THE NATIONAL TRIBUNE: WASHINGTON, D. 0., THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 6, 1388.
Die ferial Experience of an Ohio
3KT 3WDZ O. TTBAVJJB, r OHIO CAY.
E ratamed -R-itli our
corn to the cabin, and
they then took us to a
inside bL which they
showed f s a barrel of
oonijbecf, anc&tolcl ns
to hclpoursel, which
we did, each oRis tak
itiff a large piece. They
fijred up H sack with
flour, and we started
back to the bridge.
Some of the guards re
lieved us of our load
and took both the moat
and flour, and said they
would cook them and
lm-e them ready for us
when the traiu for
Salisbury came alone, I
which they said wok 11
be in the evening. We
n&uiMtidCD the poard's cabin ud shelled the
00m that w had gathered, while some of the
rdc parched quite a lot for us, with which
I filled the white haversack. We put onr
blouses inside of oar pantaloons, and filled in
U the shellod corn that we could carry be
tween it and oar bodies.
Our treatment had been so kind and different
from what we had expected that I asked the
old gentleman (for sach he proved to be) to
giv me his address, and promised that if I
ever iiwd to get home I would surely write to
htm, which apparently leased him, and he
saM that a htter would reach him by address
ing Lee Westmorland, Mt. Morau, Adair Co.,
IT. C He also took my address, promising
that if he ever received a letter from me he
would srjrelr answer it. Twenty-four years
have passed since thee, and although be only
gave we his name and address by word, his
kindness to one who expected to be treated
harshlr hai caused me to remember it as if it
had been yesterday. As he was an obi man
then, he must long ere this be gathered to his
fathers, where I praf he is receiving the re
ward that is promised to the just and good.
THE EEXCEK TO SAUSBCaT.
As the day wore away and evening ap
proaebed the guards began to talk about the
rrifl of the train, aud had, according to
promise, cooked ear meat aud flour. The meat
was fesiied, and they had cooked eight large,
thick short-cakes fiwrapiece. When the train
arrived titer pet as en it in charge of some
guards, and bade ns good -by. Leaded down
with nations, we started hack by rail over the
tVjSTI K rv iA
IfaMEXTERIXG THE PKIsOK.
we had tramped toward Salisbury
wirch we reached at night and were
pet in the rebel guardhouse, in which quite a
Bamber of refractory and unmanageable rebels
were confined for various offenses. When the
morning dwnedwe were greeted quite jovially
by the rebel prisoners, who were disposed to be
-Why, hello, Yank; howdy?" said they.
M When did yon. get in ? Are yoo going to stay
long with us? I hope yon will like the place
and eoatpauy." Tneu noticing a silver corps
- bs Ise. which I had found on the battlefield of
Ofreaaau, fcud which I had pinned on the lap
pel Of my blouse, one said : " I say, Yank, whet
will you take for that breastpin? " Making
him no answer, he again accosted me with a
proposition to trade, and said: "Now. look
litre. Yank, I'll tell you what I'll do. I'll give
70a this bed-nailt for that breastpin," and be
held sip lor my inspection a well-worn, dirty
and somewhat torn old quilt. This, be said,
wosld do me more good in there where I was
going than that pin, and if I would say trade
he would call it a bargain. I gladly accepted
hisffer. for I knew he spoke the truth.
Wiggins and I were soon called out and ques
tkmei by the officer of the day as to the man
ner is which we effected onr escape, and when
i UAi him where and bow it was done, he
said; "Yes, 1 believe yon, and 111 bet there
was all of SO got through thai hole, and the
guards s&id they discovered it before any got
through. Yon will have to go back and try it
After we had gotten our effects together, he
and a guard led us op to the narrow gate,
which he opened, aud again we were in the in
closure of starvation, suffering and death.
Wbatasceue was it that met our eyes! Some
how, in -that mysterious and unaccountable
waytbat news is spread among a body of men,
it became known among the prisoners of the
iuctasare that we had been recaptured, and
they had collected in large numbers in front
and arouad the gate to see ns enter, and when
we entered with onr meat, bread and corn,
which we carried in plain view, it had an effect
thai we little dreamed of, it appeared from
what we couid learn that
TBJS&E HID BOK HO KATMSXS
imni to the prisoners the day before, and
when these starving prisoners beheld what we
bad and what, they so much needed, in the most
beseeching tones they begged for something to
eat; nor could the Bashing eyes and tone of
voice be misunderstood, as the sight of the meat
and bread fairly set them wild, aud they pressed
aronnd ns in a manner thai told ns that our
lives were not safe in such a crowd, and to
sach appeals as
O, say, partner, won't you please give me
a piece of meat? 1 haven't had anything for
We would give a small piece, which was re
peated so often that our stock of rations soon
dwindled to almost nothing. Never can 1 for
get the fierce aspect and actions of the poor
starving prisoners. Their eyes seemed to have
it aUDittbed gleam like those of hungry wolves,
and it would have been almost as safe for ns bad
reheea cast into a den of wild animals. But
vre kept moving along, surrounded as we were,
rnta we reached the ninth division, where
Wiggins was located before our escape, and
bete we found several of our regiment, who
wane surprised and rejoiced to see us. After
the excitement attending onr return had worn
off we settled down to the same old routine of
i'pdts prison life. There werefive of the 2d
Oi.su :v. whom I knew who were confined in
Mit prison, and we resolved to stick together
aud take caic cf exe1 other in case of sickness.
"We had no place of shelter where we could b?
together, so we resolved to dig a hole in the
ground, which we did immediately iu the rear
oi the dead-house. This habitation wassimilar
to many others that were dug for the same
pttrpose, and was constructed on a plan which
HfC thought would afford us the greatest pro
iifectioi) from cold and weather. The bole was
aiboat six feet deep, with an arched roof of
stout two ft't i u thickness, with seveu feet
square ef flooi rw. m. In one side of the hole
we da? a f rep: , aud. constructed a chimney
with mud bricks on the outside and above, to
CMtate a draft. We Lud dug a narrow way for
an -entrance, ia which we billed eteps in the
clay; and here in this rude underground hole
five of us poor mortals passed many weary and
unhappy days, hut it afforded us shelter, aud
we contented oursolvcs as host wc could.
THE REBEL QUILT COMES INTO PLAY.
