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The National tribune. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1877-1917, January 31, 1884, Image 1

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ESTABLISHED 1877.-NEW SERIES.
WASHEST&TON, D. 0., THURSDAY, JANUARY 31, 188-1
VOL. HI-NO. 25 -WHOLE m. 129.
ft
. , 4 - ,
d
3S
4F ?i S
IV
to
GEN'L .0. 0. HOWARD'S
:1 taistoafies tof the War of
ths RobaHion.
'era:
AFTER 3?AT!R OAKS.
Ths General's Journey Home
and Enthusiastic Welcome.
a chakse oit base.
MeCle II an's Retreat and Lee's
Lost Opportunity.
Jsi :ijcr-Gmcra 0. O. Z&wwd, U.S.A.
; i : vinTEo.-jox iumhtb kesctved.I
XV.
lacocvcrsmg wilhcommdesof ihcwar. with
rcgaal to events of twenty years ago, I notice
treat variation In 'their stories. It is exceed
ingly ditlicult to separate wbat we have seen j
iruia v- Lt Ave have heard ; -the memory is so
affected and stimulated by other faculties, that
it does not always bring to ns just tie facts
vithoat some modification or ornamentation.
There Is, liowcver, a good foundation for
every story, which roots itself in. an honest
rjind, td even if, like the narrations of an old
friend of my father's, the war stories which we
toll receive ,a Utile coloring here and there
from the iainghiaiion, still it is a good thing to
attempt conscJsntiBasiy to record thorn. Our
comrades will detect slight departures from
exactness, aafl will properly criticise and cor
rect er statements, so that, even in Tory per
sonal rocollecfious, wo may be mating valuable
contributions to history, and call forth frem
others most interesting items of experience.
We two wounded brothers were assisted into
s freight car at Fair Oaks. That ear and sev
eral others had that morning, the 9d of Junef
an unusual freightage. All the passeiigBrs,
save Captain Sewall and aa attendant, wore
wounded in one way or another; some in
the head, others in their arms, in their legs
and through otiser parts of the body.
Some were standing, some were sitting, and
many lying on the straw which covered the
floor of the car. Among the latter I noticed a
Bniilcof rocojaijtiim as I stepped through the
broad door. looking closely I saw that it was
from Major Fisk, the adjutant-general of Gen
eral Fren oil's brigade. He had been severely
Bounded in the leg, and when the car ineved j
be experienced, from the roughness of the -whose name I love to recall, I took a journey
Toad, no little pain ; still his cheerfulness, ox- 0f sxty mUcs. We went to the city of Port
Libiting itself in sprightly conversation, never la tended a large convention and partici
forsook Lira. Tt had, moreover, no little effect pated in its exercises.. The desire to hear from.
la cheering these around Mm who .were .in- J the field wasso 5reat Oat I could .ot resist
cAiBato.oeiO0iuyOTCiscourea. insert!
--. ,j...,.v .... ..-.., v.v
passed from Eairalcs to West Point.
The railway was not in very good condition,
and the freight was peculiarly sensitive and
precious, m that for humanity's sake the mo
tion of the train was not rapid. To me, ex
periencing pain from tie bruised nerves of lae
-wonnjted arm, ud frem the weakness incident
to the 16 of blood, it required considerable
fortitude to enfiurc tJse shaking of the car and
T?rL
to keep up, as happy a temper as my brother,
ray friend Aljgor Fisk,ad sevwal othte tonc
Touaded. I was glad enough -sv'niSn the
eieaattsr, which was destined to take ourcarso j
ti the doefc, Jwve in sight.
I lias been often asked this question:
"Wen u &Ue to wriie with jwir left hand
bt?'w)L jtu lost yiMirarm? Some comrades
uay r intcrestwl to taow ike anw, er. It is :
Ko; but I think the jwvrer of writing was
transit rr. d. for I wrote a kttcr to my home
12: e jtc'-hlI Juoruiag, iorty -eight hours after I
was y. ci.dtd."
A -E!'iaodiii ateiinier, the Kly Bal:er,
was I;-ji. at tie wfasrf in the neighborbood of
the fat.ijns WhiteNHcusc. to which ibe wound
ed raiv: j-iUitiiateJy tra-.ferrwd.
V RiUKO WiTU TUE LETT Jf A2fl.
Oft board were jht the supplies wo needed
for n r...h:aeniasd medicins, and I remember
at le-t '.arx- la uu;?s, -jflw recoiTed us
A.iaa ' , '.id wercatt' nt'vc to every want. As
&k i. I could gtt ixjn and ink I wrote with 1
3h$ h It baud Hie .IMlowing letter:
-HcAir ACTsai rr.AKER Xsxax Bxtnx,
V.'jutk JIui &: ljjzi.ia-
JiunMt myvfuyxrttit oulymyheH arai. SSwSl
rat to Frt SItKJJ lo-fax. . .and urobitblv to liaHi.
t;o;njf li.v to Kv Ydrfc from Fort ifourweto
cvoki outness.
CJrtic luutcnanl Howard) is very comfortable
and tfo m J. i4 1Mcb you imd Ike dhi!drcn.
fclia!i ttc you oou.
JdSve&tnMv&y, your htusbund,
One.
To litis letter a jtotrtseript v.ras written by
X.icutiat Howard before it left us for the
more tfpeedy mail. It is as follows :
Os Ksu.t JtAxmi&S a. ra JunoS.
Ham. StsntK; OniHalu HmvaH teivSUi ns.aml wo
are toile coinfortaUc. You wilt mo n at Auburn 1
toon. Millie is may s. iushi -Aonue in IJie thlcli.
