivato flowers, and send them out to brighten tho rooms of tho sick and tho poor. In every humane home there is a nursery a place somewhat isolated from the habitablo rooms where children may find un redressed outlet for the inevitable buoyant and boisterous life of childhood. This room should be sunshiny, and supplied with objects to amuse and entertain its occupants, and its walls and doors should bo adorned with pretty pictures. Of nearly equal importance with the nursery are the servants' rooms. Theso ought always to bo bri;htencd up with pretty, tasteful and convenient objects ; provided with comfortable beds, rugs and carpets, and means for ventila tion. In all homes, a modified family etiquette should be observed; salutations should bo ex changed as tho family assemble in tho breakfast-room, and among the members of a family graceful little attentions should be extended, and gratefully acknowledged; tho mistress of tho homo should insist upon some change, how ever slight, being made in the dress for dinner, and always, when it is possible, there should be in the evening, if only for a little while, a gathering of tho family in some cheerful room. By such means as these, arc created an uncon scious chivalric spirit, a consideration for oth ers, and a quiet self-respect which make dis cord and coarseness at home almost impossible. For general pastime, reading aloud must take precedence for standing tyie test of repetition and drawing the members of a family circle into sympathy with each other. For the mothor and daughters thero should ever be in rcifdiness some light, pleasant home-occupation ; something that will keep tho mind from weariness and the fingers from idleness. Lit tle children and white-haired people are like benedictions in a home. For both there should always bo room and affectionate hearts. And now, in a word, let tho Home bo that placo where no secrets are withhold, where all splen did qualities aro niado'to shine, where all no ble sentiments aro quickened into life, and where that 'hopo for the coming raco' may take root and ripen into perfect realization." "You have given us a substantial first course, Helen," said Mr. Atherton, as Aunt Helen ceased reading, " and now let us have some thing lighter in the shapo of your Budget." Aunt Helen now opened the packago which, at the last meeting, Mrs. Atherton hnd carried away unopened. It was labeled "Our Nursery," and contained a box of dolls dressed to repre sent a court scene in Queen Elizabeth's timo. There was the red-haired Queen, with her high ruff and her haughty poise, her maids of honor, princesses, courtiers and pages, all in dazzling court costumes, aud even tho throno and sceptre had not been forgotten. In an other box was a book containing tho story of Littlo Bed Biding Hood, and figures dressed in costume to illustrate it. Then there was adiox of pretty transparencies, bright autumn leaves and pressed ferns, arranged between two platc3 of glass, and framed with narrow bands of bronze paper. Tho glazier had bored a hole in the top, where a ring had been inserted by which to hang them to the window-frame. And last, an envelopo inclosing these directions for tho nnrso : When the children aro ready to bo put into bed, sponge tho feet with cold water, and afterwards rub briskly with a coarse towel. If this is done overy night, cold feet will be unknown. Do not allow children to eat snow. Tho most obstinate cases of catarrh havo resulted from this practice. When a child i3 threatened with croup, spread a linen cloth with lard, cover it thickly with grated nutmeg, and bind it over the chest. It is well to do this at night in all cases of severe colds among childron. Spirits of camphor mixed with sweet oil, and rubbed about the nostrils, across tho forehead abovo the nose, and along the glands at tho tips of the ears, will generally break up a cold in tho head. This is a common German remedy. Then came Tabbie's contribution: OUR TABLE. Breakfast. Bill of Fare, No. 2, with recipes therefor. Fruit. Oatmeal, Broiled Ham, Omoletto, Graham Muffins, Toast, Griddlo Cakes, Coffee, Tea, or Chocolate. Broiling. The lire for broiling meat must be clear, and for meats it must be hotter and brighter than for fish. Coals from