It was hero that ray quilt came into good
play, for it was the only thing iu tho shapo of
bedding wo had, and although it was qnito
narrow wo managed to make it cover the five
of us. Many nights on the hare, cold floor of
that hole, spooned close together, with tho old
quilt stretched across us as tight as a drum
head did wesleepor worry through the nights.
It was impossible for one to turn without all
turned, and as the quilt was just wide enough
to keop the two outsiders pulling and quarrel
ing all through tiie night, so, with the chang
ing of positions from one side to tho other aud
with the pullingand haulingof tho quilt, there
was not much sleep. Tho names of tho other
three of the 2d Ohio Cav. who were in our hole,
if I can recoilect aright, wore Ilenry Lauder
matt, Vint lieed and Henry or Johnny Smith.
We managed to keep our spirits up by conversa
tion and residing in the Testament which Lau
deruiau had, and from winch I would read chap
ter after chapter to them. The Winter in North
Carolina is a miserable mixture of rain, sleet
and cold, which enetrates even into the earth,
and one night while it was milling, which it
had been doing for several days, we heard
sounds as if our earthen roof was going to cave
in, and in a short whilo the signs were so un
mistakable that we had scarcely gotten up
when the whole mass came down, completely
filling our hole, which threw us out in the
rain without auy shelter. Seeing nothing
could bo done, we commenced to look for some
place that would afford a resting place for tho
night; but looked 111 vain, as every place was
filled to overflowing, until we came to the
dead-house, which we entered, and there in
that horrible place of the dead, who were lying
stark cold and stiff in a row along the side of
the wall, did we lay ourselves down to try and
find that which was impossible for the living
iu such a place sleep. Can there possibly be
a pen that can describe that horrible den? As
we entered the door there was to he seen by
the flickering embers of a fire iu a low, wide
fireplace to the right cad of the building tho
forms of three men, who were talking in whis
per?. These were what was called the dead
guard. The flickering blaza of tho fire was
sufficient to reveal in all its hidionsness the
occupants, both dead and alive, in tho Jong,
narrow room, the picture of which has left a
lasting impression on my mind. Although tho
roafaffiorded us a shelter from the rain, glad
enough was I wbeu daylight appeared, so wc
could go out amongst the living.
As soon as possible that morning wo set to
work to repair the damage done to our hole in
the eround, which was speedily accomplished
by throwing out the clay that had caved in,
and then, in some unaccountable way, we se
cured some pieces of an old tent and stretched
it over the opening, and we soon had ourselves
installed in our old quarters more comfortable,
impossible, than ever.
Kow that I have mentioned the dead-houso
and its occupants, let us see tho wrt in this
great tragedy that it played. The poor prison
ers were being picked up in all parts of the
prison, some dying and others dead, on whose
countenances could be read the loss of hope,
while their starved condition gavo them the
most hideous aud repulsive appcarauce. All
day long could be seen their wasted and half
naked forms carried by the dead-guard, or per
haps by some of their surviving comrades, to
the dead-house, whore they were piled upon
each other like cord-wood, from whence they
were hauled in the dead-wagon to the outside
ditch that was to be the grave of .the Union's
noblest and bravest defenders. At first, tho
manner in which the dead were handled by
the dead-guard, and the rebel who drove tho
mules that hauled them, caused considerable
indignation and talk amongst the prisoners, but
the continual and constant going out with the
bodies soon became an object of no concern to
anyone, and finally 110 attention was given the
matter at all.
It is beyond my comprehension how it is
that human beings taught and raised as Chris
tians cause easily ignore the feelings and re
spect that Christ taught his children was due
to one another; but in all that wicked rebellion
was there any feelings of Christianity shown ?
Let those who conceived it answer tiie question
to their own souls. The first few dead that
were found were considered terrible. They
were tenderly laid out, and tho rebel author!- '
ties sent in on the dead-wagon for the first
two wooden eofiins, in which the bodies were
placed with some show of respect. But the
dead became so numerous that the prisoners
began to suspect there was something wrong.
To satisfy themselves some of the hoys put
marks on these eofiins.
It soon became apparent to everybody in tho
prison that these same eofiins were used every
day. The rebels tried to make it appear that
they were famishing eofiins for all the dead,
but the marks soon showed that the coffins did
duty for all the Salisbury dead. The hoys let
the authorities know that the subterfuge was
known, and as the wagon passed through the
prison, it was greeted with " There goes thesamc
two old eofiins." "I wonder how many more
tbey are going to bury in those boxes? " These
and other like remarks soon caused them to
throw off their mask, aud the eofiins were dis
pensed with entirely.
The prisoners, on account of exposure and
starvation, ltegau to drop off very rapidly;
how many a day I do not know, but sufiice it
to say that it required two two-mule teams to
haul them out. These were composed of two
little scrawny, curly and weak mules, aud they
would haul ia a load of wood and haul out a
load of dead men; and so small aud weak were
tbey that they could only take out five bodies
at a time, and often they would get stuck in
the soft and waxy clay and require assistance
from the prisoners to help pull them out.
I have read many accounts of prison life,
but 1 have failed to see a description such as
would ia any way describe the manner of
handling and the appearance of the Union
dead in Salisbury Prison. A more heartless,
inhuman and unfeeling mode couid not be
dreamed of by man or thought of by dev
ils. The dead -wagon would back up to the
door of the dead-house, and the dead-house
guards would lift the body between them and
carry it feet foremost to the tail end of the
wagon, and with two swings and a heave throw
the almost-naked corps into the bed of the
wagon aud return for another, and repeat until
five miserable, emaciated and starved bodies
out, and that they had a largo Sibley tent lo
cated as near tho fence as thoy could get it.
Wo immediately made their acquaintance, and
when we informed them that wo had escaped
onco and knew the road over which thoy would
have to travel, they readily consented for us to
help dig the tunnel. Wo commenced operations
by first sinking a. holo two and a half feet
squaro, to the depth of about 10 feet, leaving
about two feet from tho surface a shoulder of
earth, on which wo nicely fitted a board, which
as daylight approached wo would placo in posi
tion and fill with earth to tho top of the holo
and tramp it down and then scatter ashes over
it, and perhaps build a fire of such sticks or
wood as we could get, thus defying detection.