C. 1L1
ir
Tho )ieuieafs we trlf nW wu
wound, butit-vvas so evcre that he had to be
carried fro place to place on a stretcher, and
was, iudjd, more tmublcsotne and roquired
more Kjue "for healing iltau my more showy
ampatetfion.
I am reciting those details as we give them
to oho anoi&or when wc rawt Net always for
ourselves, but 'because there is such a vast
number of wounded men in the land whose
scars-eau never be hidden, and whose suffer-j
jugs are never intermitted, being more or less
severe, and who must ever cajoy a sign of fel
low feeling and word of sympathy. To them I
extend tiic cordial greeting.
Year before, when a cadet at the Academy
at Wert Point, I bad a severe wound in the
Iirad, caused by a fall in the gymnasium. It
was followed by an attack of erysipelas, with a
prolonged illness. For some time my life was
dcsp:iired of. During all this severe experience i
Ur.t3uy.Jor, then the surgeon in charge, had
mlteudod me. 2?o mother could bare been more
tender and faithful in this trying work than j
was Dr. Cuyler. At that time to him, cer
tainly, under a kind 1'rovldonco, I owed my
tffc.
A 1'OliTUKATE STEETIXG.
It was my good fortune, as we steamed up
the Chesapeake, to meet him again at Fortress
lioaroe. He camo -on board our vessel and
carefully dressed the arm and prescribed a
proper diet for me. He endeavored to persuade
me and my brother to remain with him until
"wc were stronger for travel, butypu must know;
ihikt Jtbc homo fever was now strongly upon
me, so that noinduccraontshorfcof absolute com
pnlsion could have kept me from immediately
talcing the journey. I recall one incidentwhich
dwells in my memory: Several little child reu
were playing about the steamer, and every now
and then dodged in and out of the room where
the wounded officers were sitting. I interested
myself in them and called them to me; imme
diately they began their happy plays with me.
One of the nurses, fearing they would hurt me in
my weakness, endeavored to take them away.
I called out: "The children cannot hurt me;
let them alone." It was an indescribable
comfort to several of ns maimed ones to be not
only rid of the scenes of carnage, but to be
able to mingle again with the innocence and
joyousnoss of childhood. We know our own
little ones were waiting anxiously but hope
fully for our return.
We had a hard time after our arrival in the
city of Baltimore. My brother and myself,
liaving been put into a hack, were driven
swiftly from the dock to the depot. I remem
ber that 1 was obliged to hold iirmlybythe
sides of the Lack, fixing my limbs in a bent
position, so as to make as near a spring as pos
sible to relieve the jar of the .rough pavement.
My companion found no snch relief, so that
the agony he endured for a time was excessive,
and painful even to witness.
On our arrival in New York we wore taken
to the Astor House, proity much exhausted,
and there wo remained over the Sabbath. We
received the most motherly attention and care
from Mrs. Stetson, the wife of the proprietor.
Vould that every bruised soldier had fallen
into such gentle hands,) In brief, we made
the journey to the central part of Maine, meet
jug ou tiie cars, on the steamers,in the cities
and towns, everywhere we passed, every dem
onstration of affection and sympathy. In us
fathers and mothers and "-friends .saw their
own sons and brothers. Our condition, sug
gested .to every heart what bad happened or
what might happon to some beloved relative
or dear friend still on the field of the strife.
AT HOME OKCB 310 EE.
At Lewiston. ilc., at the depot, it seemed as
if tho whole population had turned out to greet
us. We were not suffered to cros3 the river
into Auburn and meet the little family from
which we bad been separated for more than a
year until our voices had been beard in public
and words of appreciation and welcome Lad
been spoken to ns through the leading clergy
man of the city. But soon a release came
from these restraints of patriotic love. And
then, oh, how sweet was the rest of the few
subsequent days, surrounded by the comforts
of home, children and wife and mother.
I was not long confined to xay room not to
exceed three days. Ten days after my arrival,
1 accompanied by my physician, Dr. S. D. Wig-
gin, who afterwards became a surgeon in the
oLt-t TVajnei a patriotic, able, kindly man,
e.ppeal;rthis.:;jCbayentJon to --set before
xanni. as weu- as j. couiu. every naasc ui ray
4 experience.
I The questions
io answer were then very
numerous, as -"What Las the army been
doing?" "What does it propose to do?"
"Will there ever be an end to this terrible
war?" Is General JfcCiollan the man for
us?" At that time I very warmly espouseil
the cause of General MedeHau against every
aspersion, and I entertained the strongest
hope that he would lead ns to a final and de-
cish'ericfory. At the same time, I fully believed
1 that slavery would so to the wall before the
I.Tvar could be ended. The speaking at this
conveiitioa was to me the beginning of .nTcan
vass ef Maine for volunteers.
Governor Washburn eaniestly requested me
to assist him in this matter, and o, my good
wife going with me, I went from town to town,
visiting the principal cities and villnges in the
State, and often by two addresses a day reason
ed with my countrymen upon the condition of
affairs as then presented to my mind. It was
in substance: "Our fathers procured for us
witfi their Wood this beautiful heritage. Men
now seek to destroy it. Coaie, fellow-citizens,
go back with inc acd fight for its preservation'
The quota for M&tr.e was soon filled, and I
returned to the field to participate in the clos
ing operatioss of the second battle of Bull Bun.
Bat, before onterinK upon any account of
tliis memorable cotifiiet, wherein General John
reps came to be no well-kncwn to the Nation,
let its delay to give a summary of the news
which cfcnic to me from the Army of tbc-Poto-ma-c
from day to day, during Ibis enforced va
cation among my friends.