hard wood or charcoal are best. Always nsu the doublo broiler when this is obtainable, and when this is used n knife or fork need not touch the meat until it is served at the table; thus much of the juice issaTCtl.ind con sequently much of the sweetness of tho meat is preserved. A professional cook will never run a fork into meat while it is cooking. Omelette. Jinny people fail in making omelettes, usually because the pan for cooking is not hot enough, and too much egg i3 put in at one time. When there is too much egg hi tho pan, one part will bo cooked hard before the other is heated through. A pan measuring eight inches in diameter will cook an omelette made with four eggs; increase tho size of pan used in this propor tion. riain Omelette. Four egg, ono tcaspoonful of salt, one tablespoonful of butter. Beat the eggs with any good egg-beater, and add the salt and milk, Have the pan very liot. Put in the spoonful of butter and pour in tho bentcn egg. Shake vig orously on the hottest part of the stove until the egg begins to thicken ; then let it stand n few sec onds to brown, llusi the knife between the sides of the omelette and the pan, fold, and turn on a hot dish. Serve without delay. Graham Muffins. Into a bowl put ono pint and a half of Graham Hour, half a cupful of sugar and r. tcaspoonful of salt. Into a sieve put half a pint of flour, a tcaspoonful of salcratus and two of cream of tartar. Mix thoroughly with tho flour and sift on jo the material in the bowl. , Mis all thoroughly while dry, and add two well' beaten eggs and a pint of milk. Fill muffin cups about two-thirds to tho top, and bake in a quick oven. Indian-Jkal Griddle-Cakes. Ona cup of Indian meal, one of flour, three of boiling milk, two eggs, ono teaspoonful of salt, ono of cream of tartar. half a tcaspoonful of soda, two tnblespoonfuls of sugar. Have the milk boiling and gradually pour it on the meal. Put the other dry ingredients with tho flour nnd rub through a sieve. When the scalded meal is cool, add to it tho flour nnd the eggs, well beaten. Graham Griddle-Cakes. Two cupful3 of Gra ham flour, two and a half of milk, ono tablespoon ful of sugar, one teaspoonful of salt, ono of cream of tartar, half n tcaspoonful of sodn, two egg-. Let half the milk come to a boil. Pour it on the Graham flour, and stir until perfectly smooth; then add the cold milk, nnd set away to cool. Mix the other dry ingredients with tho "flour, nnd rub through a sieve: add, with the eggs well beaten, to tho Graham flour and milk. Rye griddle-cakes iiro made in the same way. Flannel Cakes. Ono cup of Indian meal, two of flour, three of boiling milk, one-fourth of an yeast cake, or one-fourth of a cupful of liquid yeast, one teaspoonful of salt, one teaspoonful of sugar, two of butter. Have tho milk boiling, and pour it on the meal and butter. When cool add the flour, ,1l T it.- i-i i r 5 nu.ii, auur, uuu luc yuusi, uiu inner uaving oecii i dissolved in four tablespoonfuls of cold water. Let I tno mmuro rise over mgnt. .try Hire gnaoie cakca. While Aunt Helen had been reading her paper about homes, Tabbie's great oyes had scarcely moved from her face, and when tho Budget wa3 ended the littlo lady pointedly asked: "Aunt Helen, did you ever see a homo like the ono you've been telling about?" Aunt Helen look surprised, and the others smiled. "Yes," said Aunt Helen, speaking somewhat slowly. "My grandfather's home, in which I was born, was just such a home, and during my childhood, my own home was much like it." The speaker's face had grown grave, and it was a relief when Mr. Atherton's voice broke in : " Never fear that Annt Helen's theories can not bo put into practice, Tabbie. And now have Johnstone bring up the tea." The butler soon appeared, bearging the pretty tea-service, the toast and butter, and at this most pleasant of all after-dinner hours wo take leave of our friends for another week. OUE LITTLE FOLKS. Baby's Visitor. My baby boy sat on the floor. His big blue eyes wero full of wonder, For he had never seen before That baby in the mirror door What kept tho two, so near, a3under? He leaned toward tho golden head The mirror border framed within. Until two cheeks, like roses red, Lay side by side, then softly said: "I can't get out; can