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The National tribune. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1877-1917, January 24, 1884, Image 1

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ESTABLISHED 1877.-NEW SERIES.
WASHrnGTOIT, D, 0., THURSDAY, JANUARY 24, 1884.
YOL. m-ffO. 24.-WH0M T0. 128.
Gil ft 0. HOWARD'S
Personal BkiswaeeB of :ths War of
FAIR OAHS A-GAI3ST,
Ar.d
the BTJUiant Close of
Second Day's Fight.
tlie
A LOST OPPO&TUlSITy.
McClellaia's Mistake Scene in j
a Field Hospital.
Jt ifpjer-Qmrral 0. 0. Hovrard, U.S. A.
loervat wn:u.-alt. eiokss juseevxd. I
XIV,
The time xeqitireft to march from Sunmors
iowcr bridge acfof 'fha Oiickaftorainy to the
uppsjr, the increaaefl 3ifficaris Sa crossing tie
river and wading tbtseagh the borderiug
Bwaiaf), luttught ray brigade to tbo e!d two
Ijoims latr tkau Seagwick's. As we emerpeil
int l&e taniug a half mile from Fair Oaks
Siafcfon ere was a thick mist Betting in,
ana a eloniy sky over onr heads. You could
not idlstiagaisli a man from a lorse at a great
aMance. Tho firing was coarly over. Our
sdvaacc Jbaving readied Fair Oalrs Station,
Licutonant HJles, my aid-de-campi who had
gone to Jticliardson for orders, met me at the
edge of the low field over which the enemy had
charged and Sedgwick's men had counter
charged. Miles said, "This waj General. You
had Abettor -dismount and lead your liorses, for
the dead and wounded are here!" A singular
feeling- a mingling of sorrow and shrinking
crept over me as I put my feet on the soft
ground aad followed the young officer. Ambu
lances and stretchers were in motion; friends
were searching for faces they hojed not to find
among the dead and wpunded; the cry of
delirium, the call of the Helpless, the silence of
the slain, the hum of distent voices, the mur
mur of the advancing brigades, with an occa
sional exchange of shots between the hostile
lines, not omitting the neighing of the horses
and the shriller and prolonged calling of the
mules, and soon the moving lauterns guiding
the bearers of wounded men to the busy sur
geons all these things have left a strange im
pression upon my mind. O, deliver me from
following in the wake of warl
"We may agree with Sherman when lie said
that war is cruel; you cannot refine it!
A T0DC3IIKO IKCIDENT.
The call of one poor fellow a SBssissippian
who, cold from the approach of death, kept
yiHg, "Ohsir, kind sir, come to me!" still
rings la my ear. But his gentle speech, "Oh,
Kir,"Iwassoeold! Fm cold stall, "but a kind
gentleman from Massachusetts spread his blan-
kctoverme!" tells Its story of forgiveness
a forgiveness always sweet and touching, even
&t the eleventh hour.
"We silently went to our allotted lines, did
our work, read our instructions, prepared our
orders for others, and then, full of Hopes and
apprdheasions, and I believe some trust in God,
lay down in groups to dream sweetly of home
nd friends, eren amid all the horrors of this
oarliattiefiold. Thus we waited for a morning
that we believed woald certainly at last fetch
-us the decisive and, maybe, the last great
6trcgg!ef the war. We did not then know
that Joe Johnston Had been twice badly
wounded andcarried off at once to Bichmond,
sor realize the iffect that the Hold Sumner, by
His swift and timely movement, Had- already
produced among Confederate officers and men.
General G. W. Smith, being 3eft by Johnston
to command the field and finish the Yankees,
Had indeed a Harder task to perform than
Meade, who suddenly replaced Hooker in tlte
ml dsfcof she Gettysburg campaign, had to there
meetand withstand Robert E. Lee.
"VTcTnay Safer the astounding effect produced
upon the Confederate army an army till
I o'clock of this eventful day, hearty, strong,
confluent, jnMantr by the sudden, unexpected
and overwhelming breach made by Sumner and
Conch, irwu Ibis summary of the new Confed
ite commander; "It was already noticeable
that tlie enemy aimed at this line. The gen
erals of brigades, colonels, and other command
ing officers were Htboring nnder great disad
advantagos, the thickness of the woods and
undergrowth and the smoke preventing them
from 9Ctng more than a very limited number
of i&cirnien at any one time, while the roar of
muakatry was almost deafening. Very seldom,
if ever, did any troops in their first battle go
Eoclcse op to a covered lino nnder so strong
&, fire, and remain within such sHort distance
olong a time.
THE COXTEDVXJLTZ LUTES.
"Various attempts were made to charge the
enemy, but -without ihat concert of action
almost accessary to success, and the gallant
spirits who attempted it were, very many of
them, shot down, when the rest would fall back
into the lino and resume the firing.
In this engagement, wHich lasted about an
Hoar and a half, the four brigades of my di
vision the Slh, temporarily attached, Smith
omits lost in killed, wounded and missing
1,283, of wHom 164 were killed, 1,010 wounded
and 109 missing. Brigadier-General Hatton
was killed. Brigadier-General Pettigrcwwas
severely wounded and taken prisoner. Brigadier-General
Hampton was seriously wounded,
Hut was able to keep His horse, and refused to
leave the field. Surgeon E. S. Gsillard, medi
cal director of my command, extracted the ball
from General Hampton's wound under the
close and Heavy fire of the enemy. His Horse
was shot under Him just before he dismounted
to perform tho operation. In a few minutes
He rejoined me, and was almost Immediately
afterwards severely wounded in the right arm,
wHich Had to be amputated. The
personal bearing and conduct of the lamented
General Hatton upon the field was gallant,
aoble, and, true to His High social and official
character. Ho fell while bravely and skillfully
leading His Hrigade in the extreme front of tHe
Hattlc.