The news, as it came then, was full of mys
tery and often dreadful in Hs details, and some
times vho!ly wrong in its eondusions, so that
I will try to sift it and simply record what was
dene.
AVTBK FXm OAKS.
After tfie battle of Fair Oaks our army re
mained comptrativdy idle for several days.
The reasons for this " enforced rest" were va
rious. First, the roads w.rc in such condition
that the artillery and supply wagons coiild not
be moved over them. McClellan might have
pushed forward his right wing to complete the
oauie oi rr urks, evon witnout artillery ; oy
-50 do!ng jaSt at Ujc "sl,fc timc Ilc Probably
3 um n. SCCUIC1 a m victory. Jiut, as
in all the important business of life, there is
seldoiu, if ever, any proper replacement of a
lost opportunity. Soon the Chickahotniny be
eamfc absolutely impassable for days; every
bridge and corduroy approach was swept away,
except the railroad crossing, which was' itself
in a very flimsy condition. Again, the heats
of scanner, the sudden storms, the decompo
sition of men and animals that had fallen in
battle, added to the previous exhaustion of the
jucn by battle, caupcd a period of sickness
which, for a time, depleted the army more rap
idly than the engagements themselves.
Taking McClellan's estimate of the forces
opposed to him, and the information brought
him from every quarter, mostly by ignorant
men, escaping slaves, or shrewder informants
primed for the purpose, into the account, we
may understand how he, in his imagination,
surrounded Iticbmoud with the most formid
able worfe, oven superior to those which he had
planned for Washington, and defended by the
best appliances of modern warfare, to sav noth
ing of Lee's army, which, he believed, evenwith
Jackson absent, fully equal to his own. Then,
to push up nearer to Iiiehmond without his bat
teries, appeared to him absurd and useless. It
would only lengthen his line of supply and
hinder it from the possibility of adequate pro
tection. M'CLLLAN'B VIA.X.
What, then, was McClcHans plan? From
what he did it is plain that this niau was in
his mind: wail till the roads were passable, till
the Chickaliomiuy subsided, rebuild leveral
bank, extending hislino from his unnei- crossin
- "...V OU.VH1K IIU311.1UU UU UiU IJUlll
nr iiw. m.:..'.i.,:.. .. "-Vl .
m iu wiiv.uiuiMiu- to emtirace vasv urove,
ClmtiittKiZ o;i Sih page
THE
POR
The Story; of -the War Retold for -Our
.' Boys and Girls.'
EVENTS 'EST'' KENTUCKY.
The Campaign that Kept Her
in the Union;
GARFIELD'S DEBUT.
The Battle of Mill Springs .and
Marshall's Discomfiture .
J)y "CarZefou."
rcorvBiGnraD. all eights -nrEBVED. J
IX.
To thcJloys and Girls of the United Slates:
What should bo. tho line of defense for the
Confederate States west of tho Allcgbanies?
Where on the Mississippi Eiver should cannon
be planted to prevent the passage of Union
gunboats? If any of the boys ancT girls who
may read these letters have ever been down the
Mississippi, from tho mouth of the Ohio, they
will remember that the i-iver is wide, and the
banks so low that when the spring floods come
steamboats can make their way over the corn
fields and farm lands. At Columbus, in Ken
tucky, twenty miles from the mouth of the
Ohio, there "are bigh blufls. "
Tennessee bad joined the Confederacy; Ken
tucky had not. The Governor of Kentucky
was hoping that the State would take no part
in the war. Jefferson Davis planned other
wise. Several thousand Confederate troops
entered the State and planted cannon on the
bluffs of Columbus. The Confederates hoped
that the act would make the Slate decide to
join the Confederacy, but, instead, it made the
people more decided than ever for the Union.
Jefferson Davis appointed Albert Sydney
Johnston, born in Kentucky, to command the
Confederate troops. Before bo arrived, Gen
eral Lovelllaid out Fort Henry and ForfcDon
elson.on theTennesseeand Cumberland Uivers.
They were only twelve miles apart, close to
the bcnndary.of the two States. Five hundred
slaves were set to wort.
General Johnston, on the afternoon of bis
arrival at JJashville, sent General Buckner to
take possession of Bowling Green, with 5,000
men, and ordered General ZollicofTer, with
6,000, to adance from Knosville, in Tennes
see, tlirougb Cumberland Gap, and take posi
tion cast of Bowling. Green. Still farther east
General Humphrey tfarshall,wTith 3,000 troops,
entered the State from Virginia and descended.
"thcTallcytof tho Big' Sandy Hirer, which runs
worth to the Ohio. General Marshall thought
that lie could .bring all Eastern Kentucky
under the Confederate government.
A YOUXG COLONEL.
At Columbus, Ohio, was a young colonel,
James A. Garfield, who was born in a log cabin
with a bark roof, a stone fireplace and mud
chimney. His parents were so poor that they
only had a frying-pan and a bake-pauand some
wooden plates for kitchen furniture.
He began life by driving mules to tow a
canal boat. He chopped wood, helped a far
mer make potash, and by hard work made bis
way through college. He had taught school,
and bad been- president of a college in Ohio.
He was colonel of the 42d Ohio regiment,
which was then at Columbus. He received a
dispatch from General Buell, who was at Louis
ville, to send bis regiment to Prcstouburg, on
the Big Sandy Bivcr, while he was to hasten to
Louisville.
" If you were in command of tho sub-department
of Eastern Kentucky, what would yon
do? Let me know to-morrow morning," said
General Buell.
