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THK NATIONAL TRIBUjSJ!: WASHINGTON, D. &, -THURSDAY, JULY 28, 1892 -TWELVE PAGES.
A Look at John Bull's Legislative
Queen Sovereign in Name Only The Voice
of the People House of Xords an Orna-WCnt-The
Kvilish Voter Mode of Con
ducting: Elections The Candidates The
Speaker of the House The Parliament
Dorchester, Exg., Jnly 12, 1S92.
AKLIAMENT in Eng
land has indeed becoiuo
a term with pome mean
ing attached to it. The
day when a Sovereign
could declare his inten
tion to rule without a
Parliament lias passed,
and England has become
quite demociatic as far
as its legislative body is
gi? concerned. In that re-
&& spect the position of the
X10U50 Ol i.uiuimuib lb
rather unique. Though
surrounded by all that
pertains to royalty and monarchy, yet it has
carved out for itself a position of great power;
even greater, if possible, than that of the House
of Representatives. Constitutional monarchy
as it exists here is not such a bad thine. The
great troublo is it is expensive to support a
large royal family as an official head of the
state: and the nobility are a harmless set of
hereditary grandioses from whom, as such,
there is no possible resulting benefit.
The Constitution of the United States must
have been modeled considerably after that of
England. The powers granted to the House of
Commons and House of Lords correspond in
general to those of the two Houses of Congress,
respectively. That is, bills of National inter
est originate in the Commons and are passed
upon by the Lords, and must then bo signed by
the Sovereign before becoming acts of Parlia
ment. Appropriations arc, however, exclusively con
fined to the Commons, and all questions of rank
to the Lords; while the latter also constitutes
the highest appellate court in the land.
The House of Commons is of course the only
part of the Government in which the people
have a voice. The Upper House and the head
of the Government is hereditary, and there
of debate and legislation which grants a certain
prestige when compelled by cruel fate to trans
fer their sphere of action to the Upper House.
A wide difference in the political systems of
the two countries is found in the elective sys
tem. The duration of a Parliament is indefi
nite, the time of election equally so, and other
things differ from the clock-work regularity of
the American elective system.
The extreme life of a Parliament is seven
years, or it may bo dissolved at any interme
diate timo by command of the Sovereign; also,
in the case of some new policy, the members
may be obliged to submit themselves for re
election on that issue. Such was the case with
.tho Gladstone party on the Home-Rule ques
tion. When Parliament has been dissolved, writs
are issued to all the constituencies for a now
election. A day for nomination is appointed,
not simply for party nomination, but each in
tending candidate's name must bo presented.
If there is only one, then he is declared elected.
Otherwise, a poll is ordered for a certain day,
when ballots aro deposited by tho qualified
electors, as in the States.
To the person of careful observation it will
bo apparent that the British voter resembles in
more ways than one the American voter.
While it is true that tho Britisher is a freer
agent than his American cousin, yet ho is quite
as easily influenced, and has an equal faith in
the party leaders.
Elections may occur on any day within a
certain limit, and not simultaneously all over
tho country. Likewise, a man may vote iu as
many districts as ho possesses tho necessary
property qualifications. There is not a manhood
suffrage here, but one of property; so that one
person may possibly vote- for several candidates.
The qualifications arc of three different kinds.
A man must possess freehold property which
brings in a clear income of a small amount, or
he must occupy rented premises of tho value of
$50 yearly; or, third, a man must occupy lodg
ings worth $1.25 per week. The two latter re
quire tho occupation of tho same premises for
one year previous to election.
Under the last law it is possible for almost
any respectable workman to bo entitled to a
vote; yet there is considerable agitatiou of the
one-man one-vote theory, and it will probably
Tho form of partisan organization that exists
in England is a little more modified than that
of our country, and it serves to make better
Under the present state of affairs any 10 men
whose names are duly registered have the
power to nominate a candidate, and it will
thus bo seen that any number of candidates
may be nominated with but little chance of
anything bearing resemblance to a political
are no assemblies corresponding with State
Legislatures. Local bills for tho four countries
of Great Britain, which iu America would
come before such bodies, would have to be
brought before the National assembly.