"General Hampton, on this as on many pre
vious occasions, was remarkablo for coolness,
promptness, and decided practical ability as a
leader of men in difficult and dangerous cir
cumstances. In these High characteristics of a
feaeral He Has few equals and, perhaps, no
ajserior. I Had every opportunity for forming
s opinion ia regard to tho condcefc of btu
of these brigade commanders in tho imnicdiato
prestmco of the enemy.
"Thechivalricaud accomplished rettigrcw
wont forward into action with that high, hope
fnl, and enthusiastic courage which so strongly
marks His character as an officer. Suppos
ing himself to bemortally wounded, Ho refused
to allow his men to leave the ranks for the
purpose of carrying him to tho rear. Becoming
insensible, he was restored to consciousuess to
find Himself a prisoner in tbo hands of the
enemy. They could never have taken him
alive in any other manner.
OH, FOll ANOTHER HOUB!
"Just before dark three fresH brigades were
ready to move forward into close action. By
this time, too, the strong position - the enemy
had defended was better understood, and there
is no reason to doubt that Hood's brigade of
Texans, ujron the right, and Griffith's, of Mis
sissippiaus, on the lclt, supported by the brigade
of General Semraes, would have enabled us in
one short hour more of dajlight to drive the
enemy into the swamps of the Chickahominy.
As It was, darkness compelled us to relinquish
an unfinished task, and the troops wero with
drawn from the wooded swamp immediately
in contact with the enemy, and bivouacked in
the open field within musket range of their
strong defensive position without molestation."
JTfce battle of the next day showed General
Smith's sanguine hope and confident boast to
Have been aot well founded. " Knowing that
General Johnston's intention had been- to
strike a prompt, hard blow early in the morn
ing, and press the enemy rapidly, in order to
finish the work be.ore their troops conld bo
re-enforced on this side of the swollen Chicka
hominy, and then return to our position pro
tecting Biehmoud before they could make a
counter attack against tho city in our rear, I
felt that tho lato hour at which our attack was
made, allowing the enemy to bo re-euforced
and diminishing the time for our operations,
had materially interferred with the full execu
tion of the plans of the general, and, although
we Had driven tho enemy back at all -points,
our success, checked on the approach of dark
ness, was but part of what been hoped for.
Gen. Longstreet was directed to pusH
His successes of the previous day as far as prac
ticable, pivoting his movement upon the posi
tion of General Whiting, on his left. The lat
ter was directed to make a diversion in favor
of General Xrfmgstreet's real attack, and, if
pressed by the enemy, hold at all Hazards the
fork or junction of the New Bridge and Nine
Mile roads."
A XXT0RAI. HETICESCE.
There is the merest reference in nearly all
the Confederate accounts to the battle of the
1st day of June, in the neighborhood of Fair
Oaks. We have seen our lines in fair order
Sedgwick, Couch, Bschardson, Kearney, Hooker,
from rightto left, holding the line parallel with
therailwaand near it, with a good right flank
close to Sedgwick, well supported north and
east of Fair Oaks Station ; an impregnable left
nearly at Tight anglo with the railway, and
beyond it "impregnable," Kearney thought.
Parts of Couch and Casey,-reorganized, iuade
-good strong reserves for the .left wing." " Long-
street in the morning found the enemy in very
large force." Sure enough, and it is not strange
that He could not spare even Huger's division,
and that after awhile General G. W." Smith was
obliged to give Him three additional brigades,
and yet the heaviest fighting was not over
there in front qf Longstreet.
General JoHnston, absent, wounded, disposes
of ns very tersely: "On the morning of Juno
1st the enemy attacked the brigade of General
Pickett, which was supported by that of Gen
eral Pryor. The attack was vigorously repelled
by these two brigades, the brunt of the action
falling on General Pickett. This was the last
demonstration made by the enemy. Our troops
employed the residue in securing and bearing
ofi" the captured artillery, small arms, and
other property, and in the evening quietly re
turned to their own camps."
THE FEDEBAI. POSITION.
Let us look into this subject a little more
closely. My division commander, the indom
itable General Bichardson, had arranged his
command at the first to the left of Sedgwick,
facing west, front line along the West Point
railroad, all with rather a narrow front. When,
readjusted, there were four deployed Tegiments
of General French the 63th New York, Colo
nel Pinckney, on the right, near to Sedgwick's
left; the '57th New York, Colonel Zook; the
53d Pennsylvania, Colonel Brooke, and the
32d New York, Colonel Frank. The 5th New
Hampshire, Colonel Cross, one of my regi
ments, had been put out well to the front of
this line of regiments for skirmishers and as
an advance-guard. Cross was closer to the
enemy tHan anybody dreamed of.
My remaining three, from right to left, the
C4th New York, Colonel Parker; tho 6
Colonel Barlow, and the 81st Pennsylvania,
Colonel Miller, formed the second lino a few
Hundred yards back. General Meagher, with
three regiments, made a third line. Hazzard's
and Pettit's batteries wero placed on convenient
knolls near tho front line of French and
Sedgwick. Thus wo stood ready for work
Hefore 5 a.m.
Colonel Cross, with his regiment had
during the night strange bod-fellows. Close
along his front, bivouacked, within half musket
shot, the 2d and 5th Texas and tho 2d Missis
sippi. Some men from them, bewildered,
wandered into our midst and became prisoners.
But finding themselves too near for comfort,
these regiments were quietly drawn back before
the dawn. Only an occasional shot was heard
till about 5 o'clock. Among the prisoners taken
by Cross was an orderly of General Pryor,
bearing a dispatch from Pryor to Anderson.