Through the night Colonel Garfield studied
the map of Kentucky, the Big Sandy, the
valleys, the gaps in the mountain ranges lead
ing to Virginia and Tennessee. He went over
the census tables to see where he could find
forage and supplies for troops, laid his plan
before General Buell, and was appointed to
command a brigade. He was directed to
"drive tlm enemy back or cut him off."
He had his own arid the 40th Ohio and the
remnant of the Ktb Kentucky a half or
ganized regiment, poorly supplied with arms
and clothing. He had no cannon. Bain was
falling, but the soldiers marched through deep
mud up the valley of the Big Sandy. Thcj'
bad no tents. At night they .bivouacked in
the open air, kindling great fires.
A steep and wooded hill with rocky ledges
at the summit and a creek winding through a
narrow valley at its base, was the position se
lected by Marshall. With his four cannon he
could sweep the valley. The valley was so
narrow and the hills so steep and high that the
Union troops could not turn his flank; they
must attack in front.
On the evening of January 9, 1862, the Union
troops found themselves face to face with the
Confederates. A few shots were, fired, but the
cold gray winter night was setting in, and the
soldiers of botb armies laid down to sleep in
the mud and rain, which changed to sleet and
beat pitilessly upon Union and Confederate
alike. No fires were kindled. It was a weary
night. Garfield was in the valley; the Con
federates on tho hill, with every advantage of
position, outnumbering him two to one, with
four caunon, while he had not a single piece of
artillery. The Union troops advanced. The
Confederates opened fire, but did little execu
tion, for troops, in firing down hill, unless ac
customed to accurate firing, almost alwaj's
overshoot tho mark. So the Confederate bul
lets went flying over tho heads of the Union
soldiers. Tho Confederate artillerymen loaded
and fired as fast as they could, making a great
noise, but aiming so poorly that they did little
harm.
General Marshall was getting ready to charge
down the bill upon tho Union troops, but sud
denly changed his mind, for down the valley
ho beheld twelve hundred Union trflops com
ing as fast as they could run. They bad been
marching all day, and had come twenty mijes
through the mud since daylight. They were
commanded by Colonel Sheldon. They had
heard the thunder of the Confederate cannon
rolling down tho valley, and had hastened to
take part in the fight. Colonel . Garfield's
troops welcomed them with a loud hurrah.
They came into line. " Forward! "
Colonel Garfield gave tho order, tossing his
rubber blanket into a tree ahflieading his men.
Up the hill they go with a hurrah.
THE COKFEDEItATES.
Stepping over now into General Marshall's
lines, we see his soldiers looking nervously
toward tho rear. General Marshall sees that
he is to be flanked, and gives the order to re
treat. The frightened soldiers throw away
their guns and flee throngh tho woods.
Night is closing in and Colonel Garfield halts
his troops in the Confederate intrenchments.
Suddenly, a bright light leaps up the sky: Gcn-
eral Marshall has set' fire to his stores and sup
plies, and is fleeing through tho mbnntain
passes toward Virginia. There has been little
fighting, but that little, has brought about a
great result; it has secured all eastern Ken
tucky to the Union. It is the first break in
the Confederate lino of defense west of the
Allegliauics.
MILL SPEIXGS.
Let us go up now to the bead waters' of that
beautiful stream, the Cumberland liiver. From
its mountain springs it gurgles over a rocky
bed westward to the town-of Waitsboro. Just
below that town the water is deep enough for
small steamboats, which can come alL the way
from Uic Ohio, past Nashville, to that point.
Eight miles north of the river, to tho town of
Somerset, Fishing Creek comes down from
Somerset, running between high banks.
A little further down, on fhesouth side of tho
Cumberland, isagristandsawmill; alspsprings,
which gush from the hillside. Tho place is
known as Mill Springs.
General ZollicofTer was at Mill Springs with
9,000 troops. He had been a member of Con
gress from Tennessee, but had given heart and
soul to the Confederate cause. IIo knew little
about military affairs, and .General George B.
Crittenden was sent to take command. General
Crittenden was a Kentuckiau. His brother
was a general in theUnion army, and his father,
who had been a Senator in Congress, was giving
the strength of his declining years to maintain
the Union.
Before General Crittenden-arrived, General
ZollicofTer, eager to advance, by using two steam
boats and some flatboats, crossed the Cumber
land and threw up intreuchments at Beech
Grove on the north bank of the river.
There was a brigade of TJnion troops at
Somerset, under General Schoepf, twenty miles
from Beech Grovo, and another brigade at
Columbia, thirty miles northwest, under Gen
oral George H. Thomas. General Buell ordered
General Thomas to get in rear of tho. Confed
erates while Schoepf attacked them in front.
AT BEECH GIK)YE;
. While the Union troops" drc making their
toilsome march along the miryroads, let us sec
how things look at Beech Grove. General Crit
tenden finds 9,000 men, but so many are sick
that only G,000 are fit for duty. They have
little to eat. The country around is poor. The
mire is so. deep that. tho wagons which bring
provisions and supplies cannot move- Many of
the soldiers are armed with jSlfot-guns. They
arc. destitute of OYcrcoats.Thexr sliocs.are
wcaring:oufc -Why bavo.hejfleft their homes
to become soldiers? Because -they have been
led to believe that they owe. -allegiance to tho
State in which they wcreorn, rather than
to' the Nation, and because they have dreamed
of .winning glory on the field of battle.
There is no glory in remaining in camp.
General ZollicofTer does not wish to wait
for the Union troops to attack. He would
rather march out and attack them. General
Crittenden opposes the plan ; but the colonels,
the captains, the men all arc eager to advance.
A council of officers decided, in favor of the
plan. General Thomas is only nine miles
away. They will make a night march, attack
him at daylight, rout him,'theu move on to
Somerset and rout the troops under Schoepf.