All night in reliefs would wo dig, using an old
caseknlfo and half of a canteen. We would
carry the dirt out in tho old white haversack,
which I still retained, whilo some used their
blouses. In this way wo carried out tho looso
earth from the excavation and would scattor it
along with that that was thrown out of tho
dead-ditch, which had been dug to prevent just
what we woro attempting to accomplish. Of
course, all this, with tho tools wo had, was
tedious and tiresome, so much so that thcro
would bo several nights in succession in which
nothing in tho way of tunneling would bo
But all this time something was going on,
which added to the suffering and misery that
were constantly hurryiug to their death hun
dreds of despairing aud starving prisoners.
Notwithstanding all the miseries with which
these miserable wretches were afflicted, thcro
was still more pain and misery to bo endured.
rvt, uv&3 v;y ftf x
ty-VM l" Wf .h iWt-
k -&iyj aj.V --v ".J in-'- , Ny- ,
Fighting Ovee the Dkad.
lay piled on one another like slaughtered hogs.
The sight of this dead-wagon was a most hide
ous picture to gaze upon. Some of the bodies
were stiff, while others again were pliant and
limber, and as the wagon rolled over the
ground their beads, some hanging out of tho
end of the wagon, would roll or swing from
side to side, with their glassy eyos staring wide
open, which made as unsightly and revolting a
spectacle as any demon couiu conceive. JMy
after day could this inhuman scene be wit
nessed, until the prisoners became indifferent
and paid no more attoutiou to it, Astho num
ber increased so increased the misery, and it
was no uncommon sight to see two starving
prisoners stand quarreling over a dying com
rade to see who should have his blouse, panta
loons or slices, if he should happen to have
any; with no strength ia their bodies, aud
Mission blazing in their eyes, claim that they
iau hf'wa the dying soldier longest, or that he
belonged to thjSTrrefjiuicRt. d for tliat reason
laid claim to his ragged clciibg. So worked
up by passion have I seen these poor, stnivhlg
prisoners in cases as described, that I have soen
them clinch each other, not haviug strength
enough to do anything more, but would hold
on to each other for fear of falling.
TDXSELIXG OUT OF PRISON.
While those days were passing Wiggins and I
were not idle, butworo continually devising
ways aud means for escape, and also to keop
upour courage. We accidentally became aware
that some prisoners were going to try to tunnel
Trading in the Prison.
It was no doubt a symptom of scurvy, caused
by want of nourishing food and comfortable
shelter, and was called bjr the prisoners tho
very appropriate name of "breakbono fever."
To those who never experienced the pain of
this bono-tortnring disenso it would be useless
to attempt to describe its effect. It would first
make itself felt and known by attacking its
victim in the shin-bone, and wculd commence
shortly after the noon hour and increaso in in
tensity for about tivo hours, after which it
would gradually die away, leaving the sufferer
perfectly exhausted. Tho disease was new to
the men. It would return at about the samo
hour each day and torture tho prisoners for
about four hours, and appeared to move up and
down tho shin-bone, penetrating into the very
marrow. The disease affected each person dif
ferently. Some would sit down and moan,
hugging their knees close to their bodies, whilo
others would cry out in their agony, and others
again would rave and curse, while some could
be heard praying to be relieved of their tor
tured and miserable lives by death, which
seemed to be mockingly near, but not disposed
to answer their prayers. Tho disease seoraed
to be contagious aud rapidly spread through
the prison, until almost everyono had testod its
quality, and from which groans, cursos aud
prayers wero mingled together and went out
upon the air aud up to heaven in one sound, as
if calling upon God to visit his wrath upon tho
heads of those who were the cause of this in
human and barbaric treatment to defenseless
human beings. This torturing disease caused
tho death-rate to increase fearfully, so much so
that despite the continual and frequent trips
of tho two dead-wagons thoy wero unablo to
keep the dead-house clear, and the bodies in
consequence were left lying sometimes two or
three days before removal.
KILLED BY A FALLING CHIMNEY.
All tho buildings had by this time been
turned into ho3pita!3, and thoy woro filled to
overflowing. As none of those buildings had
places whore firo sufficient to keep tho chilled
sufferers warm could he built, permission was
given by the commandant of the prison tobuild
a chimney from tho first floor up through tho
center of the largo building or factory, he to
furnish the brick and other material aim tho
prisoners to furnish the labor tobuild it. There
happened to be plenty of masons, who, when
the material was furnished, commenced work
on the chimney, leaving on each floor a large
fireplace. Tho brick furnished was of tho
softest aud poorest kind, as was the mortar in
which they were laid, but it was all they would
or could give. As soon as tho work was com
pleted the sick prisoners on the first floor
selected places to lie close up against the chim
ney, lecause it was away from tho windows,
which had no sash or glass in them, and which
pierced the walls at regular intervals along the
sides in each of thestoriesof tho building. The
prisoners were congratulating themselves that
at least some comfort was about to bo enjoyed
by them, when all their anticipations wero
dashed to the eartii, for with a loud crash tho
chimney crumbled with its own weight and
rottenness, covering with its worthless material
all those poor prisoners who had sought shelter
and safety at tho base of t!w rotten structure.
The noise aud dust of the falljng chimney at
tracted the attention of the entire prison. The
prisoners rushed to tho rescue of those who
were buried in the debris, and with unnatural
strength worked to rescue their sick aud un
fortunate comrades. What a sight was pre
sented as tho bricks were cleared away, dis
closing the dead and mangled, covered with
the yellowish dust of the rotten brick and
mortar, unrecognizable even by their own com
rades. How many were killed I never heard,
hut it was quite a number, and amongst them,
I lMilieve, was a member of tiie 2d Ohio Cav.,
although I am not positive. If tho commander
of tho prison took any notice of this criminal
and negligent accident, 1 never hoard of it. The
holes through the floors and roofs of the build
ing were never covered over, but were left
open for poor delirious prisoners in their agony
and suffering to walk into during the night aud
DASH THEIR MISERABLE BRAINS OUT
on the floor below, as was the case in several
instances. It does seem that if hell itself was
called upon to invent and furnish means of tor
ture on the body of mortal man it could uot
have equalled the. devilish and brutal ways that
were adopted by the leaders of the Southern
Confederacy in slowly starving and torturing
these helpless and brave men the chances of war
had thrown into their hands, although thoy
and their sympathizers may strive to hide from
the world tlioir barbarous treatment of prison
ers of war while confined in their death-pens.