After Cross had Bent Him to General Sumner
He straitened His line and moved it forward
into the woods beyond the railro:yl, and had
before him a good covering of skirmishers.
Captain Hazzard, division chief of artillery,
found a place near the railroad station to the
right of onr division for his artillery, where
he by a cross fire defended all tho open spaces
over which the enemy must approach us.
Pettit's and French's batteries .were spread out
under as good temporary cover as possible, in a
front line, Hazzard's own Eegular artillery at
first in reserve.
THE TTEST 5J11UII.
The first brash came, as I intimated, at 5
o'clock. It was a smart reveille to 'the whole
command.
First a Hrisk skirmish, a few bullets whiz
zing through tho tree-tops. Cross got ready.
Hazzard, Pottit and Frank were watching
with good field-glasses. There was always a
queer thrill of interest at suck a time. Thi3
movement proved, after all tho noieo and
bustle, but a reconnaissance. G. W. Smith was
Vonlirmcil mi SIJijhisc.
THE NATION.
The Story of the' War Retold for Our
Boys and Girls.
JFAH-AWAT MISSOURI;
And the Conflict for the Fosses-
sion of Her Soil.
GEN. IVYON'S HEROISM.
The Battle of Wilson's Creek
and its Weighty Results.
By "Carldon."
COPYEIGniED. ALL KIGETS RESERVED.
VIII.
To the Boys anil Girls of th. United Stales:
It is a long distance from Washington to St.
Louis. Missouri was so far away, and Presi
dent Lincoln and the Secretary of War had so
many things on hand, that they could give lit
tle'atteution to affairs one thousand miles dis
tant. '
"I want more troops," was tho request of
General Lyon at St. Louis. He could not ob
tain them, but he was not the man to sit down
and do nothing. He would do wha'fc he could.
Ho went up the Missouri on steamboats, with
the few troops he had, took possession of the
capital at Jefferson, pushed on to Booneville,
where tho Confederate troops wero gathering.
There was a skirmish, in which a dozen or
more Dnion soldiers were killed. The Confed
erates fled, hastening south toward Arkansas.
POLITICAL SENTIMENTS.
In order to comprehend the war what it
was, how different from most great wars wo
are to keep ever in mind the fact that it was
not between two countries, but between two sec
tions of one country. We must remember that
in such States as Missouri and Kentucky, which
Held slaves, there were a great many people
who did not know their own minds. They did
not want to decide against the Union, nor did
they want to go against their own State. Such
men are always greatly influenced by the suc
cess of one party or the other. General Lyon
knew this, and pushed on after the retreating
Confederates almost to the southwestern cor
ner of the State.
Jefferson Davis and the Confederate govern
ment were quick to act. Missouri was a great
State. Its lands were fertile. Many of the
people outside of St. Louis favored the South
ern cause. The State mnst be saved to the
Confederacy. Orders wero sent to General Mc
Culloch to assemble aU tho troops he could get
from Arkansas. General Sterling Price joined
him with the Missouri troops. A regiment
was sent from Louisiana up the Mississippi.
He had fifteen cannon and 20,000 men a
force large enough, it was hoped, to sweep the
Union army out of the State.
Let us see, if we can, what motives actuated
these twenty thousand men one-half of them
Missouriaus, for, in that way, we shall best
comprehend the meaning of the war. They
were American citizens. They believed that
the Slate was more than the Nation.
They took up arms in defense of what they
called the rights of tho State, but now the cur
rent of events has made them soldiers of tho
Confederacy. They have left their farms on
the banks of the Missouri, their Hemp and to
bacco fields, to figkt for an idea. Victory will
carry them back to their homes. Defeat will
make them exiles. Loyalty to ie idea of
State rights, determination to recover what
they "have lost, will nerve them in battle.
They bate the Union troop3, especially the
German soldiers. They regard them as " Dutch
men," who love sauer kraut and lager beer.
They regard the soldiers from Iowa and Kan
sas, in General Lyon's army, as Yankees, who
prevented the Missourians" from taking their
slaves into Kansas, and who made it a free
Slate. There are old scores to be settled. They
will sweep "Lincoln's hirelings" out of the
State and make it solid for the ponfederacy.
UNION TIU1EE MONTHS' MEN.
To understand the trials and troubles which
beset President Lincoln when the war began,
we must remember that, under the Constitu
tion of the United States, the President cannot
call upon troop3 to do military service for more
than three months without authority from
Congress. The wise men who framed the Con
stitution knew that standing armies wero
dangerous to liberty, and they would not give
tho President a chance to become a dictator
through a great army. The time of the three
months' men under General Lyon was expiring.
In a few days his little army would melt away,
the men returning to their homes, and Gen
eral McCulloch would then have things as ho
pleased. All that had been accomplished would
be lost The farmers of all Southwestern and
Central,Missouri would think that the National
Government was weak; that tho Confederate
government was strongest, and would join it.
A BEAVE BESOLVE.
What Bhonld be dono? General Lyon was a
brave man. He had only 5,500 troops. Their
clothes were worn out. Many wero barefoot.
Their guns wore poor. Tho Government had
paid them nothing. It was August 8th. On tho
14th tho time of tho three months' men would
expire.
General McCulloch was at Wilson's Creek,
ten miles southwest of SpringGeld, with a force
three times greater than the Union troops.
Would it not bo better to march to Wilson's
Creek and attack Him, make a bravo fight and
lose tho battle, than do nothing and see his
little army dissolve, like a snow-flake in water,
before the week was out? It is only a brave
heart that can deliberately plan and execute
such a movement.
General Lyon called his colonels to his tent.