By one vigorons stroke they will sweep the
Union troops back to the Ohio Biyer and re
gain all that General Marshall has lost.
The night is cold and dreary. The rain is
falling, but the Confederate soldiers hail with
joy the news that they arc. to move out and
attack General Thomas. They will eat break
fast in his camp upon rations supplied by the
United States. 3
The war has become more than a conflict
between two sections of-the.country. In Ken
tucky it is a war between old neighbors and
friends a civil war. Union soldiers from Ten
nessee are to fire into the faces of Confederate
Tennessee soldiers. Though Kentucky has not
joined the Confederacy, hot-blooded young
men have left their homes to enlist in tho Con
federate service.
GENERAL THOMAS' ADVANCE.
General Thomas, commanding tho Union
troops, was born in Virginia. He was in the
battle of Buena Vista in Mexico. He is always
clearheaded and self-possessed. His soldiers
love him, for he is kind-hearted, brave, and
always looks after their comfort and welfare.
He always has his eyes open. To guard against
surprise he stations his cavalry pickets out on
all the roads leading to his camp, and behind
them infantry pickets.
He reached Logan's Cross-roads on tho night
of January 17. The troops pitched their tents
on Mr. Logan's farm, and the cavalry pickets
went two miles out on all the roads, with in
fantry behind them.
THE CONFEDERATE NIGIIT STARCH.
We see the ConfcderatsLcavalry mounting
their horses at midnight at Beech Grovo. Zol
licoffer's brigademoves out into thoroad first
two cavalry battalions, the 15th Mississippi,
19th, 20th aud 25th Tennessee and Bulledgo's
battery, four guns.
General Carroll follows with tho 17th and
23(h Tennessee regiments; two cannon of Mc
Cluny's battery, then tho IGth Alabama and
two cavalry battalions.
The dim light of tho "winter morning is
dawning, January 19, when' theforemost cav
alryman comes upon tho Union pickets. -
" Halt! Who goes there?"
The answer is a Confederate -pistol shot.
A Union cavalryman goes down the road as
fast as he can ride to ColonclMarison's tent. In
an instant the drum is beating the long-roll.
THE "UNION TEOOPS.
General Thomas has 4,800 men: tho 10th
Indiana, Colonel Kiso, and 4th Kentucky,
Colonel Fryc, from Colonel Mauson's brigade.
The 1st and 2d Tcnnesscc.and 12th, Kentucky,
from General Carter's brigade-; tho 9th Oiio
and 2d Minnesota from Colonel MeChok'i bri
gade. General Thomas liaf- 'ilin .butteries,
commanded by Captains Ivfuinr. !';- -d;il and
Wctuiorc, HehaS'.only quo.- hifi-.ilioti of cav
alry Colonel WalforuVs. Bigidcs Uicko tubas'
a battalion of engineers, frlfm Michigan, and
oncxonipany of the, 33th;OBio rcgimcufc, who
arc ordered to guard llio camp. Out from thojr
tents leap the soldiera of -tlttjfcidtK" Indiana and
."';,:-,." ConCinuhlpntMhBage!. . " '
UP TIE BED RIM.
Eow the Famous Banks .Expedition
"Came to Grief.
03T3? FOJi- SECREYEP3R0:.
.Tlie-'March. From Grand Eco.re
to Pleasant Hill.
SABIDL CROSS - ROADS,
-And tlie. Part the lSth Corps
Playpd in that Battle.
The Bed Eiver expedition, undertaken by
Major-Gencral Nathaniel P. Banks in tho
spring of 1861, has been the subject of so much
criticism that, in tho interest of that fairness
with w'bich The Tribune claims to discuss all
military movements of the war of the rebel
lion, the facts as they appear in reports and
correspondence, both Union and Confederate,
should bo carefully studied by'all who desire
to arrive at tho truth.
General Banks wa3 appointed to the com
mand of the Department of tho Gulf, relieving
General Butler, on the 9th of November, 1862.
In the letter of instructions given him by
General Halleck, ho was directed to regard tho
opening of navigation on the Mississippi Bivcr
as of paramount importance, no was to co
operate with General Grant in the reduction of
Vicksburg, and follow it by movements east
ward against ,Jackson and Marion, and thus
cut off all communication between northern
Mississippi and Mobile and Atlanta. Second,
to ascend the Bed Eiver as far as it was navi
gable, with a land and naval force, and thus
open -an outlet for the sugar and cotton of
western Louisiana.
Vicksburg fell on the 4th of July and Port
Hudson on the 9th. Immediately following
these events, General Banks wrote Grant and
Halleck, urging Jthe capture of Mobile, on the
ground that its occupation by the United States
would leave the Confederates no outlet to. the
Gulf except Galvc3ton, Texas, which would bo
of little service to them while the Mississippi
remained under control of the United States
navy- On tho 6fch of August, before the re
ception of Banks' letter, General Halleck wrote
him, urging that tho United States flag should
bo atonce hoisted and maintained at some point
in Texas. There were State reasons for this
requirement, growing out of tho relations.of
France with Mexico, and the attempt wasraade
to obey the order.
A naval and land, force of 5,000- men was;
'fitted ou feat New Orleans, and directed agains
Sabine Pass, with instructions to the comt
mandcr,- Major-General Franklin, to land be
low the Sabine and move np against the enemy's
works in the rear and capture them. Instead of
obeying instructions, and landing ten or twelve
miles below, the boats entered the pass and at
tacked the works from the front. The boats
ran aground and surrendered, and the trans
ports bearing the troops eventually returned to
New Orleans.
ON 3IATAG0KDA PENINSULA.
