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Jt "" r - T " .- SJSM' j l ;,?.. H !1 &' ssssr -.2V r " TO CARE FOR HIM WHO HAS BORNE THE BJETUesAND FOR HIS WIDOW AND ORPHANS." ESTABLISHED 1877.-NEW SERIES. WASHINGTON, D. 0., THURSDAY, JULY 23, 1885. VOL. IV-NO. 50.-WHOLE NO. 206; . w- ISktwttai . rrnMi. jugfccg pbsc YMKMWiWKfe- war' 1 T"r 52 - -i -i:: -KHAtvr jf-ar v-. p.ai -t -.-?;v "'28"-rfu?Xir """ f " 0NCLE DANIEL'S STORY pr Tom Anderson and the' Great Conspiracy. BATTLE OF THE GAPS. . Young Harvey Lyon Brutally Murdered. UNCLE DANIEL'S EETUBN. Raising Troops in Southern Indiana. BY-AN OFFICER OF THE UNION AB3IY. ". - COrYUIGUT, lbtw. ' . 'ClIArTEK II. ' BATTLE OF THE "GAPS." -"Three days later Peter returned from In dianapolis, with full authority for Tom An derson to recruit a regiment for the Union service. This was very gratifying to him, and he said" to his wife, 'Mary, my time will come.' She appeared happy over the news, butber quivering lip, as she responded, gave evidence of her fears that the trial to her was going to he severe. My good wife then called us in to tea, and when we were all seated, Mary said to her: "'Aunt Sarah, you have not told us your dream yet Don't you remember, you prom ised to tell it to me? :Now let us hear it, please." " ' Yes, my child. It has troubled me very much; and yet I don't believe there is any thing to be alarmed at, about what one s'ees in a dream.' "'Mother, let us hear it,' spoke up Peter; 'it might be something that I could inter pret You know I try tp do this sometimes ; but I am not as great a success as Daniel of old.' "'"Well, my son, it was this: I thought your father and I were in the garden. He was pulling some weeds from the flower bed, when he was painfully stung by some insect on both hands. Soon his fingers began dropping off all five from his right hand and his thumb and little finger from his left.' "Tom, laughingly, said, 'Uncle, hold up your hands;' which I did, saying, 'You see my fingers are not gone.' "Whereupon they all laughed, except Peter. "My wife spoke to him, saying: "'My son, what is your interpretation of my dream? It troubles me still.' "'"Well, mother, I will not try it now. Let" the war interpret it; it will doit cor rectly, doubtless. Let us talk about some thing else You know dreams amount to nothing now a-days.' "Peter all this time wore a serious coun tenance. "We discussed the matter of how Tom should go about getting his regiment It was understood that he should start out at once, and that Peter should take the re cruits, as fast as organized into companies, and place them in the camp of instruction at Indianapolis. The next morning Tom opened a recruiting office in Alleutown, placed Peter temporarily in charge, and started through the country making speeches to the people (he was quite an orator), and soon succeeded in arousing patriotic senti ments in and about Alleutown. After rais ing two companies, he extended his opera tions, going down on the O. & M. E. E. to Saco, a town then of about 1,000 inhabit ants. While addressing the people, a mob gathered and were about to hang him. He stood them off until the Union people gath ered and saved his life." Col. Bush here interrupted, saying: " That is just like it was where I lived. I know of just such a case, where a mob tried the Kame thing; some of them, however, re pented before they went to Heaven, I hope." Uncle Daniel continued : l,He left the town, however, under a gnard and returned home. Soon after this he made a second effort, by arming 20 resolute men of his recruits with Colt's revolvers, which he procured "from the Governor of the State, and returned to Saco. He at once gave notice that- he would speak the next day. "When the time arrived he told his men to take positions in the crowd, scattering as well as they could in his front This done he commenced his speech. Soon multcrings of the crowd could be heard, and finally the storm came and the crowd rushed towards the stand. He shouted at the top of his voice, "Hold!" at the same time drawing his revolver, declaring he would shoot the first man that advanced another step, and also raising his left hand above his head. This was a signal for his men to " fall in," and they all rushed into line in his front with drawn weapons. The crowd instantly ran in all directions, much to the amusement and gratification of Tom. There were some loyal men in that commu nity, and before leaving Saco Tom had raised a full company. "When the day came for them to leave, they marched with the flag presented to them by the ladies