Tlie people have jealously fostered that
privilege. As a result tho position of tho two
Houses has been almost reversed within the
past two or three centuries. Formerly the
Lords were the body powerful, while the faith
ful Commons were swayed by the Royal com
mand. Though theoretically it still probably
has less power than the House of Representa
tives, yet practically its power is almost with
out restraint. Its power is almost imperial, if
not by statute at least by usurpation.
The Queen is sovereign iu name only. Her
individual will weighs almost as naught. Her
official acts are those of the party in power.
The " Queen's speech," so called, read at the
opening of every Parliament is prepared by tho
leaders of the prevailing party and contaius a
setting forth of tho measures which it is pur
posed to pass. Although at heart a Tory, yet
should the Liberals be successful she would be
obliged to appoint the Cabinet proposed by
that party. She has veto power on all bills, I
believe, yet Bhe would not dare exercise iC
Her " Gracious approval " is a matter of course
ifter a bill has passed the two Houses.
Since the 17th century, when Parliament
Certain duties devolve upon each candidate
upon the event of his nomination. He is re
quired to take every reasonable precaution to
prevent any illegal practices; he must keep a
strict account of his personal and election ex
penses and transmit them to the returning
officer. Seven years' penal servitude is tho
penalty for any false statements made. All
bills or posters bearing upon the election must
have tho name of the printer plainly apparent.
Of 53G Liberal and Irish Nationalist candi
dates as many as 143 are barristers and solici
tors, while out of 520 Conservatives and Lib
eral Unionists 91 are lawyers. Next in numbers
come the land-owners, of whom 118 are
Unionists and 43 Home Rulers.
Other professions and occupations aro repre
sented as follows among the Parliamentary
candidates: Manufacturers, Unionists 70 and
Homo Rujers 72 ; merchants, Unionists 25 and
Homo Rulers 34; newspaper proprietors and
journalists, Unionists 13 and Home Rulers 29;
brewers and distillers, Unionists 11 and Home
Rulers 17; stockjobbers, Unionists 8 and Homo
Rulers 12; company promoters, Unionists 1
and Home Rulers 5 ; naval officers, Unionists
4 and Home Rulers 0; army officers, Unionists
34 and Home Rulers 11; peers' sons, Unionists
44 and Home Rulers 8; tenant farmers, "Union
ists 5 and Home Rulers 13; retail traders,
Unionists 2 and Homo Rulers 14 ; medical pro-
A Sitting or the Houee of Commons.
repudiated the claims of the Stuart family and
established a rival claimant on the throne, tho
choice of Sovereign rests with the House of
Commons. Of course, unless for special reasons,
the direct line would be chosen; but should
one Sovereign become obnoxious he or she
would be signing tho death warrant of their
respective house. The Monarch serves as a
figurehead as an official representative of tho
None of the Royal family, although occupying
Beats iu the House of Lords, dare take any part
in politics. In retnrn for their magnificent
salaries they lay corner-stones, attend pui-lic
gatherings, and furnish matter for public
The tendency of late years is toward the
abolishment of the hereditary House of Lords.
Although such an ovcut may not occur very
soon, yet it will, no doubt, be the final result.
The necessary turning point toward such an
outcome would be obstinacy ou the part of tho
Lords toward any favorite measure of the
Commons. The Lords appreciate the situation,
end as a rule are obedient and their approba
tion is generally only a matter of form. If
they oppose a measure, a second return of it by
the Commons generally has tho desired effect,
and some unimportant amendment will prob
ably be tacked on merely to preserve their
own dignity. In this respect their proceed
ings are generally very lame in comparison
with tne occasional Btormy sessions of tho
Tliero is also another way by which tho ob
stinacy m the part of tho Lords may bo over
come. That is by additions to their own
ranks. Peers can be cieated at any timo and
without JU13 limit of number. Political leaders
are often given eerages for eminent services.
Should somo important measure be obstructed
in the House of LordB, a sufficient number of
new peers of the right faith might be created
to overcome the onnosine: taction. This ex
treme is oue, however, that has not been ro-
sorted to lor mauy, many years.