you ceme in? " JFASinOK 2TOTE3. Sashes are' still in high vogue for old rnd young. White ottoman silk and white nuns' veiling make a lovely combination for bridesmaids' cresses. Gold Devonshire lace is seen upon imported white opera hats, trimmed also with white os trich tips powdered with gold. Heads of Limoges enamel mounted in silver setting are the latest French fancy for brooches, wherewith the fashionable young lady Crimped frills of tinted crape set against standing, lightly-gathered luflies of Oriental lace, are worn inside the neck and cleeves of evening dresses. fastens her large bright-hued gipsy 'kerchief of silk which she arranges over her dainty should ers and knots in front, low on the corsage, after the manner of these nomadic maidens. The dark tartan-like tweeds and cheviots aro called Braemar3; those in fine checks, in sub dued but bright shades of color, are known a3 Invcrcaulds; and thoso of a dark brown, with faint dashes of gold, scarlet, and dark green in tho woof, are styled Craigievars. Crown pieces for ornaments have taken tho place of tho gilt sixpences which have becomo common, and George and Jie Dragon are now doing duty as a necklace, these pieces being firmly linked together by tiny chains the re verse sido of gilt, tho obverse side of highly colored enamel. The long English fatigue coat, made of plaids or checks in indistinct shades of color, with Carrick capes edged with dark silk cording, will be moro fashionable than the ulster this spring. This comfortable wrap is double breasted, half fitting, and fastens all the way down the front with bright silver buttons. Tho Cordova leather guipure, already men tioned as a novelty abroad, has appeared upon Paris-mado bonnets and hats of plush, kid, and velvet. This decoration also extends to dress garniture, and among tho magnificent dresses worn by Madame Patti is ono of doe-colored plush, with flounces and bodice made up with bands of leather lace. Tho skirt is trimmed with an embroidery of leather on a plush ground. A stylish house dress is made of dark Russian gray cashmere. The skirt is laid all the way down in hollow pleats devoid of trimming. The bodice is pointed, front and back, tho pan iers aro arranged in heavy pleats, rounding over tho nips and joining the lightly poufed drapery in tho back. The fronts of the bodice, the edges of the paniers, and half tho length of the long, close sleeves are trimmed with an elaborate pattern in braidwork. The styles for tweed suits are various. There is the plain skirt trimmed around the foot with a niching, pinked out on cacli edge, and over this skirt is to be worn a redmgotejohu" of tho same goods, fastened with gilt buttons, and also trimmed down each sido and around tho lower edge with a narrow pink ruche. Next are kilted skirts of tweed, joined to Jersey bod ices of a monochrome color, with a scarf dra pery of tweed covering the joining of skirt and bodice. Over the shoulders is a pelerine of the tweed lined with surah the shade of tho Jersey. OUE rETTJEK-DRAWEH. "A Country Girl " writes that sho is com piling a classified cook-book for use at home, and having now reached the department of Soup3, she is anxious to receivo contributions to this part of her book. For recipes under thishead she oilers to exchango a series of recipes beginning with any letter preceding the letter "S," or a series of directions for making some specific object peculiar to tho sitting room or sewing-room. This is a pleasant offer, and we hope that some of our young lady readers will respond to it. To tho Editor National TnnnrcrK: I havo been quite interested by the various shadings manifest in the different recipes for Boston brown Dread, which havo been sent from various directions. Boston baked beans aro no less widely known than Boston brown bread, and I venture to send you Miss Parloa's recipa for baked beans, with tho liwpo that I may learn through your Drawer if thi be tho recipe now in general use in New England : "Baked Beans. Pick ono quart of beans freo from stones nnd dirt. Wash nnd soak in cold water over night. In tho mornng pour oft" tho water. Cover with hot water, put two pounds of corned beef with them, nnd boil until they begin to split open, (the time depends upon