of Saco pioudly waving, and the drum and fife making all the noise possible. There was no more disturbance in that town, except in secret Thc'secesh' element murdered several soldiers afterwards, and continued secretly hostile to the, success of our army. In a. few days after this Tom had recruited another company. There seemed then to be an immediate demand for a reirimcut, with a brave and daring officer, at the Capital, for some reason nob then made known. Tom was ordcrf-d to have his four companies mustered in, and, attached to six already in camp, he was at once made Colonel, and the regiment formed was numbered the Indiana Infantry Volunteers. Tom An derson looked the soldier in every re spect. He was five feet eleven, straight as an arrow, well-built, large, broad shoul ders, -black eyc3 and hair, and martial iu his bearing. He placed his family in my charge. The next day after Tom had left, (Peter Lyon, my son, having gone before him with, the recruits,) my wife, Mary, Jen nie, the three children and myself, were all on the porch, when a tall man, six feet, rather fine looking, made his appearance at the gate, and asked if that was where Daniel Lyon lived. As I answered in the affirma tive, he opened the gate and walking in, saluted us all with, " ' How do yon da? Do you not recognize me ? I am James Lyon.' "I sprang to him and grasped his hand, his mother threw her arms around his neck and wept for joy, the other women greeted him heartily, and the little children rushed to him. Aalthough they had never seen him before, tliey kuew he was some one they were glad -to see, as their fathers and uncles, whom COPPERHEADS ATTEMPT they knew, were gone from them. "We all sat down and the Doctor, as I must call him, he being a physician by profession, gave us a recital of his experiences of the last few weeks. "Wh.en.he received my letter and commenced getting ready to leave, the peo ple of "Winchester suspected him of wishing to go North to aid the Union, and so they threw his drugs into the street, destroyed his books, and made him leave town a beg gar. He walked many miles, and finally found an old friend, who loaned him money enough to get to my place." Mr. Eceves, who was of the party, said: "I have been through all that and more, too. I had to leave my home and family, and was almost riddled with bullets besides; but it is all past now." "I have been greatly interested, Uncle Daniel," said Dr. Adams, "and am taking down all you say in shorthand, and intend to write it up." "The next day," continued Uncle Daniel, " the newspapers had telegrams stating that the troops at Columbus and other places had been ordered to the East for active opera tions. I said to Dr. James that he must stay with the family while I went to "Wash ington, as I wanted to see the President on matters of importance. The truth was, I wanted to see David and Harvey, as well :is the President I started the next morning, 7Vv. . THE XtEKEL COLONEL after telling the women and children to be of good cheer. When I reached "Washington I found the army had moved to the front, aud was daily expecting an engagement, but I could not understand where. I at once visited the President, to whom I was well known, and told him my desire, which was to sec ni3r sons. He at once gave me a note to the Provost Marshal, -which procured mo a pass through the lines. That night I was in the camp of my son David, who, you re member I told you, was a Colonel. After our greeting we sat down by his camp chest, upon which was spread his supper of cold meat, hard crackers and coffee, the whole lighted by a single caudle inserted in the shank of a bayonet and stuck in the ground. "While enjoying the luxury of a soldier's fare 1 told'him all about the family, his own in particular. Harvey enjoyed the things said of him by the children which I repeated to him. The Colonel, however, seemed thoughtful, and did not incline to very much conversation. Looking up with a grave face, he said to me: " ' Father, to-morrow may determine the fate of the Ecpublic. 