Tho House of Commons is a favorite training
place for the heirs of hereditary peerages. It
iVc& them a training in the usages and tactics
fession, Unionists 3 and Homo Rulers 13;
teaching profession, Unionists 4 and Homo
Rulers 11; architects and auctioneers, Union
ists 2 and Homo Rulers 2.
There are 31 labor candidates, of whom ono
is a Conservati vc.
Women actively engage in canvassing, and
while they are not pormitted to voto for Parlia
ment they can and do conjure the votes for the
men. They do a good work by visiting from
house to house and pleading for tho iufiuenco
of tho voters' wives.
What is called the " campaign van " is mndo
to accommodato two or more workers, and is
driven through the country, scattering here
and there campaign literature, and also mak
ing a handy platform for speech making.
There is no salary attached to tho position of
member of Parliament. The honor of the suffix
M. P. is supposed to be sufficient remuneration
for tho necessary sacrifice of timo and rnoucy
incidental to a campaign and a Loudon resi
dence of several years. Besides, when once
elected a member cannot resign. This result is
accomplished by accepting tho so-called "Chil
tern Hundreds," which gives release from offi
A Parliamentary career is one frequently
coveted by tho wealthy. As there is no resi
dence required within any particular district a
qualified citizen can "sit" for any constitu
ency in tho Kingdom. So any ono wishing to
enter Parliament hunts about for a constitu
ency that will "adopt" him as theircandidate.
Frequently no local man can bo found who is
willing to stand for the position.
The result of tho no-pay system is.a scarcity
of labor candidates. Unless his adherents are
willing to undertake tho support of such acau
didate, no one but a man of wealth can afford
thelionor of tho position. While it bars out a
number of good mcu it may possibly have an
equal cogency in barring out some adventurers
whose honor cannot withstand the glittor of
Parliamentary proceedings contain a great
deal of glamour and display not characteristic
of democratic simplicity. Especially is this
true of tho House of Lords. When tho Sover
eign is present or a now peer is to take his scat,
the members deck themselves in their bright,
official robes. The Queen or her representatives
always appear In tho Upper House, to which
tho Commons is summoned by Black Rod, tho
official messenger of the Upper House.
While waiting for entrance into tho House of
Commons I witnessed one of theso official pro
cessions. With slow and stately tread tho Ser
geant bearing tho Black Rod marched across
the hall preceded by a majostic Constable.
"Hats off," was the command. After three
raps at the door of tho House of Commons tho
GEN, R &AYRE&
t "lO fe?
"' Tim Speaker's Ciiair.
invitation to enter was given. Then tho Com
mons was commanded to attond tho Houso of
Lords to hear " Her Majesty's pleasure,' The
return was thou made by the Lords official
followed by the Commons preceded by tho Ser
geant bearing the mace, tho corresponding
symbol of that House.
There aro 670 members of tho House of Com
mons. Of these the Govornmont (parly in
power) sit ou tho right hand of tho Speaker's
chair and tho opposition on tho left. The pro
ceedings, especially on party measures, rosomblo
a family quarrel. First ono sido speaks, then
tho other, until thero is considerable excite
ment at times. It is very convenient to have
members-separated on such occasions.
The Speaker has great power vested in his
office. Tho Leader of tho Houso has tho ar
ranging of the order of tho day. The magnifi
cent salary of $25,000 is given to tho Speaker,
and ho is generally awarded a peerage after a
The number of persons legislated for by tho
Imperial Parliament is indeed large. No legis
lative body in the world will compare with it
as to the millions directly affected by its meas
ures. Tho magnificent pilo of buildings situated
on the bank of the Thames is in itself worth
more than passing notice. It is a fit place of
meeting for such a body. Its wide halls and
spacious lobbies convey a feeling of quiet dig
nity worthy tho purpose to which they aro
dedicated. N. O. Winteh.
If you come to the Encampment without a
supply of THE NATIONAL TRIBUNE
Portrait Cards it trill be a great disappoint
ment to your comrades. TJiey all want your
picture to take home loith them to look at in
after years when they arc thinking and talking
Only One Man in tho Crowd.