tho nge of the beans, but it will bo from thirty to sixty min ues). Turn them into tho colander, and pour over them two or three quarts of cold water. Put about half of the beans into a deep tarthen.pot, then put in the pork, and finally the remainder of tha beans. Mix one tcaspoonful of mustard nnd ono tablespoonful of molasses withnlittle water. Pour this over tho beans, and then add boiling water just enough to cover. Bake slowly ten hours. Add a littlo water occasionally." S. E. Washington", IX C. "Ella F., San Francisco." In reply to your appeal, wo suggest that among tho inexpensive but convenient articles which may bo made for gentlemen aro: Shaving cases, outlined on satin, crash, linen, sateen, etc., or pricked on leather; tobacco pouches in gntta pcrcha, ornamented with painting or embroidery; pipe-racks, mado of linen, lined with somo brightly colored silk, and suspended from tho wall by three ribbon loops; at tho top are em broidered two interlaced pipes, and below, in the centre, is a band of stiff material, divided, and strongly stitched into compartments, through which aro placed tho handles of the pipes. Wo havo lately seen tho following directions for making a clothes-bag, said to bo much prized by gentlemen : A bag mado of two yards of chintz is divided by a third yarcf, which is gathered on a strip of wood and fast encdwell to the sides and across tho top; tho openings aro made lengthwise on each sido of tho bag, and it is hung by a ring in tho centre. Such a bag is especially valuable to thoso who occupy small rooms. A pretty smoking set may be made by taking an earthen cigar set, consisting of a tray, cigar-holder, match-holder and ash-receiver, and decorating them with simplo black lines and dots, copying from somo Egyptian and Grecian vasc3, leaving the pot teryuncolorcd for background. Or you might with advantago uso flowers against a back ground of sepia, black and cobalt mixed with white; or you might paint littlo landscapes in medallions at unequal distauces, having tho pottery for tho background. The Hungarian peasants havo a curious and artistic way of making reticules, handkerchief cases, and other articles. They collect fungi and fashion all sorts of designs out of them leaves, fruits and flowers. They then mount them upon colored satin, or dark leather, 2nd work round tho leaves in silks, marking out tho veins in steel beads. They placo little tinsel circles around tho edges to form a sort of border, and add tassels of bright-colored silks at the corners. To the Editor Xmox.v, Tnincxn: I havo been reading with much interest your paragraphs on Color in Bres3. 1 think that thtso hints may bo meeting the, perhnps unconscious, nteds of many women, for it is certainly truo th.i nothing so mam feminine beauty as on indiscrimi nate Use of colors. Probably it would bo both un wise and impracticable wholly to imitate tho col ors in vogue among the old masters, but I havo been thinking that it would at least bo interesting reading, if your Drawer would supply us with a series of letters describing the colors and their ar rangement, in some of the mpst noted of classical paintings. To your city readers, who have oppor tunities for art study, sucli a series might not bo of as much value as it would be to those who, with n natural lovo for art. live far-romoved from facili ties for its study, and it is in behalf of the latter that I write. Very truly, yours, A. N. Dexvek, Col. SONGS OF THE CAMP. The Blao Coat of tho Soldier. By Bishop Burgess. You asked me, little one, why I bowed. Though never I passed the man beforo; . Because my heart was full and proud When I saw the old blue coat he wore. Tbt- blue great-coat, tho sky-blue coat. The old blue coat tho soldier wore. J knew, not I. what weapon he chose, What chief he followed, what badge he wora; - Enough for mc, that in front of foes His country's blue great-coat ho wore. Tho blue gTcat-coat, &c. Perhaps he was born in a forest hut, Perhaps ho had danced on a palace floor; To want or wealth my eyes were shut I only marked the coat ho wore. The blue great-coat, &c. It mattered not mnch if he drew his line ' From Shcm or Ham in the days of yore ; For surely he was a brother of mine Who, for my sake, the war coat wore. The