1 am satisfied that a battle, and perhaps a terrible one, will be fought very near here." "I asked him about the armies, and he re plied that we had a very large .army, but poorly drilled and disciplined; that the ene- ! my had the advantage in that respect As to commanding officers, they were alike on both sides, with but little experience in handling large armies. He suggested that we retire to rest, so that we could be up early, but urged me to stay to the rear and not go where I would be exposed. To this I assented. Soon we retired to onr couches, which were on the ground, with but one blan ket apiece and no tent over us. I did not sleep that night. My mind was wandering over the field in anticipation of what was to occur. Early next morning I heard the orders to march given in every direction. "Wagons were rolling along the road, whips were cracking, and teamsters in strong lan guage directed their mules; artillery was noisy in its motion ; the tramp of infantry was steady and continuous; cavalrj-men were rushing to and fro. I started to the rear, as my son had directed, and ate my breakfast as I rode along. About 10 o'clock TO MOB TOM, ANDEKSON. I began to hear musket shots, and soon after artillery ; then the musketry increased. I listened for awhile. Troops were rush ing past me to the front. As I was dressed in citizen's clothes, the boys would occas ionally call out to me, ' Old chap, you had better get back;' but I could not I was moved forward by some strong impulse, I knew not what, and finally found myself nearing the front with my horse on the run. Soon I could see the lines forming and mov ing forward into the woods in the direction of the firing. I watched closely for my son's command, and"keptnear it, but out of sight of the Colonel, as I feared he would bo thinking of my being in danger, and might neglect his duty. The battle was now fully opened the artillery in batteries opening along the line, the infantry heavily engaged, the cavalry moving rapidly to our flanks. Steadily the line moved on, when volley after volley rolled from one end of the line to the other. Now our left was driven back, then the line adjusted and ad vanced again. The rebel left gave way ; then the center. Our cavalry charged, and our artillery was advanced. A shout was heard all along the line, and steadily on our line moved. The rebels stubbornly resisted, but were gradually giving way. The com manding General rode along the line, en couraging all by saying: KILLING IIAItVEY LYON. " ' The victory is surely ours. Press for ward steadily and firmly; keep your line closed up;' and to the officers, 'Keep your commands well in hand.' "Ho felt that he had won the day. For hours the battle went steadily on in this way. I rode up and down the line watch ing every movement that I could see. I took position finally where I could see the enemy, and I never expected to sec officers lead their men as the rebols did on that day. They would rally their shattered ranks and lead them back into the very jaws of death. Many fell from fheir horses, killed or wounded; the field w.'is strewn with the dead and dying; horses were running in dif ferent directions riderless. I had never seen a battle, and this was so different from what I had supposed from reading, I took it fin granted that, both sides being unacquainted with war, they were doing many things not at all military. I learned more about it afterward, however. From an eminence, where I had posted myself, I could see a large column of fresh troops filing into the plain from the hills some miles away. They were moving rapidly and coming in the direction of the right flank of our army. I at once rode as fast as I could to the left, where my son was in line, and for the first time that day showed' myself to him. He- seemed somewhat, excited when ho saw me, and asked: 'In Heaven's name, whnt are you doing here?' - -iyi. pCj-z'' y7 """ "I said: Never mind me; I am in no danger.' "I then told him what. I had seen, and he at once sent an Orderly vith a note to the General commanding. Sin a short time, how ever, we heard the-, assault made on our right It was terrific. Out troops gave way commenced falling back. The alarm seemed to go all along the line, and a general retreat commenced without orders. Soon the whole army was leaving the field, and without far ther resistance gave away the day. The rebel army was also exhausted, and seemed to halt, in either joy or amazement, at the action of our army. Just as our army re tired I found a poor young officer wounded. I let him take my horse, thinking that I could walk as fast as the army could march. I came to the place.