Still intent upon carrying out the order to
restore "the United States flag to the soil of
Texas, General Banks undertook the expedi
tion towards Opelousas, Alexandria and Shreve
port, intending to. go into Texas by land. It was
iu the month of September, there was no water,
and the movement involved a march of 300
miles. He therefore halted the troops between.
Franklin and Opelousas, and with a part of
his force made an expedition to Eio Grande, to
try the effect of landing at thatpoint. Browns
ville was occupied, and the expedition moved
thence against Corpus Christi and then to
Aransas, which was fortified. The troops un
der General Eansom landed upon tho island,
and after a most gallant action carried tho
works, capturing the garrison and artillery.
From Aransas Pass they moved up to Pass
Cavallo, commanding the entrance to Mata
gorda Bay, which, next to Eio Grande and
Galveston, was the most important point
on the coast. The troops were under the im
mediate command of Major-Gcneral C. C.Wash
burn. Pass Cavallo was captured on the 27th of
November.
The force under Washburn, ina forwardmovc
ment, was about 6,000. Opposed to him was
General Magrudor, with what Banks believed to
be fully double that number. To move upon,
Galveston necessitated a march of 500 miles, in
which ho was certain to encounter Magruder,
and prudence required the concentration of a
larger army.
Banks now called upon the Government for
re-enforccments, and received, instead of tho
troops he required, a reprimand for under
taking a movement of such importance with
out notification to tho Government, and tho
information from General Halleck that "all
tho Western generals favored a movement
directly upon Shreveport, and operations
against Texas from that direction."
This was Hallcck's favorite route, and in all
his correspondence he had urged it as that
promising success.
THE RED RIVER EXPEDITION.
Several months was occupied in organizing
the expedition, which, according to the pro
gramme, was to consist of 10,000 from General
Sherman's army, 30,000 from General Steolo's,
and 15,000 to 17,000 from General Banks'. Tho
latter, under command of General Franklin,
consisted of two divisions of tho 19th corps,
two divisions of tho 13th corps, one division
of cavalry, and a brigade of colored troops.
These reached Alexandria, tho point of ren
dezvous, on the 2Gth of March. General Sher
man's troops, consisting of a portion of two
divisions of tho 16th corps and one of the 17th,
under General A. J. Smith, arrived on tho 19th,
having captured Fort Ho Eussy with seven
32-pounder guns, on its way up Bed Eiver.
Admiral Porter's fleet of nineteen iron-dads
had arrived and taken possession of the place
ou tho 16th. Colonel Dickey's brigade of col
ored troops arrived on the 22d.
A detention of eight days followed in
getting the boats oyer tho falls, but the river
rose slowly, and a few days later the entire
fleet, consisting of tho gunboats Cricket, East
port, Mound City, Chillicothe, Carondalet,
Pittsburg, Ozark, Ncosbo, Osage, Lexington,
Fort Hind man, and Louisville, followed by a
flotilla of thirty transports, reached Grand
j Ecbre, and foundthe army, which had marched
to Natchitoches, awaiting their arrival. As
the river wasrising very slowly, Admiral Por
ter was unwilling to risk the larger boats by
taking them highernp, and accordingly startod.
for Shreveport on the 7th of April with the
Cricket, Fort Hiudman, Lexington, Osage,
Neosho, and Chillicothe, leaving the rest to
follow when the depth of water would warrant
the attempt. Twenty transports loaded with
provisions and bearing a portion of A. J.
Smith's corps followed, while the remainder of
the troops, under command of Major-General
Franklin, marched to Springfield, there to
meet the fleet, which was expected to reach
thatpoint in three days.
THE FORCE DIMINISHED.
The idea, of tho comatander was that? an
overpowering force of infantry and artillery
preceded by a heavy force of cavalry, masking
the movements of tho troops, should advance
rapidly upon Shreveport, Lonisiana. They
were to bo supplied by river transportation,
leaving no land communications to bo attacked.
General Ellct's marine brigade was detached
from tho expedition at Grand Ecorc and
sent back, when it was found that ha
could not get his boats over the falls, at
the urgent solicitation of General McPherSon;
and the change of programme necessitated by
the low stage of water in the Eed Eiver re
quired the establishment? of a base of supplies
at Alexandria, which had to be guarded. Gen
eral Grover's division was assigned to this
duty. General Steele's force cut no figure in
tho campaign. It was. intended that he
should move in the direction of Monroe,
on Bed Eiver, and unite with tho
main column, but word now came from him
that the most he could do was to make a feint
against Shreveport. Generals BanB, Grant
and Sherman all protested against this, and
General Halleck directed: him instead of mak
ing a feint to make an actual movement against
Shreveport. Even, this would have .accom
plished nothing in tho way of withdrawing the
attention of the Confederates from Banks'
movement, as the waters about Shreveport
constituted a formidable barrier against Steele's
advance from tho north.
On the 6th of April, 1S64, the army marched
from Grand Ecore on Shreveport, a distance of
ninety-eight miles. General T. Kilby Smith's
division of the 17th corps accompanied the
boats. General Banks remained at Grand Ecore,
attending to the final details of the expedition,
both by land and water, until the morning of
the 7th, when he mounted his horse and rode
fifty-six miles to Pleasant Hill, where he over
took the head of the column in tho evening.
The 13th and 19th corps, preceded by the
cavalry, had reached the town and were about
going into camp. The 16th corps, considerably
in the rear, covering the traius, did not reach
Pleasant Hill unil the following evening, too
late to fake part in the iighfr at Sabine Cross-Eoads.-
COHFOSITION AND STRENGTH.
The roster- of the expadiUonary-fprceiat and
en route, to PleauR'tHioil't;tlif Aprilr
was nearly: as follows..