"Gentlemen," ho said, "our supply of pro
visions is short There is ;i superior force in
front. It is reported that General Hardee,
with 9,000 menis marching to gain our rear.
It is evident that wo must retreat. What is
tho uest method of doing it? Shall wo run the
risk of having to fight our way every inch, or
shall wo Sttack and hurt, the enemy so that he
cannot follow us. I am in favor of tho latter
plan. Wo shallmarch this evening."
THE MAUCH.
It is midsummer. Tho sun has gone down ;
the stars are shining. Tho day has been Hot
and sultry, but the niglit is cool and refresh
ing. The soldiers eat their supper; tho bat
tery horses munch their corn. At 9 o'clock
the bugles sound, and tho artillerymen jump
upon their scats. Tho drums tap ljghtly, and
tho soldiers fall into line. The columns wheel
into the road one, under General Sigcl, with
six guns, taking a road which leads south ; tho
other, under General Lyou, tho road leading
southwest. General Sigcl is" to attack tho right
flank and rear of the Confederates, while Gen
eral Lyon is to hurl his troop3 upon their
front. '
THE TROOPS.
General Lyon had in his column the 1st
Missouri, 1st Iowa, 1st and 2d Kansas regi
ments, two companies of tho 2d Missouri rifle
men, eight companies of United States Eegu
lars, ten cannon, two companies of cavalry
4,000 in all.
Colonel Sigcl had the 3d and otk Missouri
regiments, six cannon and two companies of
cavalry. Colonel Slgel was to make the attack,
and when General Lyon heard the sound of his
cannon he-was to attack in front.
If any of the boys who follow this account
have read How Washington crossed tho Dela
ware Biver and marched to Trenton by one
road while General Sullivan marched by
another road, they will recognize a similarity
between the two movements, with this differ
ence: Washington's movement was in mid
winter, and tho bare-footed soldiers left blood
stains on tho nowlyfallen snow, while this
march was in mid-summer. Washington was
to attack tho moment ho heard tho sound of
Sullivan's guns. It was in tho dim gray of
morning that the thunder of Sullivan's cannon
awoke the slumbering Hessians. It was early
dawn when tho artillery sent their first shells
into tho camp of McCulloch's troops.
THE BATTLE.
Wilson's Creek is a -small stream winding
amid swells of cleared land, with here and
there a wooded slope. There was a corn-field
in a ravine, near General McCulloch's camp,
which was on a ridge, near the creek.
The morning was dawning. Some of the Cone
federate soldiers were asleep, others were re
kindling their fires and putting their frying
pans upon the coals, cutting slices of ham for
their breakfast, when tiey heard a rattling of
musketry a mile away and wondered what it
meant. A picket came running in. "The
Yankees aro coming," ho shouted. "Turn,
out!" shouted an officer. "Is the order offi
cial?" asked an Arkansas colonel.
"Bang!"
It was a shell exploding above Him.
" That is official, I reckon," ho said.
Tho drums beat the long roll; the bugles
Eoundcdt Frying-pan were tossed aside. Sol-,
dlers ran hither and thither. The regiments
formed in hot haste; for General Lyon was
driving in the pickets. Captain Totten's bat
tery was sending its shells into camp froi tho
north, and Sigel's guns wero opening from the
east. s
We see General LyonT line sweeping down"
tho road, tho battalion olBegiilars, under Gap?
tain Plummer, in advac. Major Qsterhaus
coinmands the skirmfstJl un H'rijffr- Cap
tain To ttett wheels' hsfpi: cannon ihtoposi
tion, and the shells go hissing into the Confed
erate camp. Lieutenant-Colonel Andrews, with
the 1st Missouri, supports him. The 1st Kansa3
comes up on tho left. Up the ridge they drive
the Confederates.
sigel's advance.
Leaving-Gcneral Lyon's troops for a moment,
let us go through the woods southeast to tho
other road, on which Sigel is moving. His two
companies of cavalry are in advance. In the
dim gray of the morning the cavalrymen see
Confederate so'ldiers coming down tho road
from their camp, with pails and kettles, on
their way to the creek for water. Tho cavalry
men sweep into the fields, ride around them,
and the Confederates suddenly discover that
they are prisoners.
The troops press on. They can see the wliite
tents of the Confederates on the slope of a
hill. The smoke is curling up from tho camp
fires. Sigel whirls four cannon into position
and opens fire. There is a sudden commotion.
Some of the Confederates flee, panic-stricken,
through tho fields. Far better for Sigcl far
better for tho fortunes of tho day, if, instead
of firing, ho had. pressed on with his troops;
then he could Have captured many prisoners.
Tho 3d and 5th regiments crossed the creek
and took possession of the camp. He had fallen
upon the commissary department of the Con
federate army. Around, the camp wero quar
ters of beef hanging on stakes andpole3. There
was a corral of cattle, another of hofees.
Tho Confederate troops had fled, but they
wore rallying on another hill. Sigel brought
up his cannon and once more opened fire. He
could hear the uproar on the other road- grow
ing louder and coming nearer. Lyon was ad
vancing. Looking across tho hills towards the
northwest he could eco the battle-cloud rising
above the tree-tops. General Lyon is driving all
beforo him, was tho thought that came to him.
THE GREAT MISTAKE.
" Lyon's men are coming up the road towards
us," said Sigel's skirmishers.
Lieutenant-Colonel Albert, commanding the
3d Missouri regiment, and Colonel Salomen,
commanding the 5th, saw a brigade of troops
coming through tho fields. Above them floated
tho stars and stripes. Tho color-bearor was
waving it as a signal to them not to fire.