- ibrtuerly occupied by my son's regiment There I found quite a number of wounded men, and my young son LHarvey trying to help one of his comrades off the field. Neither army was then in sight I heard the sound of horses' hoofs ; looked np, and saw a cavalry troop coming. Supposing it to be our troops, I did not move. They dashed np" where we were, and Col. Hunter, in command, drew his saber and cut my dear boy down. I caught him as he fell back dead, his' head being cleft open. I burst out loudly in grief, and was seized as a prisoner. I -.presume my dress and gray hair saved my life. I was torn from my son and made 'to walk some three miles, to the headquarters of Gen. Jones, who heard my story about my adventure and my dead boy. He at once released me and sent an officer with me to where my dead child lay. I shall ever respect Gen. Joues. He is still living, aud reapecjted highly for his great soldierly qualities. I walked on the line of our retreat until I came up with a man driving an ambulance. I took him back with me aud brought my son away lrom the field to the camp of his brother, whom I found in great' distress about Har vey, but he was not aware of what had be fallen him. I pointed to the ambulance, where he looked and saw Harvey lying there dead. He fell on myjieck and accused him self for having brought the young boy away from home to encounter the perils of war. I was going to take his body back to his mother, but the Colonel said: "'No; bury him like' at soldier on the battlefield.' ; "So I gave way to him, andtwe buried him that night in the best manner we could, lie now lies in the cemetery, at Arlington. My grief was great then,' bntz I am past it all now and am grieve-no more." Col. Bush here interrupted, saying: " Uncle Daniel, you made narrow escape. My heavens! to think of afather carrying his young boy dead fromthe battlefield, slain by an enemy in anch. a villainous and dastardly way." " "What a blow to a falhersaid Dr. Adams. " Uncle Daniel, this Cqlonebwas a demon, to strike down a youth while assisting a wounded comrade. He deserved to be killed." 'Yes, it would seem so. X felt just as you do, aud my son David utered many impre cations against him. But, you see, wc for gave all these men and acquitted them of all their unholy deeds. Col. Hunter has become a very prominent man since the war, and now holds a very high position in one of the Southern States. You know, in the South the road to high position since the war has been through the rebel camps." "Yes, yes! Uncle Daniel, that is true. Not so, however, with us in the North. The road to high position here is not through the Union campd, but through wealth and theinflueuceof what is called elegant society, where no questions are asked as to how or where you got your money, so you have it." "It does seem so, Doctor, now; but it was not so in our eailier days. I am sorry to confess that this change has taken pl-ice. After going through the scenes of this battle, now called the battle of the 'Gaps,' and burying my son, 1 felt for the time as if I could have no heart in anything; the only thought ou my mind was how to break the sad news to his mother. The Colonel said he would keep the namefrom the list of the dead until I could return home to be with the mother, so as to console her in her grief. 1 bade my son, the Colonel, farewell. There he stood, quiet and erect, the great tears rolling down his cheeks. I commenced my sad journey alone. In going to Washing ton 1 overtook straggliug detachments, teams without drivers, and found on the road great waste of army materials, and equipages of all kinds in great quantities. Arriving in Washington, everything was in great confusion. The old General then in command of all the forces was dignified and martial in his every look aud movement, but evidently much excited. There was no danger, however, as both armies were will ing to stand olf without another trial of arms for the present I saw the President and told him what I had witnessed, as well as my mis fortune. I advised that no movement of our forces be again attempted without further drilling and better discipline, as I was sure good training would have prevented the disaster of that day. On my way home I was oppressed with grief, causiug many inquiries of me as to my distress, which only caused me to repeat my sad story over and over again until I reached Alleu town. My friends, there was the great test of my strength and manhood. How could I break this to my wife? They had all heard the news of the battle, and were in sorrow over our misfortune in the contest On entering the gato all rushed out on the porch to welcome me back, eager for news; but my countenance told the sad story. The Doctor was the first to speak. "'"We know about the battle, father,' said ho; 'but your f.ice tells mo something has happened to the boys. What is it?' "Sarah and the girls stood as pale as death, but could not speak. Then I broke down, but tiied to be as calm as I could, and said: " ' Our