Truth, backed by tho .knowledge of their in
humanities, will rend their flimsy vail of hy
pocrisy in twain, and leave them exposed in
history as the relentless monsters of tho great
rebellion. Bosido tho physical suffering the
poor prisoners were also tortured mentally,
which, iu connection with their bodily alllic
tions, helped swell the cup of misery to over
flowing. Many prisoners died when their
spirits wore raised with the announcement
from the top of the fence by Maj. Geo (the
commandaut of tho prison), who would stand
on tho guard-walk of tho prison and attract tho
attoution of some of the prisoners, and impart
to them the joyful news that they were all to
he exchanged cr parciod in a few days. This
good news would fly through the prison like
wildfire, and there would bo great rejoicing.
You could then hear them congratulating
each other in anticipation of regaining then
freedom; but as the- days camo and went
and lengthened out into weeks and months,
the reaction caused by the knowledge that the
stories woro all false caused many to die.
Whether Maj. Gee so intended to mentally
punish the prisoners by these unfulfilled prom
ises, or whether lie thought or hail lntorniation
to that effect, it is impossible lo tell. Certain
it. is that it
CiSSP MANY TO GIVE UP
and finally succumb t0 the "unbearable- strain
that was p"ut on both body and mind. In ap
pearance Maj. Gee was a kindly aud prepossess
ing man, of medium bight, and broad across
the shoulders. His complexion was as fair as
a woman's, aud his hair, being light sandy,
gavo Mm an appearance- rather clerical thau
military, in whom it would bo least expected
to find a naturo that would inflict such enmi
ties ou his fellow-mon. Let us at least give
hira tho benefit that his appcarauce first im
pressed upon our minds, and charge the out
rageous atrocities whero they rightfully be
longto tho leaders of tho Southern rebellion.
Ono would imagine that amid all this misery
and wo that thcro would bo no such thing as
pleasurablo sensations; yet, notwithstanding,
thero was occasionally something that wouid
mako the prisonous face light up with joy,
aud which was principally furnished by tho
prisoners themselves. I know not whethor it
was because of our situation or whether it was
the fine musical voices that would somotimes
join in song, but certain it is that never beforo
nor sinco havo I listened to suck affecting
THE LOYAL GERMANS AND IRISH.
Among tho many nationalities that composed
the rank and file of our armies there were none
moro determined to prove their loyalty to thoir
adopted country than the Germans, and tho
same can equally bo said of our Irish fellow
citizens. Thcro were quito a number of stal
wart Gormaus confined in Salisbury, aud to
them arc- duo many of tho pleasant feelings
and emotions that their harmonious and musi
cal singing brought for tho moment. Thoy
generally sang in their own language, and
with such iervor and feeling that it would
causo tho whole stockade to stand in silenco
and listen to thorn, as they would fill tho wholo
prison with tho music of their German war
songs, one of which it appeared ovory German
in tho prison knew, as thoy would'joiu in aud
sing the chorus: "In der Sud, iu dor Sud,
in der Sud," whilo sometimes thoy would
siug it in English 1 "In tho South, in tho
South, in tho South." Not only did it help
tho prisoners for tho tirao being to forgot their
misery, but the fame of their musical voices
brought many of the citizens of Salisbury, who
would stand outsido tho feuco on the guard
walk and listen to the singing of the captives,
and thoy would somotimes signify their appre
ciation by faintly clapping their hands, while,
I havo no doubt, they wondered how it was
that such misorablo wretches could find heart
oven to try to do anything pleasant. But tho
German prisoners wero not alono in their mu
sical accomplishments, whilo it must bo admit
ted they attracted moro attention. Thero was
ono singer among the Irish prisoners who when
ho would sing caused much merriment aud
laughter; but, unliko his German comrades,
instead of singing iu tho open air, whore every
body could hear him, ho would modestly con
ceal his Abilities and sing principally in the
night-time, when he and the others that occu
pied their hole underground were collected to
gether. Often havo I heard that apparently
rollicking Irish prisoner entertaining his com
rades with his favorite soug of "Finnegan's
Wake," and ho would invariably end a certain
verse with tho heartiest and prolonged laugh
ter, which did one's soul good and eased our
hearts to hear. And how queer to hear coming
up out of the ground tho familiar words of
NEWS OF THE WEEK,
The News from All Parts of the
HON. JAS. G. BLAINE'S ARTICLE
"O Paddy, dear, what mado ye die.
Such a purty corpse I never did see," etc.
Now, whilo I havo related some of our mu
sical pleasures, and all furnished by our own
talent, it must not be forgotten that tho rebels
who wero doing guard duty were also some
what of a musical turn. Who that woro pris
oners in Salisbury can over forget that cornet
band that every night when the weather per
mitted would regalo and charm us with tho
strains of tho "Mocking Bird"? Did I say
"Mocking Bird"? Well, yes; that's what it
was intended for, but the manner in which the
rebel horn-tooters Mowed it through their
fractured instruments was enough to make tho
beautiful feathered songster commit suicide.
This was another source of torture that us
poor penucd-up mortals wero forced to endure
and for which wo can never bo sufficiently
recompensed. Tho rasping of a filo over a
hard-tempered piece of steel could not be moro
keenly penetrating to sensitive nerves than
wero tho harsh, discordant notes that were jar
ringly blown from that rebel musician's old
TRADING FOR BUTTONS AND NEEDLES.
Nor was music the only thing that diverted
tho prisoner's mind from his miseries. Ono
would supposo that in such a placeand with
so much visible poverty surrounding every
thing, there could not possibly be anything of
value; yet, notwithstanding, there was a regu
lar market, whero someone was continually
bartering and trading for anything whereby
they could profit or get something to eat. The
principal articles for hartor, aud which had tho
most value, especially to. the rebel guards, were
buttons and needles, which the guards would
eagerly purchase by exchanging red peppers or
onions, and sometimes a potato, and occasion
ally some meal and fat pork; but it was
very rarely that meat of any kind could be
traded for. No doubt it would puzzlo the
reader, if not explained, how it wa3 that a
trade with a rebel guard could safely ho done,
so I will enlighten by relating how this mar
ket inside tho prison was supplied with the
prodpets of the South. As I havo before relat
ed, there was not sufficient water within tho
inclosure to meet the ordinary wants for drink
ing and cooking purposes, and theroforo there
was each day selected a detail of prisoners who,
under guard, would bo marched out at the big
gate and down to the creek that I mentioned
in my escape whero Wiggins and I washed
ourselves. Thero thoy would fill an old flour
barrel which had a hole cut on each side,
through which a stick sufficiently long and
strong was placed, and thu3 with each end of
the pole on their shouldor, aud the barrel in
between, would this water-guard march to the
creek for water. It was while these trips
were being mado that the prisoners would
strike up a trade. It seemed that the citizens
of the Confederacy were extremely short of
needles and buttous, and in order to get them
they would make to the water detail sonic very
liberal and tempting offers, which tho Yanks
were eager to secure. This is the way in which
the market or "board of trade" was started.