" They are Lyon's troops. Don't fire ! " said
the officer. The men stand at case. The ad
vancing lino halts. Suddenly muskets fiamo.
and shells from a battery crash. througH tho
woods.
" They are Lyon's troops firing on us !" Tho
cry runs along tho'f inc. Up, almost to the muz
zles of Sigel's cannon, Toah tho Confederates,
shooting horses, capturing fivo' of tho guns,
killing and wounding nearly 300 men. Back
through tho fields flee Sigel's troop3 their part
in the battle ended.
THE CONFEDERATES.
- Passing over now fo' the Confederate camp
wo see General McCulloch- marshalling his
forces. It is half-past five whon the rattle of
musketry breaks on the skirmish-line.
In front of flio position where General Lyon
is advancing aro 'the troops commanded by
Generals Slade, Clark, McBride, Parsons and
Eainsv They file toward tho left. Captain
Woodruff, with his sis cannon, comes. into
position and replies to Totten's guu3. These
are all Missouriaus. Colonel Herbert, with his
Louisiana regiment, and Colonel Mcintosh's
Arkansas regiment join them marching up
to a rail fence inclosing the cornfield coming
against thoBegulars under Captain Plummer
and the troops from Kansas.
Forward and backward, through the scrubby
oaks, surges the line of?battle the Confeder
ates greatly outnumbering, the Union troop3.
General MeClJoch;heiVrsH; the -thundering
of Sigel's guns uponf-Hi3 re'-Tho Confed
erate soldiers in front of Sigel aro fleeing.
Leaving General Sterling Price in command
of the troops in front of Lyon, ho marches'
cast with Churchill's and Greer's regiments of
Missourians, two companies of Louisiana troops
and Eeid's" battery.
General McCulloch, in His report of the bat
tle, makes no mention of the way in which ho
deceived SigeJ by marchiug with tho stars and
stripes, but, nevertheless, according to Sigel's
account, under its protecting folds ho advanced
close up to the unsuspecting troops before open
ing fire at a volley putting Sigel to ronfc and
enabling McCulloch to wheel about and march
back to confront Lyon, who is driving all be
fore him. Ho finds tho Missourians - falling
back, Tho hill on which they have stood is
thickly strown with the dead and dying. Tho
battlo is going against the Confederates on tho
left. McCulloch throws in Carroll's, Greer's,
Mcintosh's and the Louisiana regimen t3. These
are not enough. General Tearce's brigade, tho
last reserve, 3 called upon. Beid's battery
comes to take part.
-THE UNION ARIinr.
Once more let us gp back to tho Union lines.
From a hill overlooking tho field where the
Confederates are standing amid tho sheltering
corn-rows, Captain DeBois hurls his shells,
making terrible havoc in their ranks. Cap
tain Totten's pieces aro still thundering. Tho
Missourians in Lyon's regiments look across
the space between the two lines and see old ac
quaintances in tho Confederate ranks. The
Confederates recognize them in turn.
There are no hatreds like those engendered
by civil war. Old-time friends become Impla
cable enemies, ready to fight to the bitter end.
Some of General Lyon's Tegiment3 have fired
away all their ammunition. A soldier of a
Missouri regiment has fired the last bullet that
will fit his gun, but Ha3 some of large size. He
sits down beneath a tree and begins to whittle
them.
"What are you doing?" asks an officer.
"Whittling the bullets to fit my gun."
"Don't stop to do that. Look into the cartridge-boxes
of the men who have been killed;
you will find some that will fit yonr gun."
In a few moments the brave fellow 13 load
ing and firing once more.
Colonel Gordon Granger 13 on General Lyon'3
staff. Ho is cool and brave. .. There is a gap
between two regiments. He looks over to the
Confederate line and discovers a. regiment pre
pared, to rush in. He bring3 three companies
into the intervening space. "Lie down in the
grass. Don't show yourselves. Wait till I give
the word," are His orders. The men lie low.
Up tho slope marcH the Confederates. Tkey
are only 150 feet distant.
"Fire!"
There is a blaze and rattle, and. a score of
Confederates reel to the earth. Back over the
field fleo the living.
GENERAL LYON'S DEATH.
General Lyon's horse Has been killed ; a bul
let Has wounded him in the leg ;v another Has
stVo.ck his Head. Blood stains.-are on His iace.
!& Ha3' pnt.Hfe last. Httslcst isic-?-vi&..
Airogetncr he has but'a Handfitl ofTbrc.sv
Sigel is routed. McCulloch i3 bringing np
every Confederate soldier, outnumbering him
three to one. He sees that the chances of vic
tory aro fast fading.
"I fear the day is lost," He says, but mounts
another horse and rides along tho line, swing
ing his hat, and encouraging the men. They
rally round him, and follow Him into the thick
of the fight. A bullet pierces his breast. The
brave man falls from his horse dead. Tho
army has lost its great-hearted leader. Only
those around Him know of it. Though dead
His bravery Has so stirred the soldiers that for
another half hour the fight goes on. The troops
are melting rapidly away.
It is half-past eleven. For five Hours the
battle has raged. All night long the men were
on the march. They have had no breakfast.
They are hungry, thirsty, faint, weary. Not
withstanding this, once more they charge the
advancing Confederates and drive them back.
They have attacked, and driven tho enemy,
but they cannot hold the field. There is but
one thing to do retreat.
They have fought a brave battlo. One-fifth of
those engaged have been killed or are wounded.
The battle is lost, but they Have struck
such a blow as will make it, in its moral
effect, a victory. Out of it will come a taking
of sides Hy the people of Missouri ; thousands
of men wavering before the battle, after it
deciding to stand by the Union.
He "Placed tlie Blanket Under Gen. Howard's Head.