dear Harvey is killed.' " My wife fell upon lfiy neck and sobbed and cried aloud in despair until I thought her heart would break.; The children ran out to their mother crying: "'Oh! mother, what 5s the matter? Is papa hurt ? Is ho shot ? ' " They screamed, and the.sccno was oue that would have melted the most obdurate heart. James stood and gazed on the scene and seemed to take in the situation. "When all became somewhat calm, Sarah was put to bed, and Jennie, after hearing that the Colo nel was safe, staid with her. To the rest I related my experience on the battlefield, the death of Harvey, his burial, my capture mid rele;use, my arrival at and departure from Washington, aud all up to "'my arrival' at ""home. The saddest hours I ever spent ingmy life were the long,, weary hours of-that night: the at tempt to reconcile my wife to bur sad fate, the tears expressed by trjo wivosot the Colo nel and Tom, the 'questions-of -the children, and their grief and sobs for their Uncle Harvey they all loved him so dearly; he petted them all and played with them fre quently, entertaining them in a way chil dren care bo much for. Many days Sarah kept her bed, the Doctor keeping close watch over her. "Weeks of sadness and gloom in our household passed before we all seemed to take the matter as a part of what many would have to experience in this dreadful and wicked attempt to destroy the peace and happiness of our people. In. the mean time Col. Tom Anderson (as he was now a Colonel) and my son Peter, who had been made a Captain in Col. Anderson's regiment, came-home to see us, and try to make it as pleasant for us as could be done under the circumstances. When Peter heard of Har vey's death through Col. Anderson he wept "'That dream haunts me,' he said, 'by day and night I know my Me so well.' " This amazed the Colonel, and he asked Peter what be meant by this nonsense. ' " ' I know,' said Peter, ' but - ' " But what ? ' asked the Colonel. " ' Nothing,' replied Peter, and the conver sation on that subject dropped for the time being. , . " The vjsit of Col. Tom and Capt Peter, as we now out of courtesy called them, made the time pass much more pleasantly. Col. Tom and' the Doctor, both being good con versationalists, kept the minds of the family as much away from the battle of the Gaps as possible. The Doctor having lived in Vir ginia and Col. Anderson having lived in Mississippi, their talks naturally turned on the condition of the South. The Doctor said that 'there are in Virginia many Union men, but they were driven into secession by the aggressiveness and ferocity of those desiring a separation from the Government. " ' Those people are opposed to a republi can form of Government, and if they succeed in gaining a separation and independence, sooner or later they wilL take on the form of the English Government They now regard the Euglish more favorably than they do the Northern people, and the most surprising thing to me is to see the sentiment in the North in favor of the success of this (the Southern rebellion.) True, it is confined ex clusively to one political party, but that is a strong party in the North as well as the South. Oue of the dangers that will con front us is the tiring out of our Union peo ple at some stage in the war, and following on that the success of the sympathizers with the rebellion. If this can be brought about it will be done. This is a part of the Southern program, and they have their men selected in every Northern State. I have heard this discussed irequently, and their statements as to the assurances that they have from all over the North in New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Indiana, Illinois, and so on. In Ohio, their chief adviser from the North, Mr. Van derburg, resides. Such men as "Dan" Bo wen and Thos. A. Strider, both very influential and prominent men, are regarded as ready to act, in concert-with them at any moment Should that party succeed, with such men as I have "nientioued as leaders, the independence of the Confederacy would at once be acknowl edged, on the ground that we have failed to suppress the rebellion, and that a further continuance of the war would only prove an absolute failure, aud I fear that our North ern peacemakers would cry "peace! peace!" and acquiesce in this ontraue upon our .Re public and our Christian civilization.' "'Yes,' replied Col.' Tom; 'but, Doctor, there is a feature preceding that which should be carefully considered. I fear, since I have heard what is going on here, that thescNorthern secessionists aud sympathizers Twill