blue great-coat, &c He might have no skill to read or write, Or he might be rich in learned lovo; But I knew he could make his mark in a fight, And nobler gown no scholar wore Than the blue great-coat, &c. It may be he could plunder and prowl. And pcrliaps in his mood he scoffed and swore, But I would not guess a spot so foul On tht honored coat he so br&vely wore. The blue great-coat, &c He had worn it long and borne it far; And perhaps on the red Virginia shors, From midnight chill till the morning star, That worn great-coat the sentry wore. The blue great-coat, &c When hardy Butler reined his steed Through the streets of proud, proud Baltimore Perhaps behind him, at his need, Marched he who yonder blue coat wore. The blue great-coat, &c. Perhaps it was seen in Eurnside's ranks When the Knppabannock ran dark with gore; Perhaps on'tho mountain side with. Banks In tho burning sun no more he wore -The blue great-coat, &c Perhaps in the swamp 'twas a bed for his form, From the seven days' battling and marching soro; Or with Kearney and Popo. 'mid the steely storm, As the night closed in, that coat he wore. The blue greut-coat, &c. Or when'perchance as Jackson dashed, That collar or cape somo bullet tore; Or when far ahead Antietnm flashed, He Hung to the ground the coat he wor. The blue great-coat, fcc. Or stood nt Gettysburg, where tho graves Rang deep to Howard's cannon roar; Or saw with Grant the unchained waves, Where conquering hosts the bluo coat wore. The bluo great-coat, Scc. That garb of honor tells enough, Though I its story guess no more; The heart it covers is made of such stun The coat Is mail which that soldier wore. The blue great-coat, &c. He may hang it up when peace shall come, And the moths may flncl it behind the door, But his children will point when they hear a drum To the proud old coat their father wore. The blue great-coat, &c. And so, my child, will you and I, For whose fair home their Blood they pour, Still bow th-3 head as one goes by Who wears the coat that soldier wore. The blue great-coat, the sky-blue coat, The old blue coat the soldier wore. Tlie above lines were written by Eihop Burges3, of Maine, aud contributed by him to a book published nnd sold at a Talr in li.:ltimore, for the leneiit of the soldiers during the war, by the loyal women of Maryland. "oi bavins; seen them in print since, and thinking it may please my old comrades, as well as show the people of to day what the feelings wen; towards the soldier in those dark days, I have reproduced them as near as I can re member, and ead them to you for publication in Tub TniEUNn. Yours, in F. C. & L. J. W. Buker.of J, S. Sampson Post, iNo. 31, G. A. I-, Milo, Me. An Episode. By Walter Learned. . . With never n word she passed me by. With never a look or a wgn ; ' f- Sho silently went her way, and I As silently went on mine. No one could have breamed who saw her face, As we so coldly met. That her heart was touched by the faintest trace Of memory or regret. Nor do I think that one apart. Who watches my tranquil brow, Whould have guessed that tho memory stirred my heart Of a faithless, broken vow. And they needn't have guessed or wondered, you see. For this was tho reason why I didn't know her, aud she didn't know me, And so sho passed me by. Baby. By Emily Himlington Miller. Now what shall we do for the baby, To mnkc her a birthday sweet? She came in tho wintry weather. In blustering wind and sleet. There is not a flower in the garden. There is not a bird to sing. And all in a row on the leafless vine " - The sharp whito icicles cling. - - Oh, what does it matter to baby I Her world is warm :u a nest ; The song that her mothdr sings her Is the music she loves best. She laughs to hear in tho twilight Tho bleak wimts whistlo and blow, And the small whito icicles swing and ring Like crystal bells in a row. Harper's Young People, Our Progress. As stages aro quickly abandoned with tho completion of railroads, so the huge, drastic, cathartic pills, composed, of crudo and bulky midicines, are quickly abandoned with the in troduction of Dr. Pierce's "Pleasant Purgativa Pellets," which aro sugar-coated, and littlo larger than mustard seeds, but composed of highly concentrated vegetable extracts. By druggists.