"I was one of a party of eight onco held up
by a lone highwayman," said P. J. Martin, a
bridge contractor, to a St. Louis reporter; "I
was traveling by stage in Montana. Tho
party consisted of two army officera, a specula
tor, four rniuers, and myself.
"Tho stage had been held up pretty fre
quently, so we all wont fixed for trouble.
Every man had a brace of six-shooters, and wo
were just aching to have tho road-agents tackle
us; at least, we talked that way. Wo com
mented very unfavorobly upon men who
yielded to the demands of the freebooters with
out a struggle, and promised them a warm
time if they tackled us. One man had littlo
to say. He was the speculator, a red-headed
man with a squint. Finally, one of tho army
officers asked him what he would do if the
robbers attacked us, and ho replied that ho did
"As we swung around a sharp bond in tho
road, the 6tngo pulled upwith a jerk, the driver
threw up his hands, and almost beforo wo knew
it, we were looking into the barrel of a Win
chester. Well, sir, that lono robber marched
us out and stood us up in lino, with onr hands
above our heads. Then ho threw each man a
small sack and made him pull it over his head.
" Wo all complied, but one. Tho red-headed
speculator pulled his gun and shot the bandit
so full of holes that ho died before ho could
touch the ground. Then he climbed up,
knocked the driver off tho box, and drove tho
stage into the next station, with the most crest
fallen lot of braggarts aboard that ever woro
guns and neglected to uso them."
Don't pntjoff your orders for TITE NA
TIONAL TRIBUNE Portrait Cards a single
day. It is only a few weeks now until the En
campment, and there will be a great rush for
them as the time nears. First come,Jirsl served.
Popular Science Monthly.
Tho decrease in the size of families is a sub
ject which causes some alarm. Taking tho
United States as a whole, it' is found by the
census figures that in 1850 the average family
consisted of 5.55 persons. There has been a
gradual decrease, it being in 18G0, 5.28, in 1870,
5.09, in 1880, 5.0 J, and in 1890, 4.94. Looking at
the different geographical divisions, it is found
that this rule holds true except in the Western
division, where tho average size of tho family
has risen from 4.18 in 1850 to 4.88 in 1890, tho
increase having been steady through the inter
mediate decades. This result would have been
expected, of course, on account of tho set
tlement of tho West in tho last few years,
the population having boen increased rap
idly, and being more and more brought to
tho family basis instead of that of sin
gle individuals or young '.fami lies settling in
Western Territories. The small average size of
tho family in Oklahoma, now a Territory just
opened for settlement, shows tho influence of
now settlements upon tho size of tho family.
In Oklahoma the sizo of tho family will in
crease until population becomos fairly douse,
when it will follow tho rulo of older communi
ties and decrease When population becomes
more or less urban in character tho maximum
is reached, and after that a constantly-receding
average will probably bo shown at eich
Reciprocity in Ciinnl AVreelcngo.
Word has been received from Canada, in an
swer to an official communication recently sent
from Washington, inquiring whether it was
understood by tho Canadian authorities that
under tho terms of tho bill passed by tho House
of Commons at tho last session tho principlo of
reciprocity in wrecking and towing of vessels
of either nationality in water of tho other ox
tended to tho canal system, to the effect that
BO far as concorned towing, incidental to sal
vage, the principle would extend to tho canals.
Hard to swal
low tho great,
that's not tho
hardest part of
it, either. Your
troubles aro only
you get it down.
It's all non
sense. You can
get more good,
and without hav
ing to suffer for it, with Dr. Pierce's Pleasant
Pellets. Not merely temporary good, but
help that lasts. In a perfectly easy and nat
ural way they cleanse and regulate tho whole
system, and keep it regulated, Bick and
Bilious Headache, Constipation, Indigestion,
Bilious Attacks, and all derangements of the
liver, stomach and bowels aro promptly re
lieved and permanently cured.
They're the original Liver Pills, tho small
est, easiest and best to take and they're tho
cJieapest. for they're guaranteed to give
satisfaction, or your money is returned.
You pay only for the good you get. Thig
is true only of Dr. Pierce's medicines.