organize in our rear and bring on war here at home. I was ordered to the Capital to watch this movement They are organ ized all around us. I was about to be mobbed near here for trying to raise troops for the Union army. Tnos. A. Stridor, of whom you spoke, is doing everything he can to discourage enlistments. He speaks of the Kepublicau President, as "atyrautaud this war as an unholy Abolition war," and people listen to him. He has been considered a kind of oracle in this State foranauy years, xis you know.' " Just then Jeuuie returned from the post office with two letters from Col. David one to her and one to the Dflctor. This con cluded the conversation between Col. Tom and the Doctor. Jennie's letter gave her a fuller description of the battle of the Gap3 than any he had heretofore sent He told of my appearance on the ground and the tragic death of Harvey. The household assembled and listened with great attention, except Sarah, who Avent weeping to her room, as she could not hear of her boy without breaking down, womleriug why it was her fate to be so saddened this early iu the contest The Doctor opened his letter and found that the Assistant Surgeon of Col. David's regiment had died from a wound received at the bat tle of the Gaps, and the Governor of Ohio had commissioned Dr. James Lyon Assistant Surgeon at the request of the Colonel. He was directed to report to his regiment at once. This was very gratifying to the Doc tor, as he felt inclined to enter the service. When his mother heard this she again grew very melancholy, and seemed to think her whole family were, sooner or later, to enter the army and encounter the perils and vicis situdes of Avar. The next morning the Doc tor bade us all good-by and left for the Army of the East. Col. Anderson's and Peter's visit helped to distract our attention from the affliction which was upon us. Peter, however, was very quiet, and seemed in a deep study most of the time. His mother finally asked him it he had thought of her dream,. saying it troubled her at times. He smilcdr. ami' answered : "'Mother, I think this Avar Avill interpret it You kuoAV there is nothing in dreams,' thus hoping to put her mind at rest by his seeming indifference; but he afterwards told Col. Anderson his interpretation." Dr. Adams here asked Uncle Daniel if he kucAV Peter's interpretation. " Yes ; it was certainly correct, aud so it Avill appear to you as Ave go along in this narrative, should you Avish to hear mo through." " My dear sir, I have never been so inter ested in all my life, and hope you -will con tinue until you tell us all. I am preserving every sentence." " The day passed oft' quietly, and next morning Col. Anderson and Peter left for their command. Mary Avas brave ; 3he gave encouragement to her husband and all others Avho left for the Union army. She Avas very loyal, aud seemed to bo full of a desire to see the Union forces succeed in every contest In fact, the letter of her brother to her hus band seemed to arouse her almost to des peration; she moved about quietly, but shoAved. determination in every movement. She taught her little daughter patriotism and devotion to the cause of our country, and religiously believed that her husband Avould yet make his mark as a gallant and brave man. She gave encouragement to my good w:fe, Sarah, aud to Jennie, Col. David's wife. She told me aftenvards, out of the hearing of the others, that she hoped every man ou the Union side would enter the army aud help to crush out secession forever." 2b be continued. MILITARY MEMOIRS. Shermans March Through South Carolina. FINE STRATEGY. Rebels Continually Deceived as to His Objectives. BURNING OF COLUMBIA. The Rebels Undoubtedly Start ed the Fire. BY BEEVET MA J.-GEJT. WM. P. CABLI5T, COLONEL 4TH U. S. INF. COFYBIGIIT, 1835. XXVIIL About two miles from Lister's Ferry we found Robertsville, a cross-road village, or post-office. "We learned that Confederate cavalry had been there watching our move ments. It was probably "Wheeler's or a bri gade of Georgians, under command of Gen. E. H. Anderson, a former officer of the U. S. Army. About the 1st of February Sherman was AKKEST OF at Pocotalgo with the right wing of his army Avaiting for Slocum to get well over the Savannah to Eobertsville before starting out for the Augusta Kaihvay at Midway. The Confederates were watching Sherman's moA'ements along the Salkehatchie. He was threatening to go to Charleston, and Slocum was apparently going to Augusta. Conse quently the Confederates kept some forces at each place to save what they could of military