Those- who wero fortunate enough to be placed
on the water detail would, after he had secured
some gdvautago iu getting red poppers or
onions from tho guard in trade, immediately
goon change; and his voice could be heard,
crying out, " Who wants to trado brass buttons
for red peppers," or " who wants to trado a nee
dle for an onion." Aud, of course, he would
attract custom and do considerable business on
such capital. It was a common occurrence to
seo the prisoners cut the buttons off of thoir
clothes and trade them for onions or peppers.
At the time I loft tho prison there was not a
brass button to be seen ou the prisoners' clothes,
they had traded them off and substituted little
sticks, which answered tho purpose of btutons.
Where the needles came from I do not know,
but there was always some on the market, for
which the highest price would he asked aud
readily given, so highly-prized wero they by
the rebels. Such a thing as a penknife was
worth a fabulous price, aud I only remember
of hearing of ono put on the market, which
was held too high for any of the traders to
touch, but I believe it was finally traded off. by
ono of the water-detail to one of the guards
for a small bag of beans, somo meal, onions
and potatoes, which must havo been quito a
fortune for tho lucky knife-owner. Besides
all this trading, an cuterprising citizen of Sal
isbury opened a Sutler's store in tho prison, in
which he temptingly displayed to tho hungry
prisoners loaves of bread, fresh pork aud other
eatables, for which he asked fabulous prices.
Among other things that he had for salo was a
Iiok's head. This was hanging up high and
way back of him, to insure its safety, because
there wero men in the pon that wore desper
ate, made so by hunger, who would not havo
hesitated to mako a ram 011 anything to eat
thero was any possible chance of getting. I
remember of going up to this Sutler's shed and
feasting my eyos upon his goods, and, through
curiosity, ventured to ask tho price of tho hog's
head. Ho answered $100. I fell back breath
less, and felt like hiding from the amusing
gaze of this YCiy rcasnuablc. Confederate mer
chant. Trade did not seem to flourish with
the Sutler. Perhaps it was caused by over
production, or from -the nvant of money to pur
chase. This finally caused him to close up
shop and leave the prison trade wholly to tho
water-guard and prisoners.
To bo continued.
CRME3 AND CASUALTIES.
J. F.Miller (colored) fell from tho Now York
express train ou tho Cumberland Valley Bail
road on the night of Aug. 29, near Chambers
burg, Pa. Ho was sittiug on tho platform of
ono of tho cars and thinks ho must have fallen
asleep and been jolted from tho car as tho train
rushed along at top speed. His left hip and
collar bono wero broken, his head badly cut,
and ho sustained other injuries. An extra
freight train on the Burlington Railroad, car
rying a coach loaded with passengers for the
Croston (Iowa) fair, w.13 ditched by a bad rail
near Croston Saturday, and a flagmau went
back to stop a following extra. The flagman
failed to reach tho train, which was running
down grade, in time to prevent a collision. The
passengers had barely time to get out when
tho cngino crashed into tho first train.
Crowley, tho chimpanzee of tho New York
Central Park menagerie, was thoroughly dis
sected Saturday at tho Museum of Natural His
tory. Tho immediate- cause of death was found
to be congestion of tho right lung. By the
ravages of consumption it was a putrid mass,
caked over with pleuric matter, which fastened,
on tho chest walls and closed tho luug cavity.
Tho liver was degenerated and the heart un
sound. Peritonitis had diseased tho kidneys
and covered them with tubercles. Tubercles
were found on all tho organs, and tho walls of
the chest and abdomen. The climato and tho
diet to which tho monkey was subjected wero
undoubtedly tho cause of his complete decay.
Dr. Jo3oph Mooro, a prominent politician,
wa3 struck by a train at a crossing on the New
Jersey Central Railroad in West Bridgeton, N.
J., Saturday, and died in threo hours.
Dr. Joseph Parker, a wealthy resident of
Raleigh, N. C, died in his carriage at tho depot
in that city Saturday, whero ho had gone to
meet his wife. Asthma is supposed to havo
caused his death. Arthur Whito, a youth of
19, who soveral weeks ago absconded with
$10,009 belonging to tho banking-house b"f
Kittrcdgo & Co., Denver, Colo., has been appre
hended at Victoria, B. C, aud $3,500 of tho
money has been recovered. Sunday morning
fire destroyed in Baltimoro about $1,000,000
worth of property in tho block bounded by
Sharp, Lombard, Hanover and Pratt streets,
and seveu firemen wore crushed to death by a
falling wall. The freight steamer City of
Lawrence, of the Norwich (Conn.) Transporta
tion Co., caught firo Friday night whilo off.
New Haven, en route to Norwich. The firo
originated in 200 bales of cotton in the hold.
Tho crew succeeded in checking tho flames
sufficiently for the steamer to reach Norwich.
There wero between 35 and 40 passengers
aboard, and for a time panic reigned. Fri
day night a locomotive-boiler exploded at
Sowell Station, W. Va killing John Williams,
fireman, and fatally wounding Henry Shoo
mau, engineer. Henry Gunther, Joe Jackson
and Wm. Bush wero seriously injured. Fri
day night Maggie Oxsture, of Campbell's Creek,
W. Va., drank a half ounce of laudanum with
suicidal intent. A love affair was tho cause of
attempt at self-destruction. Her recovery is
doubtful. A free-for-all fight occurred at a
J miners' dance near Hawk's Nest (W. Va.) coal
mines i riday night. Constable Eads, who at
tempted to quell the riot, was shot; it is thought
to be fatal. George Jones and Mike O'Hara,
miners, wero shot. Their wounds are not of av
serious nature. Joe Briggs, James Callahan,
Conrad Jones, Jerry Kenney and Wm. Studds
were arrested for doing the shooting.
The progress of yellow fever in Florida
continues without interruption. Every day's
telegrams from Jacksonville show from 20 to
30 new cases, with au increasing death rate.
The type of the fever is not considered as malig
nant as usual, however. Tho people are fright
ened and are fleeing from the city in large
numbers, tho quarantine being raised to
permit them to escape. A party of 40
armed men broko down the doors of tho
jail at Farmville, Va., on Saturday morning
aud dragged out a negro named Archer Cook.