A perfect vest-pocket remedy, in small
vials, and only ote necessary for a dose.
IIow He Covered .Sie? Retreat from
the First I(Bulr; Run.
BY C. D. BIUGUAM,
w 1 j u-
IINGTON, D. C.
Er C-"-"'" 9jHJ"r5vi','S
t o r
(SST I KJ R B' AY?ES
p though not specially
ironowned for groat
H 1 deeds, was ono of tho
-r-rrAVj ablest corns command
ers in tho war of tho
to tho artillery branch
of tho service, having
graduated at West
Point with great dis
tinction. Proud of tho
profession of arms, ho
chafed for active sorv
ico from tho first mo
merit of hostilities.
On and off the field
ho made a study of the
art of war. When tho
war opened, with at
least two score of Regu
lar officers he was stationed, at Fortress Mon
roe, all eagor for activo sorvice, Ayres espec
ially, and it was probably tho happiest day of
all his lifo when ho was ordered to report for
duty to Adj't-Gen. Townsend iu Washington.
Tho famous Bragg's Battery was his longing.
J It was his first lovo, it may bo said, and his con
stant prayer was tliat tho "old battory "ana
himself mightbe reunited. He had scon service
with it in former years. Especially wheu a
trifle oxhilerated by a toast or two to tho "old
battery," Ayres was eloquent about its exploits
and destiny, though thoy had been soparated
for years. On such occasions ho would exclaim:
"Tho old battery! It knows mo as a child
knows its father! Tho horses all know mo!
Tho men know me! Every linchpin knows
me, and I know them all, and lovo them, too ! "
Tho day that Ayres departed from FortreSB
Mouroo for Washington to report for duty was
one of rejoicing among tho officers and mcu of
the fort. Tho former and their families turned
out with the band to give him a proper send-off.
It was an event, for the Regulars were slow in
getting to duty for no fault of their own,
however. Ayres was tall in sfaturo, and his
figuro was a truly military one. On that
occasion ho was taller than over actually
hardly loss than six feet two. The belief that
ho was to have tho " old battory " possessed
him, and he imparted it to his friends with
I accompanied AyrC3 from Old Point to
Washington. There was an appropriate amount
and kind of hilarity as the time approached for
the Baltimore boat to leavo rho Fortress Mon
roe wharf. When tho cheers on shore grew
faint as the boat rounded the lighthouse, Ayres
turned to me, and in tone and manner at onco
serious and earnest, said: "Come! let's do
appropriate honors to tho occasion," and ho
moved towards tho bar. Leaning against it
the Lieutenant for that was tho rank of
Ayres then and drawing himself up to the
full hight of his spcudid figuro, Baid: "I'm
not quite 40 years old. Pvo been in tho
Army all tho years I could he. I've a wife and
threo children. Then drawing forth tho hand
which ho had inserted into his pockot, ho
slapped a two-and-a-half dollar gold-pieco down
on the counter, saying: "That's all I've got to
show for it, except tho order to report for duty,
which means tho old battery, Let's drink to
tho old battery ! " '
Tho boat's passengers were interested listen
ers to Ayres's conversation father, speeches.
" War ! " exclaimed ho. " It's tho greatest of
all civilizers the true pioneer of progress and
tho best of all tho Christianizing agencies.
There is nothing on earth like war. It whip3
mankind into shape whenever it gets wrong
aud out of gear, and it is about to take a hand
in tho affairs of this country, and I'm going to
havemv sharo at helping with tho old battery
God bless her!"
In the morning, on reaching Washington, we
went to Willard's. The hotel was a completo
caravansary. Officers and men of every pro
fession, all in some way interested in the pend
ing "On to Richmond "'movement, crowded
pvory inch of room. As wo wero moving as
best wo could towards" tlio breakfast room,
Ayres said ho felt suro that the "old battery"
would bo his. Ho declared that tho night be
foro he had slopt with it, that all tho men aud
all tho horses knew him, and much more he
said, halfjocular, half Boriously.
Wo parted to meet at tho samo place at 4 p.
m. Ayres was thero. I know it by his loud
proclamation 50 feet away: "I've got her!