To tho Editor National Tribune:
General Howard's "Eeminiscences of the
War of the Behellion " have afforded me muck
pleasure. They carry meback nearly twenty-two
years and over roads which I also have had tho
pleasure or misfortune to travel. I learned to
admire the general from reputation long before
I saw him, which I did only onca beforo Fair
Oaks. I know he desires to bo absolutely cor
rect in His statements, and as, no doubt, tho
articles in your valuable paper aro in the
futuro to appear in book form, he will doubt
less review and revise them. As to tho rain at
the time of tho capture of Yorktown, I neither
saw nor felt any on Sunday, tho 4th. I dis
tinctly remember that night. In an old corn
field, where grass had covered furrow and hiu
for some years past, I placed my rubber
blanket between two rows, using a stone for a
pillow, and lay down about 9 p. m. to sleep,
covering myself with a blanket and overcoat.
About 3 a. m., after turning over in my sleep
several times, I awoke, feeling very uncom
fortable. A stream of water wa3 running be
neath me, and, thrusting my hand in my pants
pocket, as I lay upon my back, to get at some
of Virginia's natural leaf, I found both filled
with water. I quickly bounced out of there, I
assure you, and tho red mud and water gavo
mo a very sorry appearance, my men informed
me. Mine was the experience of many of tho
1st Long Island volunteers, Couch's division,
Keyes' corps, that night.
In speaking of tho cavalry attack on Forfc
Magrudor ou tho 4th, I think tho 1st United
States cavalry deserve some mention. I know
several of them who were there, and some who
came away with some of the Johnnies' ammu
nition in their persons, or suffered from the
effects thereof.
I havo seen the general but once sincere
was brought to a tent without an arm, and I
and another soldier placed a blanketand knap
sack boncath his head. I was then
V. M., Hodgson,
Co. B, 67th N. Y., or 1st L. I. Vols.
White Plains, N. Y.
Catarrh Cared.
A clergyman, after suffering a number of
years from f hat loathsome disease, Catarrh, af
ter trying every known remedy without suc
cess, at last found a prescription whlcli com
pletely cured and saved him from death. Any
sufferer from this dreadful disease sending a
self addressed stampled envelope to Dr. J. A.
Lawrence, 250 Schermerhorn St., Brooklyn,
Hew York, will xccei yo the recipe free of cHarge.
BATTLE OF PEA RIDGE.
Yan Dora's Plans for the Gajtnre of
Si Louis.
PURSUIT, OJT
GESF.
T
KEGEL
Position and Strength of
Contending Armies.
the
MOVING- INTO POSEEfOK
A Hotly Contested Battle Won
by the Valor of Union Troops.
While. Buell in Kentucky andGrant in Ten
nessee wero busy with plans to loosen the hold
of the Confederate army upon those States,
General Van Dorn, of the Confederate army,
was planning a campaign which .had for its
object the capture of St. Louis.
In obedience to orders from Bichmond he
assumed command of the trans-Mississippi dis
trict on the 29th of January, 18G2, comprising
tho States of Missouri, Arkansas, and Louisi
ana as far south as the Bed Biver, and the
Indian Territory west of Arkansas. Having
located his Headquartera at Pocahontas he an
nounced His staff in general orders, and at once
caUed upon tho commanders of troops within
His district for returns of the stations, numbers,
iand duties of the troops under their command.
The responses to this inquiry showed Colo
nel James Mcintosh in western Arkansas witk
two divisions numbering-10,433 j General Ben
McCulloch in command of two divisions
8,767 strong; General Sterling Price had in
Missouri near 10,000, and General Albert Piko'a
force of Indian cavalry was estimated at S,000.
In addition to this force of over 36,000, Van,
Dorn made a requisition upon the States of
Xexa3, Arkansas and Louisiana for several
regiments, which He hoped would by the open
ing of spring increase His force to 45,000.
On the 14th of February he sent the foUow
ing valentine to General Price:
Geseuai.: Ihav&thelionorto acknowledge the
receipt of your dispatch by the hands of Colonel
Taylor, your aid-cte-caap. I send orders in the
morning by express to General McCulloch to
send aU of his inamtry antler Colond-Mclntosh to
Springfield to report to yon. I presume (I have no
returns) that he has about 5,000 mem I had al
ready ordered General Pike to Mount Vernon, in
Iawrcnee county, with about 7.CC0 raen, mostly
cavalry, from Indian Territory. I am told by tho
general that most of these are half-breed Italians,
and good, reliable men. His force will be increased
by several regiments of Arkansas Inikntry now in
process of organization, also by two or three bat
teries of artillery.
General McCullocb. irith the cavalry, -will come
here, where I am. - "yng an army from Texas,
Arkansas, and JLoui. na; I hope 12,000 or 15,000
men or more. I U x of active measures being
taken in Arkansas o eomply with xay call for
10,000 men. Loius&r. : will probably send me -l,Q0Oy
Toms?vrrat,-'3Tvill give meith Mc-v.Ciaav'u'tJViVan-jraua-cCuneoiher
treses hera and
comipg;, say 1S,C00 men-at the MissotrriJne above
this point. Yon at Springfield ivill have of ilia -
WJET. S35-1S.C00 inert at the Miasourtvllnft slmm
soun troong. sav. 10.000 men bv the 1st of STnmTr
Mcintosh 5.000, Pike S,GCO in all 23,000 for defen
sive operations, or 15,000 for offensive operations
(Pike 3 command being intended for defense alone
or as a corps of observation on tho Kan3a3 border).