They carred him lo tho outskirts of the town,
hung him to a tree and riddled his body with
bullets. Ho wa3 accused of a brutal assault
upon the person of a young whito woman.
China has refused to ratify tho treaty with
the United States which restricts emigration
from that country to this. The new Swiss
The American Magazine
Steady To- "Day.
THE PRESIDENTS ERROR,
By HON. JAS. G. BLAINE,
Being a Criticism of Mr. Cleveland's 3Xm
sage of last December,
TARiFF AND" LABOR,
By GOV. J03. BENSON FORAKER,
THE AMERICAN XAVT OP TO-DAY (niwrirtd,
by Likot. Wm. F. Ft'iXAX. showing present
strength of the United States Navy.
IX HIAWATHA'S COUXTItr (IUwtmiwlh by
Ciiahus Burr Toid.
DEAD MAX'S LAKB (Illusimted), by yfOMJM
Strong Stories, Poems, and n large amount
of Choice Dligeelliuieotw Matter
fWCQ 1 UUttAK niGTDiarrrm
v n iffiwwfvif llw I fflww 1 LUi
Louisiana Slate lottery Company.
Ineorpcrxtrt t.jr n r.UTatnt in l. (br K,ln
tlonl and t harr:i.!-- j ir,---.j" I im frtnctts in.iN
par' of the pivi)t !.iNs Constitution, ia iTJ. by 4a
oerw helming popular vote.
It fJrRK.l E.xtrRrlfHttry Dmwht inks
ple? SttHl-AMMHr ;Jhm Mt ee. iker,,
h4 Uh UrniMl Siie NumWr ftonwi take
I!M?e h earh wf the aIir tM mb ia I fee
yenr, hhI re hII rfmwH In mMlev
Aen4tem f Mle, Kw OrleMMM, JL.
"W do rw cfrHfy ikal we smmrmm k ?-
D"i9 of Tk Lemmam . aw Cm
fg, mad i prm manage w ttmimi H Orw
W0 Mtmuetrea, xd thai A mme mm mimetml
ttk hmetti,, fnu mtd n mod faith ttrd til
parttn, , tr mttotriM tk featjMw to rm lUi
firtf, wit K-flw(w mt muHmtmrm i.
TIIE AMERICAN MAGAZINE is representa
tive of American Thought nml Progress, und it a
Decided ExKnant of American Institutions.
FOR SALE EVERYWHERE.
25c. a j&Piinsjber. $3 a "Year,
THE AMERICAN MAGAZIHE,
74-9 Broadway, New York.
Minister to the United States started for Wash
ington Aug. 31. M. Vechard, a Socialist
leader, and five of his colleagues were arrested
at Aimens, France, for inciting workmen to
strike. Premier Floquefc and Admiral
Krantz, tho French Minister of Marine, wit
nessed the naval evolutions of tho French fleet
at Toulon on Saturday last. Two torpedo hoats
' came into collision and were both seriously
damaged during tho manuvors.
The New York Republican convention met
at Saratoga last week and nominated Hon.
Warner Miller for Governor, Col. Stephen V.
Crupor for Lieutenant-Governor, and Col. Wm.
Kumsey for Judge of the Supreme Court. These
three candidates have brilliaut records as sol
diers of the late war. Congressman Ford,
tho Chairman of the Congressional Committee
investigating the subject of immigration, says
without douhfc that a bill will speedily bo
passed by Congress which will prevent the im
portation of contract labor in tho United States,
as tho evils of this system havo been thor
oughly ventilated before the committee, which
has been in session iu New York city for sev
eral weeks. Tho receipts and expenditures
of the United States for August wero $3-1,023,-160
and $24,115,818 respectively.
CUTICURA RtKDIE3 Cu.tS
Skin and Blood Diseases
from Pimples tc Scrofula
TO VF.N OAK DO JCSTICE TO THE KSTEE3I lit WIIICII
iM the CJU-rictjitA Remedies are held hy the thousands
ujion thousands whose lives have been made happy by
the cure of agonizing, humiliating, itching, scaly, and
pimply diseases of the skin, scalp, aud blood, with loss
Ccticuea, the great Skin Cure, and Cuticcka Soai
nit exquisite Skin Ueautiilcr, prepared from it, exter
nally, aud CimcunA Rksoi.ve.nt, the 2ew Blood Puri
fier, internally, are a posltiye cure for every from of
sklu and blood disease, from pimples to scrofula.
Sold even-where. Trice, CirnconA, 50c.; Soap, 2c.;
Resolvj-nt Si. Prepared by the rorrEis Dnuc axd
Chemical Co., Boston. Mass.
Send for " How to Cure Skin Diseases."
XfS- rimples, blackheads, chapped and oily skin "SO
SfW prevented by Cbticura. Soai. SU
Rheumatism, Kidney Tains aud "Weakness
speedily cured by Cimcun.v Anti-Pain
Plastek, the only pain-killing plaster.
TO $10 A DAY!
AGENTS WANTED !
K3 CIRCULARS FREE.
1 000 BK-wstor Safetv Rein Holders
1IVEN AWAY to introduce them,
livery horse owner buys from 1 to o.
Lines never under horse's feet. Send 25
ceut postal note to pay postage and pack
ing for Nickel-Plated -Sample that sells
for 05 cents. Address,
Brewster Mf'g Co., Holiy, Mich.
Mention The National Tribune.
C) SWARTILMORE, TA.
Opens fith Month, 11th. Thirty minutes from
Broad St. Station, Philadelphia. Under the care of
Friends. Full ruIIcko course lor both sexes.
Clascal, Scientific and Literary. Also, a Manual
Training and a Preparatory School. Healthful location.
Isrgc-srrrun-1", "c'e!i,,iv l"':!di::gs "::d spprstii'J. For
Catalogue and full particulars, address
EDWARD II. MAGILL, LL. D., President.
Mention The National Tribune.
Co. K, 1th 3Ie.
All comrades of Co. E, 4th JIc., aro requested
to send their postofllco address to Joseph E.
MearSj Thomaston, Me.; also, if wounded, stato
when and where, aud when discharged from
Tho battle of Gettysburg panorama ia to be
talien from Donver to Japan. Tho Japs who
visited Denver tho other day were so pleased
with it that thoy at onco entered into a busi
ness negotiation to have the immense painting
transported and eroeted in thoir country. It
is now being retouched prior to its removal.