Tho old battery i'b mine." Theso words were
uttered in a ton 0 that attracted tho attention
of the crowd present, through which Ayres
mowed his way, towering above all heads. Ho
would have embraced mo had not his outspread
arms closed above my hoad, whilo his body
nearly crushed mo by its weight. It was plain
enough that ho had prosecuted an active cam
paign since morning. By the express wish of
Gen. Scott tho battery was given to him.
Withdrawing to a quiet place, Ayres.said to
mo: "Time has come to bo serious. I've got
tho battery, and hereafter work is to be tho
order of the day. Important operations aro in
the immediato future, and I will take a part.
A great many foolish men arc around hero who
will know more than they do now in a few
Ho then told mo of tho impending Bull Run
movement. What he said about it, if rcpoaied,
would elevate him not a littlo as one of the fow
men who understood what was likoly to attond
tho "On to Richmond" movement, which in
obedience to clamor was about to bo under
taken. Tho movement camo, and Ayres with tho
"old battery" participated. Ilis account of it
with which ho interested a company of friends
was as entertaining as any play. It fell to him
to cover tho retreat, which was a rout, to
which lam pursuaded no account hasevor done
full justice. "Going to tho front" and tak
ing what camo of it was no now thing to Ayres.
His in on were seasoned in tho service.
Congressmen, gentlemen with ladles, politi
cians aud others also went out with the idea of
going to a picnic rathor than a battle. These,
mingled with fresh volunteers, who had never
beforo smelt gunpowder, constituted tho stam
peded mass of humanity whom it fell to
Ayres to protect. His description transferred
to cauvas would constitute a panorama of sur
passing interest. "It became necessary at
times," said Ayres, " to let the crowd of Con
gressmen ami politicians, who camo out for fun
aud didn't find it, know that it was a touch of
war, not tho slightest approach to a picnic."
As, for instance, "Coming to a bridgo at
which was a jam of vehicles of all sorts, the
drivers aud owners of which seomed to think it
was my work to protect from injury, it didn't
tako lone to toach them the error by ordering
moil to clear tho horses and pitch tho carriages
aside, while the occupants' took caro of them
selves as best they couIu,:1.cry was raised that
tho 'Black IIorsoOivAYryVjftupon us. That
was what I wanted; arTdwl0saw I would bo
placod to see the fellUfs.""'BlnTo enough, there
they wero, hovering1 in' 'woods on my flank.
Ordering a couplo of fc'Uns'to bo uuliiubured
and sliottod with grape, I waited until tho fol
lows wore well buncbon, aijd then lot them
have tho grape. Any ofo wno has been fishing
with worms for bait has1 Noticed how they
squirmed when tho lid,ofjtho box was taken
off. Well, that's tho wayj the Black Horso fol
lows squirmed when tboyjgpt tho grapo, and
I heard no more of them. It was ribt long
after," continued AyrcS, M-ihat a volunteer
Colonel, who had uovenboforo smelt gunpow
der, rode up, nnd in tho wildest and most con
fused manner ordered mo to move my battory
to a position, where had Ldonoso tho guns would
suroly havo been losl,ia8. many others woro.
Hooked at him iu disgust, aud signified ho
,did not.kuow what would bij tho consequences
of my doing so. Ho expostulated, whereupon
I drew from my side-pocket a littlo volumo
ontitlod, 'Napoloon's Rules and Maxims of tho
Art of War,' inviting him to tako it homo and
read it at his leisure. Whon ho had done so
ho could come back and give mo orders on occa
sions like tho prosont. Tho follow went off. I
novcr know whether ho got on or not." Ayres
brought iu his own guns, and two of tho famous
Rhode Island battery's, for which ho was per
sonally commended by Gen. Scott.
Gen. Ayres for such ho became by going up
rapidly iu rank whs thorough in his methods.
Ho frowned upon fictitious devices for obtaining
a reputation and rank. A sovoro disciplin
arian, he was caroful of his mon, who though
they knew that it was Gen. Ayres's idea that
thoy wero soldiors to fight, it was, novortho
less, his duty never to sacrifice them uselessly.