The above wilL bo onr probable force by the 1st
of April; at least I hope so. 1 design attempting
St. Louis. As soon as I can get my wing ready to
march from Pitman's Ferry 1 intend putting vonr
column in motion toward Saleni.in Dent county,
covering your object by moving your advance to
wards Holla. I will move so as to join you between
Salem and Potosi, leaving Ironton to my right.
These movements will be made secretly and rap
idly, without tents or baggage, except for the sick.
From the point of junction of the two columns I
will push on by rapid marches to St. Louis, and
attempt it at onee by assault. As we advance, the
bridges on the railroads from Sedalia, Eolla, and
Ironton will be destroyed, thus throwing the ene-"
my upon the wagon roads, and preventing him
from re-enfordng the city soon enough to oppose
us there.
This Eeems to me the movement best calculated
to win us Missouri and relieve General Johnston,
who is heavily threatened in Kentucky. Once in
the city of St. Louis, the railroads leading to it from
the cast should be at onco destroyed by our caval
ry as far a3 practicable : also the road tn Cnim
'We should fortify opposite, on the Illinois side.
ma ciiy once ours ine stale is ours, and tiie armies
of the enemy on her soil and in Kansas would sup
ply us with arms for her people, who would gather
to onr standard from the west and north.
WHAT HIS ANTAGONIST WAS DOING.
While the vivid imagination of Van Dorn
was tkus leading Him to Hope for a victorious
marcH througH Missouri to the commercial
metropolis of the State, General HaUeck, busy
with the campaigns of Forfc Donelson and
Island No. 10, Had transferred most of his
available troop3 to the commanders of his
armies at . those points, leaving witk Major
General Samuel B. Curtis, ia command of the
Army of Soutkwestcrn Missouri, but 12,000
men present for duty. His army was composed
of four divisions, comprising the following
regiments and batteries:
FIEST AND SECOND DIVISIONS.
Brigadier-General Franz Sigel.
First Division Colonel Peter J. Osterhaus.
First brigade I7th Missouri, 25th Illinois and
44th Illinois.
Second brigade (Colonel Nicholas Greusel) 12th
Missouri, 3Cth Illinois and Jenks' and Smith's
companies Illinois cavalry.
Artillery Missouri light artillery (Weliley's bat
tery) and 4th Ohio battery.
SECOND DIVISION.
Brigadier-General A. Asboth.
First Brigade (Colonel Frederick: Schncfer) 2d
Missouri and 15th Missouri.
Not brigaded 2d Ohio battery, Missouri" horse
artillery (1st flying battery), Benton Hussars (Mis
souri cavalry), and Fremont Hussara (Missouri
cavalry).
THIBD DIVISION.
Colonel JefT. C. Davis.
First brigade (Colonel Thomas Pnttlson) Sth
Indiana, 18th Indiana, 22d Indiana and 1st Indiana
battery.
Second brigade (Colonel Julius White) 37th Il
linois, 59th Illinois, 2d Illinois light artillery (bat
tery A), and 1st Missouri cavalry, detachment.
FOURTH DIVISION.
Colonel Eugene A. Carr.
First brigade (Colonel Grenville M. Dodge) 1th
Iown, 25th Illinois and 1st Iowa battery.
Second Brigade (Colonel William Vandcver)
9th Iown, Phelps' Missouri regiment, 3d Illinois
cavalry aud 3d Iowa battery.
TJnassigned Bowen's battalion Missouri caval
ry, 3d Iown cavalry, 3d Missouri infantry and 21th
Missouri infantry.
EVENTS PRECEDING THE BATTLE.
The State of Missouri, having declared for
the Union, lost no time in placing Herself in a
position to defend Herself against the predatory
incursion of Confederate troops under Price
and McCulloch, manjr of which, it is true, were
composed of her own citizens who-Had gone
South in search of their " rights." The, record
shows that by the close of the year 1881 tho
State of Missouri had, in active service in the
army of tho United States, one regiment of
engineors, seven regiments and seven bat
talions of cavalry, twelve batteries of artillery
and thirty-six regiments of infantry mustered
in for three years or during the war.
The pursuit of Pricoby General Curtis Had
involved a most laborious marck of two hun
dred and fifty miles and was attended with
continual exhibitions of toil, privations and
conflict, in wkick tho Army of Southwestern
Missouri gave promise of the splendid record
which, in other armies and under other com
manders, it waa to achieve befor the coHapso
of the Confederacy.
On the 30th of Jaaoaryt tho day succeeding
that on which Vait Dora assumed command,
of the tranMtssiaeippl dwtrict, Cofo&i Jeff,
C. Davis left Marseilles with a fcrigada of four
regiments far Springffekl, 4fo. H had. also,
two batteries and three companies ef cavalry.
Other forc3 moved forward aed combined a6
Lebanon under General Curtis. On the Ilth
of February this army, in thstse divisions,
commanded, by Colonel Jeff, a Darfe. Colonel
Carrand Geaeral 9igeJr movd ou ef Lebanon,
toward Springfield, whleh place, Ctsrtis occu
pied, after a- skirmiefr, en the evening of tho
13th. Geoerai Sterling- Price retreated and
General Curtis advanced aatiVon the 13tk,
Prico crossed tho Arkansas Hnc, several skir
mishes having taken place !a the mountain
defiles. On the iflfch, General Prieo having:
ocen re-onforeed by McCnitoch, made a staati
at Sugar Creek Crossing, but was. driven after
a brief engagement. Squada of recruits on
their Wav tn inin tho, fVn&Jt.
... .w vwulOTU,sll; Ujf ware
captured as that time, among wfcoex waa a sou
of the commanding officer, Coloael Ed.. Price.