stores, and to defend those places as long as possible. Of course Sherman had no idea of visiting cither place with his army, but aimed to keep as far aAvay as possible from both ; that is, strike, as his first objective, for the point on the raihvay connecting the tAo places halfway from each Midway. It Avas about the 1st of February I will not be positive about the date that Ave (First Divis ion, Fourteenth Corps (passed EobertsA'ille on the road northward to Barmvell Court house. The savanna-like character of the country continued for some miles, perhaps 20, north of Eobertsville, when it became altogether land, though that Avas still of a sandy but lortile character. It was not sur prising that there was iu the Union army something akin to Avrath tOAA-ards South Car olina as a State. She was considered the mother of secession and fratricidal war, and I have no doubt that Gen. Sherman and many of his subordinate Generals were a lit tle indifferent to the destrnction of private property in that State by the stragglers, foragers, and bummers of the Union army. At all events, it Avas no very rare occurrence to see the smoke of burning buildings mark ing the lines of march of the different corps. At West Point one of my classmates was James L. Carley, of Barn aa ell, S. C. He and I Avere Lieutenants in the old 6th Inf. to gether. "We had marched across the plains and the mountains from Fort Leaven worth, Kan., to Benicia, Cal., together. I lemembered that he once spoke of a sister of his Avho lived at Barnwell. Prompted by old friendship, I inquired as Ave marched aAvay towards Barmvell for this sister of my friend Carley, Avho was uoav in the Confed erate service, on Gen. Lee's staff. I desired to station a guard at her house to protect herself and property. I ordered the guard ou in advance with the hope that they Avould be iu time to suao everything she had. Un fortunately, a party of bummers had gone through the house before my guard arrived, though the damage done Avas comparatively slight. I Killed myself to tender any serA ices that could be desired under such cir cumstances; but I don't belieA'e my friendly intentions Avere appreciated. After the Avar Avas over many years I met my old friend at Norfolk, Va. Time had changed him much as Avell as myself. Only last year he became convinced that life Avas not Avorth living, aud died by his own hand. Poor Carle'! Ho Avas a most generous, noble hearted felloAV. He AA'as not in sympathy with disunion until he visited his relatives after the 'secession moA'cment had begun. Then he Avas unable to resist the pressure brought upon him by his relatives. The flood in the Savannah and consequent interruption of the crossing had thrown the left Aving some two or three days behind the right in reaching the South Carolina Eail road. However, Slocum succeeded in strik ing this road at and about Blackville, Avhile the right wing was at and near MidAvay. The railroad in the vicinity of these two points Avas thoroughly destroyed for about 50 miles. Kilpatrick's cavalry, supported by my division, made demonstrations Avestward along the railroad toward Aiken, in ordpr to dcceiA-e the Confederate authorities at Augus ta, aud keep up the delusion that Sherman Awns striking for that place. Hardee was at this time at Charleston, and Avas couA'inced that Sherman Avas aiming for that place also. In this way the Confederate troops at and about Charleston and Augusta Avere paralyzed, and rendered useless for any offensive operations against Sherman's army. But "Wade Hamp ton aud "Wheeler and Gen. M. C.Butler Avero hovering on the flanks and obstructing our march in a feeble way, and were at the same time covering Columbia. This city, tha capital of South Carolina, was the second! objective point of Sherman, not that it was important in a strategic point of view, but probably because it was the capital of the wicked little State that took the FIBST STEP IX REBELLION. If the Confederates had been agacioua enough to have foreseen that Sherman would take in Columbia on his march to the north it would then have become important in a military sense. At least, it would have been an admirable position for the Confeder ates to have occupied with all their available forces. They might have delayed Sherman for many days, and even might have forced him to seek a port on the coast, such as Bull's Bay, Georgetown, or even farther south. It was about the 9th of February that we struck the South Carolina Eailroad near Black ville. The same necessity for forag ing continued through South Carolina