The cavalry division, less the- 2d,brigade oh
detached service at Pert Hudson, La., consisted
of four brigades, commanded hy Brigadier
General Albert L. Lee.
First brigade (Colonel Thorn a3 J. Lucas! 12tli
Illinois cavalry, IGth Indiana mounted infantry.
2d Louisiana menntet! Infantry, 6tU 3Iis30uri cav
alry and Win New York.
Third brifjadge (Colonel Horace Hobfnson) 1st
Louisiana cavalry and 87th Illinois mounted in
fantry. Fourth brigade (Colonel N. A. M. Dudley 2d
Illinois, 3d Massschnsetfsr3Ist iEassachusetts and
2d New Harniuhire.
Fifth brigade (Colonel Oliver P. Goodfns 2d
New York veteran cavalry, 3d Ilhode Island cav
alry and lSth New York cavalry.
Artillery Captnin Niras,2d Massachusetts bat
tery; Lieutenant Kawlcs, battery G, 5th TL S. ar
tillery. Unattached 3d Maryland cavalry.
Total effective strength, March 31, 107 officers
nnd 4,'11S enlisted men.
The 19th corps consisted of the divisions of
Generals Emory aud Grover. The latter hav
ing been left in charge of the stores at Alexan
dria, left only tho former to march with the
expedition.
FrRST DIVISION.
Brigadier-General WtQiam II. Emory.
First brigade (Brigndicr-Gcncral Win. Dwight
20th Maine, 114th New York, 116h New York, 153d
New York and 161st New York.
Second brigade (Brigadier-General Jnrae3 W.
McMillan) 13th Haine, loth Maine, lGUth. New
York and 17th Pennsylvania.
Third brigade (Colonel Lewis Benedict 30th.
Maine. IffiJd New York, 163th Now York and 173d
New York.
Artillery 1st Delaware battery. 25th New York
battery, and battery L, 1st U. S. artillery.
Effective total, March 31, 233 officers and 4,956
men.
SECOND DIVISION.
Urigadier-General C. Grover.
First brigade (Brigadier-General F. S. Nicker
son) 133d New York and 17Gth New York.
Second brigade (Brigadier-General II. W. Birge)
13th Connecticut, 1st Louisiana and 152th New
York. -
Third brigade (Colonel Jacob Sharp) 33th Mas
sachusetts, 12Sth New York, 156th New York and
175th New York.
Artillery 7th Massachusetts battery, 2Slli New
York battery, and battery C, 2d U. S. artillery.
General Thomas E. G. Eansom's command
consisted of the 3d and 4th divisions of the
13th coTps, greatly depleted in strength by the
absence of seven regiments on veteran furlough.
THIRD DIVISION.
Brigadier-General It. A. Cameron.
First brigade (Lieutenant-Colonel A. M. Flory)
IGth Indiana and 29th Wisconsin.
Second brigade (Colonel James R. Slack) 17th
Indiana, 21th Iowa, 2Sth Iowa, and othh Ohio.
FOUKTU DIVISION.
Colonel William J. Laudram.
First brigade (Colonel Eniereon) 77th Illi
nois, 19th Kentucky. S3d Ohio, and 2Sd Wisconsin.
Second brigade (Colonel Joseph K. Vance 138th
Illinois, C7th Indiana, 43th Ohio, and SOth Ohio.
Artillery 1st Indiana battery (Chicago Mercan
tile battery), company A (1st Missouri light artil
lery). 2d Ohio battery, and lit Wisconsin battery.
Effective total, March 31, 22G officers and 1,515
men.
Brigadier-General A. J. Smith's command
was made up from detachments from tho 16th
and 17th corps. Several regiments belonging
to tho brigades of these divisions wero also
absent on veteran furlough.
FIKST DIVISION.
Brigadicr-Gcnernl Joseph A. Mower, IGth corps.
Second brigade (Colonel Lucius llribbard) nth
Illinois, 5th Minnesota, and Sth Wisconsin.
Third brigade (Colonel S. G. Hill 33th Iowa,
and 3Cd Missouri.
THIRD DIVISION.
First brigade (Colonel W. F. Lynch)-o3th. Illi
nois, 119th Illinois, and S9th Indiana.
Second brigade (Colonel William T. ShawJ Wth
Iowa, 27th Iowa, 32d Iowa, and 21th Missouri.
Third brigade (Colonel Itfadon M. 3foore) 19th
Illinois. 117th Illinois, and 175th New. York.
Artillery 3d Indiana battery and 0th Indiana
battery.
Effective strength, March 31, SS3 officers and
7,425 men.
PROVISIONAL DIVISION, 17TH CORPS, (WTOI
THE PUBETT).
Brigadier-General T. Kilby Smith.
First brigade (CV.onel J. B. Moore) list Illinois,
3d Iowa, nndSM Wisconsin.
Second brigade (Colonel Lyman M. Ward) S!st
Illinois, 95th Illinois, I-lth AViseousin, and battery
M, 1st Missouri artillayy.
Effective total, March 31, 7$ onlcere and 1,531
men.
Tho 1st brigade, . 1st, division of, the Corps'
. d'Afriquo loft Port Hudson Mttrch 17th,. for
G9ftKtt&i on 2d page.'
COL RO
E'S p STQRT.
' a
Founded oa Iseidmts Gosnesfed With.
. the War for the Mm.