(CEB I G3
Used by thousands of first-class Manufacturers t3S.T8S3-
nnu aiecnanics ontueir lient woric. "a success KlKCnJ
way poMiMe. Hemcmber that THE ONLY GENUINE
lipase's Iiiquld Glue is manufactured solely by the
RUSSIA CEMENT GO., gBBggffllfc Sftg
Mention The National Tribune.
$3, ?3J0, $io iO $!J0. including Violin,
Case. Bow. Extra Strings and Book:
C.O.D.5 dnvs trial. Free Catalocr
iiiiof ViolinOutilts or Musical Goods
very much below tegular prices.
S. T. BOOT & SOUS, 75 JAOZSGH ST., CHICAGO, ILLS.
BleuUoa The National Tribun?,
I! S S RSSS II
'To introducs it into A MILLION
FAMILIES wa offer the
to MN'Y, 18891
JFour months balance of this year.l
Oil RECEIPT OF
tra i tAe lemiiuma
It. M .W.l IjJLMtSY, pr Tni.1.1... . .
2iAm x',f "- a S Hk.
UKi KOIi:s, lrH. I wfcm XathMMO Bank.
GRAND MONTHLY DRAWING
, September U !&,
CAPITAL FR1ZE, $300,000.
iM,0& Tkk: h Twwtr each.
l iJUZE OF vum fet.
1 PKI2E OF 3.,Jfc fc
1 FlilZE Off itm ku.
& PRIZE Of? ia, .
25 PRIZES OF lSiZ
a phizes or
l Prizes of
100 do. aai , -
.. .. c
ml if ?: rv" sS3
ST. S h ,V?--' . i.m
-iL - tf t-. ZAfi -
Breakfast and Dinner Parties Home!
i Cooking, Dainties and Desserts. Teas, Sop-J
Ipers, .Luticaeons and Kecepuons. Oivcs cx-
ipiicitiy all tht little cetaiis women want to!
know Tcib how to entertain guests, how lol
Ecrve refreshments, what to have and how tof
Smaksit. Everythios new and criminal, practi-
Scal and wcil tested byexperts. Accompanying!
Ethe redoes will be remarks uoon cn.ttvtablead-1
. .-- . - . a
ijuncts, methods oi serving and waiting, gar-
inishmg, table manners and etiquette.
Caildren's Page Illustrated Stories.
Flowers and House Plants finely iHus-l
jtrated articles, edited by Eben E. Rsxfordj
Iwith "Answers to Correspondents.
Mather's Corner A uaee devoted to thel
icare of infants and youne children. lEterestrngl
tetters frosi subscribers giving views and meth-S
lods of management. Unzinai articles from thei
sbest writers. Illustrated articles cil Games and!
IHotne-rnade Toys. Amusements for Sickl
I Children. Illustrated. Kindergarten. Il-I
jhutrated articles by Anna W. Barnard.
i CUR TIS PUBLISHING CO., Philadelphfa.i
.aieutlou The National Triouas.
Kfn 1 -
3 CBt Yt Siie, rail 3
amay see unl ezamir.-B-ame,
w v ill send it
cuatton, u 30 eta. Is sen
MCootl f.itii; balancf . ?
Vftth ElRin Style,!
Tral .lut Proof i
only S3. 75. To in 3
troiiuce ou? Solid.
U'jlil ami Silver!
I'.te.. ant to shirei
tliat wo are the?
CHK.t?KST Hon-w ia
tiie We.t, we mke
IHtbr' Siltei htti
Waleh comn only
in S-oanee, tinei
Cases, which look
and wear lik- Sol-j
M Silver. SaUsfee
lion Cam-anteed r
ooneras. mith-e. rhatnir
this wikteh before Davlncr for,
f. O. D., s-.il.jeet to full examt-3
in suiranvtt us a guarantee ot
.25 to be l tid at t-xyr .- omee.
tOO IV. X.dLou .!., tblcago.
Tltit Watch fnr 3.75 . a bamnin an. I w.rfc mnrt
than double the pnr-- astv?. ihe Iltusr is louff eMatr
lished.of good standing, and ire hufldin- upalai$
Jewelry Trade on its merits. T. Cut this out.
8.134 Prke OKHMtilMt t ,
XOTX. Tickets tie&ariiurCuHiml PriM. . '.:.,-.
to terminal Prises. "
writ--,- leglblr to the wtdere&iied, eleswTr stafVouJ
rescue, wit,&u,0,uySe1Urt jK? jfa
rap.i tettun mail delivery will fee- MMtwi br jowto.
cloMng an Euvel-JiH- tearing yoar foil addrwsi
Sead Pp.Vf AI. XOTK-S Expies Mouy Orient ot
New orfc Exchange iu ordinary leuec iWxeueyjy
Kac press Cat our txytcuset addieaeed i -j
lil. A. DAUPIHiY, New Mow, e.
Address Ragistered Letters to
NKW OKLJSAJSS XATIOXiil. RAW,
' OtUmm, La.
RPMryRPR Thai the jeesenceaf Renm' !teti
'IHP1. mMLI1 regard an Early. wb are hi caarm
of the drawings, is a guaraste o ataoiute &ure and
integrity ti.at theenaucesareaU eqoal, aiwl tlwrfao oaa
can possibly divine what number will draw a i'riss.
. ,H?:rI,E:Uj5EKJLab' that payment of Prizes
b KI'AKAXTElSft BY PDCjT'xATIOXAI.
lJAMv of New Orleans, and the Tickets jre tened
by the Pr sid ut of an JnitoUoo whose ci.-rterod
righ's are rewwrnized f n the highest Courts ; theratow,
beware of any imitations or anonymous scaet&ca. "
Claims of Officers for Remus
ter and Arrears of Pay.
Congress has just passed a bill extradtne the time for
ftlinjr claims of officers tor remitter aitd arreacs uf pay.
By the pnmakm of this haw fact ef Jane m, and
amendatory act of February W8T.) ail persona who
held commissions for any grade for whtctt the v were cot
paid, are entitled to remitter and pay accordingly, pro
vided there was a vacancy and that they were actually
performing the duties of that grade, or wrre abetent
either as a prisoner of war, by reason of wuuut-i or other
disability received in the line of doty tn mil iinry serv
ice. Such date of muster to be determined hy the date
of rank given in the commission prior to Jane -S. lnO,
or sataeqoent to that date, whe the command waa not
below the minimum required to entitle U to an officer of
The recent act extends the time for filing these claims
for five years from June 3. 1367.