that was followed in Georgia, but it was later in. the year, and less was found to eat for men and animals than in the march through. Georgia. I observed from the little inter course I had with South Carolina people of the aristocratic class that they had no good will towards Georgians. One lady remarked that the Georgians were a coarse people. They denounced the cavalry of Wheeler, and especially the Georgia cavalry, in the harshest terms. Between them and the Yankees they seemed to have no great preference. "War had come home to them. They Avere feeling its humiliations; they were draining the bitter cup of defeat, disappointment and mortifica- MB. PALMER. tion to" the dregs. The wealthier classes, so far as practicable, still continued to flee be fore Sherman's army. Many elegant resi dences, furnished Avith all the luxurious ap pointments that wealth could supply and taste dictate, Avere passed, but their owners had fled on to the north, up to the moun tains, or, as the poor Avhites who remained at their homes expressed it, " they had gone a-rcfugeein' of it" The numerous rivers of South Carolina I Avill not mention. We crossed many, and haA-estill many more to cross in this narrative j but as my course Avas almost due north from. Eobertsville via Barnwell, not inany of these rivers lay across my road. The march continued, Columbia being the next objective point for the right Aving, and for the AA-hole army if need be. But Sherman prescribed in his orders that the right wing bhonld take in Orangeburg and destroy the railroad betAveeu Charleston and Columbia at that point, Avhile the left wing, under Slocum, and Kilpatrick's cavalry shonld pass through Lexington; and when we had arrived at Saluda Factory, three or four milesj from Columbia, it Avas directed that Slocum should continue northward up the Saluda EiA'er to Alston, about 18 miles. Lexington wa3 then an old and poor town, judging from all external appearances. It Avas built in AvhatAs-as once a yellow-pine forest. There Avere some good farms in the vicinity, though the soil was very "sandy. Lexington Avas at one time before the Avar the resort of many wealthy people from Charleston and the coast regions during the Summer season. The Confederate cavalry resisted our ap proach to Lexington Avith considerable spirit Gen. H. A. Barnum with his division of the Twentieth Corps first entered the town. Passing oue night in Lexington, Ave con tinued our march on the road to Columbia, only 17 miles distant, to Saluda Fac tory. There Ave were all turned nortlnvard, and continued on to Alston and crossed the Saluda. This Avas about the 18th of February, 1865. The country about Alston was very attractive and seemed to be the home of a Avealthy and intelligent people. Some Con federate officers on leave of absence were arrested here. Instead of going to Columbia after crossing the Saluda, we turned east Avardand marched on "Winnsboro', ly ingabout 10 miles north of Columbia, on the railroad leading to Charlotte, N. C, and northward. Before reaching Winnsboro' my division fell in Avith Geary's Division of the TAventieth Corps and some of Gen. HoAvard's Aving. We thus missed seeing Columbia and its grand couflagration, which occurred while Gen. Sherman and the right wimr occupied the town. The particulars of the approach to Columbia by the Fifteenth aud Seventeenth Corps; its abandonment by Hampton's Con federate troops ; its occupation by Howard's right Aving. and its partial destruction by fire are so minutely and accurately told by General Sherman himself in his Memoirs that. I will not refer to it further than to re mark that some Federal officers, who had been long detained in prison near Columbia, escaped Avhile being removed from that prison toAA'ard Charlotte, N.C., and met Sher man's troops in Columbia. Some of these escaped prisoners came to my camp, at or near Winnsboro', and said, on this subject, that some of the citizens had been entirely too liberal in dispensing liquor and wines to the Federal soldiers after their arrival in Columbia, and that some of these under this influence had helped to spread the fire that Avas started while the Confederate cavalry uuder Hampton still held the tOAvn. It was sn-pected. too, that some of the ESCAPED PBISOXEHS GAVE A HEU'lXtt HAND. But these were mere suspicions, aud nothing positive avus asserted by the officers Avith Avhom I conversed. Capt H. B. Freeman, 7th Inf., was one of the prisoners who joined ne after his escape. At Winnsboro the destruction of the rail road began, and was continued for about v X v V V