THB GBAX AWD TEEB BMTB
Col. Caral&well, of MisssissippiV
and Capt. Adans, of St. Lotus.,
JPBIiIrOW-TRAVELERS:
The
Captain's Letter, and
Teil-Tale Postscript-
its
By LU'OH. B. 12. Ke, Author of "Srowjhlla
Bag." &c
AUTHORS CSPTKOKV WStAJi RWiJITS 8B3BEVmJ
ClIAUTEJi; I.
A COCONBI. AND A CAPTAIN.
'No more shall tkewar-ory sever.
Or the winding river ba red i
They ban&b our anger fore vr
When they laurel the graved of onr dead."
Captain Seth Adams was passing down tho
Illinois Central Kailroad from Chicago to St.
Lout?, in a fall ear. At Kankakee; amoag ethers
who came aboard, was a gentleman wearing a
gray felt hat, very broad in the rim, who walk
ed to near the center of the car, and then stood
looking in vain for an empty seat. Httiad nofc
look pleased.! in faefe, he looked np aad down,
the crowded car, and from seat to seat, wish an.
expression that seemed to soy: ' Very strange
nobody offers me a seat!" He was standing
exactly at the seat occupied by Captain Adams,
bat either he did not observe that thr& was
bnfc one in the sect, or he purposely turned, his
back towards the captain and waited for an in
vitation to sit down. Seeing this-hesitation,
and supposing then that the new-comer wa3
unaccustomed to railway traveling, th& captain,
invited the gentleman to sit by Mm :
" This way, sir," said Adams, as he lifted hi3
valise from, the vacant end of the seatj "wiE
you sit here V
The stranger turned, stared, a moment, and
thou, before accepting the proSferad seat, said
in a tone of nifecd hautear and politeness:
" Do you know me, sah t "
"No, sir, I do not know you; bnit&at is no
reason why I should not offer you a seat.1
" Thank you," said the new-comer; "but I
thought I recognized your voice and, might
have met you befo. Don't you Kv in the
South?"
"St. Louisr,r replied Captain Adams;
"Yes, sah; I knew you. was no Yankee,'
saiatli&otncx. 7 . , ' -, -u-.
.' Bdiknewyonwa5 "aSbaiSonier: hafc do
you still dislika Yankees? u
"Well, yes; I hate the regular bine hollies
you are a Western man ?' (interrogatively).,
" Wc generally class them all as Yankees : but
I make the distinction, acd Icnow tha genuine
blue belly at sight. Saw a house full of 'em.
to-day, out on the prafry all with the ear
marks." "Yes," replied Attains-,, "they are all over -the
best part of Illinois, andraos of theni pros
pering." "Prospering! I should tfcwk sT get all
they can and keep all tHey-gig; Then, after
taking-his broad-brinwoed hat in his band and
combing his long black locks with his fingers,
the tail Southerner cotttinned :
"You see, I had business with ene StaM-lisTi
to-day as I wastellingryou out on the pra ryy
and soon as I entered the house I know on,
sight they were all genuine Yanks. Might
have known it from the-name if I had tho'ight,
bat I didn't; no one but a Yankee evtr had
such a name as Sfcandish."
"And what were tneear-marks. fcfeat betrayed
them?"
"I'll tell you. I had been directed to tho
house, and whau I knocked at the do there
was but one do tfce wife opened, it, and un-
I ceremoniously bid me good-morning. Colo
nel Canldwell, I believe? Walk in, sir; hus
band will be in shortly. Have this chair! ' and
she took my hat and plumped me down in. a
bigrackia'-ebair befc I could get in a wo.-T."
"She seemed to understand ear-marks, too,
didn't she?" said Adams, with a smile.
"Oh, she knew I was to be thar. Well, I
was in. the dining-room, anil I looked at that
table with dinner en it for seven. wis!iou
counting myself. My God. sahi kc rue tell
yon. Table-cloth white assno-w; knives and
forks, spoons, dishes and table-ware bright as
new dollars. And here was the dinner for
eight: one littlo plate of eheese about two
ounces; one little glwss dish of honey; one
little plate aud a dab of butter; another littlo
platowith shapings of dried beef; one small
plate of thia-cut bread, whit as snow, and ono
pickled coweumber, (I swar it's a feet ! .- cut
into eight long slices, lying oa a plate Wonld
anyhody in this world but a Yankee set such a
table as that?"
"Perhaps the dinner had not been brought
in from the kitchen?" said Adams.
" Well, sah, Mrs. Standish came in directly,
and all that Yankee woman, brought in was
about half a pound of corned beef and a d-zea
potatoes. Add a cup of tea, which the wife
and live daiighters -jfnre daughters, sab ! all
drank; and that was dinner for eight. I
could have gobbled the whole ofitl Rather
distinct ear-marks, I should soy."
Adams smiled pleasantly, and nodded assent.
"And then, by thunder, sah," continued the
colonel, "when I had paid him some mouoy
and could not make the oxact change, he sent
that woman to search for three cents three
cents sah ! and I had to take.the coppers! "
All this time Adams listened patiently, but
said little. He studied the man's fa.e and,
noted life tall figure his broad-brimmed gray
felt hat, his clothing of the same color, his long
black hair and heavy mnatachc, and his cntirei
make-up. Than, looking squarely into the
keen gray eyes of htsseafcimate, he said, with
manifest Interest, but great politeness of man
ner: "The Yankee women called you Colonel
Cauhlweli, I thssk you said?"
"Yes, sah."
"Colonel ?.rarshaU Cauhlwell?"
"Yes, sah. Have we-met befo? There is
somtthing familiar in your voice."
" I happen to know a youug lady of your,
name "who spells her name as- you do-with
l u as i. imer.
"At St. Louis?"
" Yes at St. Louis." "
"It cannot be my sister Genevieve? Oar
jk-r
'- V .-j. tti - '$
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