ClH of Oiem iii MM M fe?
Bra, Ete.. M ii tie m
All claims of officers and enlisted men fee value of
horses and equipments lost in the military service, which,
have been barred si&ce January S,TI, can new be riled
and considered under the provisions of the previous lib
eral laws regarding such claims. The time to; nlintr
the claims has been exten-tea tat three year. As the
Bureau which adjusts these claims is practical lv up to
date with its work, it is important that the claims be
3 led at once to in.-ure speedy actios, and thna avoid de
lay consequent upon an avalanche of such cairns, as
tbey are examined in the order of filing.
"Where thpothcer or soldier is dead, bis heir or legal
representatives are entitled under both of the ubova
mentioned laws. 2fn charge for advice. Address
GEORGE E. LEMON,
Attnriiey-Kt-JLaw al Solieitor of Claims.
P. 0. Drawer 325. WASHIM6T0M, D. C.
1 Drilling f
3 sA .
g TO EkSf $
vrA iC-"" TytsSi
Mention The National Tribute.
of 3) samples of cloth, from whi.-ii we
CUT TO OliDER TilK FA3LOUS
Plymouth Rook $3 Pauls
''antl Full Suits at S13.S5.
Fullest particulars and gl'AR.vnteed
self-measurement blanks enclose!.
Flyinonth Rock Pants Co,,
IS Summor Street, Boston;
S85 JtroRtlway, "Sexr York;
Mention The National Tribnne.
WIDOW atGIAMa wc.
Mention The National Tribuns.
flNVAMD EOLLINS CHAIF2.
SSSSSgTf&oBO who aro no.
USgZVir Ohio to walfe. Tho
H IAHGEST FACTORY ,
&i and BEST CHAIRS inl
3- tneworiu. tseniiio:
Meation this lsuer. Circular to
ADJUSTABLE CHAIR CO., HEW HAYEK, CT.
Meatloa xuc ifttlonai Triouao,
100 to 4,000
ITHACA, K. Y.
sent to onr Boston store,
with vour name, and the
name of this pater on
It, will hring to your
r'fw'jiii f ioo '"'iriaiMJ
? S-Tf iiinBa '
is. S3 a jfc 4i ; z. w
- - wr
003. - I
i.A grCIE' B" BiS'
ITT .-n IBTV I T - - - 'M -
Win iff. -. iri llif j0
z. . r.-Tiv
OPINIONS RENDERED AS TO THE MOV
INVENTIONS AXD VALIDITY OF PATENTS. rU.lEB
APPLICATIONS PROSECUTED. ALL BUSlfi RE
LATING TO INVENTIONS AfeD PATENTS ?jTl?lVt
AHENDED TO. SEND STAMP FOR PA.'r..- HLET.
Louisiana SiSb Ifc m
If von have
nos fceeu Xonunte elaowhere, try rae for - caan.
Vfcojlaa fids pijer. Jlii. S. TVILSOX, CaTihilva.Ky,
Mention The National Tribuns
This is Widow JfcGinnU'
Pr Uia: was put up at a
riiffl in S.Y. tuKetiuon.
ej' ijr Can.;ili;niJ irpoes
It s m.tUuul iiut!.
Sold plated, iusitie
Ton can have lots of fun with lr. Kverho3y vmnts one
Batuole port pn.d IO cts. Three fur C5-ts. OueDosen
for5 Is. with List of all Campaign Goods free
F.. Xili OX Ai CO.. 12X rvassau St., .Jew uort.
Mention The- National Trlbocs.
D. NEEDHAM'S SONS
HG-118 Dearborn Street,
LirWA'Q-rrJffli R1 t .
3f.?ift-3fcHfitidn i' muop h nconrric
.K! ZZ?.7?ytSTi! llhll UlUfUl DlUJll'JUIJ.
feF?d5K An.) rinin ABrt enun rtTPftrrrc
OF THE SLQSSQMS. .The B5T
BtaUO PL'BirltRXHOWH. Cures
Canet-r, Cat.urh, bait ftheum.
Whoopinr Cough, and all
61003 OlSEASta. Send for cir-i-alar.
Idonotsac-nrriertly to stop them fur a hem aaa
then have tfcera rvt::ru. I mean a radical ear?.. I hava
madeJTITS, rrPlLOSYcrFAlXtSO SJCKK.-3
life-Ion study. I war:;nr my remedy to oar the
wont cases. Beeanse ot.'itfrs hare falt i t. -. Tesoa
f cr not now reoeiv mr a ci;,?e. Send at once for treatiao
and tTeeBntttecfniyiBfixUsblereiaetry. 6ivKsrre
and P. o. II. U. ItUOT. M. C. ISO feart St N.Y.
Mention The NaUonalTrioaaa
by BENN PITKANaad JEKOKK R. JMIWAKI.to
tub jraosotiii-vruic iNTiTiTE, ciscaaaTi, OHIO.
Mention The National Trihens.
-5"&?3JI? KEVOT-ViSiSS. Send atasar for price
afjU Hd list to J.H. Jonnstoa &SOBjmtattcsg.Sa.
Mention The National TriboEc
TrrVNTED Br Twr NLitms.vx. TKiBcsx-The ad
V dress of Jtetn Ievere. 3eeod-Class tireiuan. V. 3.
S. Alaska, who m US5 was an inmate of soldiers' Home
near Hampton. Ya. 366-tf
WANTKB By Georae E. Lemon, Washinjiton, IX C
The address or Ortn i. Doaghtiiy. late pri
vate. Co. H, lftii N. Y.; la heard from iu l&S st Union
City, Pa. 3K-tf
WANTED-By George X De Tertev, U atenaan. Ind.
The addreaees of any members o Vw C, Wftlt
(Hancock's) Corps, with view to holding .iEui:iBt
fhimbas during the Knutmpcacnt in Septciaher. 3K-3C
WVNTEB Sr I. Swin. Breekinri-.'' Colo. The
asd Co. K; name and address SkK.C -tCC-?-t.
wa, Tenn . Spring of 13. and of any comrade a
!jbi&&fyH&fiZ. - W''AJ-- .2t is&iAt
w-- . .-u SuS&i. ,
A. ""'' V TET-
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