On the 20th General Curtis attacked Price at
Cross HoHows, when Price agaia retreated,
leaving His 3ick aail wounded and such stores
as he ceukl nofc destroy. The Union troops had
for some time keij op the pursuit sa viserously
a3 to be compelled to subsist upon tie stores
captured from tho enemy, and the ocoupotioa
of Fayotteville, Ark., gave them possession of
a large quantity of prevfciocs left by tfio
enemy in their retreat over Beaten Moun
tains. Mfecreante In Price's array had
poisoned them. However, from tSe effects
of whick forty-two officers and men in tho
5tH Missouri infantry were made sick, of
whom several died. Several prfeeoera were
captured at the some time, and the comrades of
tho sick and dying men were wiH difficulty
prevented from retaliating in kind. On reach
ing Arknnsas the armyef General Price: ws3
soon re-enforced by Van Dora, as abeve stated.
POSITION- OF THS TTNIOJT XRiXX.
Knowing this fact, General Curtis selected
Sugar Creek as a strong position m whick to
meet the expected attack. Sigel'3 1st and
2d divisions, under OaterHaus and Asbothr
were four miles southwest of BentouvSIe, un
der general orders to move around to Sugar
Creek, fourteen miles east. The 3d division,
under Davis, wa3 stationed at Sugar Creek.
Carr's division was at Cross Hollows, twclva
miles from Sugar Creek, Curtis' whole force,
including cavalry aud Infantry, amounted to
10,500 men aud forty-nine pieces of artlBery.
The Confederate forces advancing- to meei
Him, under command of General Van Dorn,,
consisted of two corps, under command of
PrfceandMcCnlIcch,andabrigade of Choctaw,
Chickasaw and Creek Indian cavalry, com
manded by Albert Pike. The total strength, of
the Confederate array, as estimated by Vaa.
Dorn, was 16,000 meu present for duty.
The otk of JfarcH was. a cold, blustering dsv:
snow covered th ground,, and General Curtis,'
snased" 'm'WrifWriote-- inhKT?Saalrtr ?T
f - ""! wn..ng-,rnoF apprenepepof: id-
mediate attach, wassuddeuTy aroused" to a sens
of danger by a swift movement of manyfeeS
in the road outside his window. The Con
federates were coming, and fngifcive citizens
vied witk His own pickets in bringing the In
formation. Their infantry Had passed Fayette
vflle, and their cavalry would reach Elm
Springs, twelve miles distant from his camp,
that night. Witk a fall knowledge of the
situation of the Union army. Van Dom moved
with His whole force'upon Ben tonville, with tha
intention of cutting off Sigel's two divisions,
SIGEL. ET A TIGHT PLACE.
General Sigel, on receiving orders to march
both divisions to Sugar Creek, and Heeoming
aware of the perilous condition of his command
sent His cavalry to Osage Springs to cover Ms
right flank, and broke camp at 2 o'cloek In the
morning, intending,, by a rapid movement to
effect a junction with the main army a& Sugar
Creek. By a mistake, a part of His forca in
tended for a rear-guard moved to the front,
and his artillery was exposed to attack. There
wa3 no time to halt any portion of his com
mand, when, at 10 o'clock, this fact was com
municated to Him, and, riding hastily to the
rear, He madesucH disposition of the improvised
rear-guard of cavalry and infantry as to repel
attacks made upon it from the rear and both
flanks. In one of these attacks General Sigel
came near being captured. The lack of dis
cipline and perfect methods in tho Confederate
army interfered io prevent the consummation
of this weH planned scheme, and, after fivo
Hours constant skirmishing, General Sigel had
the satisfaction of uniting his divisions &t the
west end of Pea Bidge to those of Davi3 and
Carr.
PREPARING FOX BATTLE.
Meanwhile, General Curtis had baeu em
ployed in preparing earthwork defenses- and
cutting timber to obstruct thaFayettevillerroad,
not knowing that Price's corps was moving
around by a wide detour to attack him in.
the rear, while McCulloch was moving into
position to assail hl3 left flank. These move
ments occupied the whole of tho Sth, and
that night both armies rested upon their arms
In momentary anticipation of an attack. They
had marched all day through field and forest
and stream, and now, as they bivouacked upon;
the frozen ground, the great orchestra of na
ture began in the naked branches above their
heads the dirge for the fallen brave. Though
the season was the antipodes of that at Water
loo, tho lament of Childe Harold rises instinct
ively to' the mind:
"And Ardenes waves above them her green leaves,
Dewey with nature's tear drops as they pass.
Grieving, if aught inanimate ere grieves,
O'er the nnreturning brave.
Alas, ere evening to be trodden, like the grass.
Which, now beneath them, but above shall crow
In its next verdure, when this fiery muss
Of living valor, burning witn liigu Hopes,
Is mouldering, cold and low."
When daylight revealed tho position of the
contending armies, Price was found to occupy
tho road north of Curtis'' camp, where Van
Dorn had his headquarters. Opposed to him,
Curtis Had Davis', Carr's and Asboth's divis
ions. Three miles away, to Curtis rigbt,3igel,
with Osterhaus division, was confronted on.
the west by McCulloch and Mcintosh. Gen
eral Curtis was obliged at once to change fronfe
to the rear, forming- Hi3 line almost two miles
farther north, ou the brow of a raifcrc of hills
called Pea Eidge. Although forced -y Vau
Dorn's strategy to abandon his intrt.: :':ueat3V
the rugged and wooded hills still loft l aitis In
the best position, while the two wings of his
army, formed in nnmerical order from left te
right, fighting almost at right angles, and at
times nearly "back to back," enabled him. te
readily re-enforce the weak. points in His lines
THE BATTLK OF PEA KIDGE.
The kittle opened by an attack, on tfce right
the Union ImesncarilikhoriiTavwrBjWi
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