It was on this account that thoy liked to serve
On tho third day of tho march up tho Pen
insula, when Hancock's Brigade, of Smith's
Division, struck a rebel battory at Leo's Mills,
on the Warwick River, Hancock and Ayres
forthwith prepared to carry tho work, and
probably would havo donoso thosamoovening,
but McCIellan got wind of it and counseled
delay until morning. That night 10,000 rebel
roiuforcomonts camo up, and this was tho
beginning of tho halt of six weeks on tho fa
mous Yorktown lino. Ayres novcr gotovor tho
mistake He, Hancock, and Smith were for
going on in dead earnest. Had thoy done so
that is, had not McCIellan interfered to stop
them thero would have boon no halt. In other
words, had Smith, Hancock, and Ayres been
allowed their way tho history of tho Peninsular
campaign would not havo boon tho history of a
stupendous failure. Threo bettor soldiers than
thoso tho war did not produco.
Choice original contributlonsnndnolulions solic
ited from every rentier of Tun National Tninu.vn.
Write puzzles on 0110 .side of pnper, apart from
other communications. Address everything per
taining to this department to "Puzzle Editor,"
Tue National Tkijiusi:, Washington, D. C
T. A. MOIlIilSON.
Tho subject of this sketch. Sammy Smug, first
saw tho light of duy in tho Hub of the Universe
in,I858, and la consequently 34 years old. While
attending tho public schools of his unlive city ho
evinced a strong liking for tho Mystic Art. As fur
bnck ns 1870 ho was solving in tho Boy's and Girl's
Weekly. IIo never captured nny prizes, ns his
estcomeu irlonU, HpUlnx,
cornilled (no pun meant)
nil of the five dollar notes
of each issue. All this
wns in tho dnys of the
four-word square nnd
seven-word diamond. Il
lustrated rebuses wero nil
the race nl Hint lime, nnd
one which ho has never
forKotton wns "On hia
sty is tho best poll I see."
Tho first prize Mr. Morri
son won wns u silver
qunrler, offered in tho
Philadelphia Sphinx, for
tho first answer to n
spccinl puzzle. IIo has
won many prizes since,
but none hns ever given
him grenter satisfaction
than the first ono. For n
period of 10 yenra (from
187G to 1886) he was in
active, but. during the bit
ter yenr ho was induced
bv Snliinx to try his linnd
at it ngnin, nnd since Hint time ho bus been lending
bis support to the different departments nnd pnpers
throughout the country, nnd hopes never to havo
to retire ngnln. Although not being nble to turn
out eight-word pqunrcs nnd 13-word dinmonds. lie
nevertheless tnfees n grent pleasure in composinp;
Hovcn-word squnres nnd 11-word dinmonds. nnd it
has been our pleasure to present to the friends of
"Mystery " quite a number of his contributions.
ANSWERS TO PUZZLES IN NO. CI.
T R A NSIT
CRAFTS M A tf
WA S 8 A I I. K B
S I 31 1' J. B R
401 SAMP LKS
M O R A S II A
A L A 3r O R T
AM AS SED
T O X $ U R E
J A 31 A I C A R O S E
31 A C C A B E E S
403 A S P A 8 I A
S I L L O N S
495 Nero; Iteno.
40C PAR AD I S
AD A3! ANT
IN AND IN
Authors of nbovo forms: J. E. W. (2). Unl Haz
ard (2), T. Ilinkcr and Jack O'Lantern, respect
Complete Lists: T. Hinker, Jnok O'Lantern, Jo
Mullins.K. T. Did, X. L. C. R.-5.
Incomplete. Lists: Nya. Urnnin, S. A. D., E.
Lucy Dnte, Howell Idew, Eglnntino, Alexnnder, W.
D. J., Asplro, Bison, Wnldemnr, Mack, Ellsworth,
Madchen, Ed Ward, Ilnrry, Lucile. It. O. Chester,
Nemo, Ilnttie Heath. Itokeby, Mrs. O. P.C., Sphinx,
Ben Trovnto, M. C. S. 25. Total, 30.
1. T. Dinkor nnd Jnck O'Lantern.
2. EInnline, IMnchamtoit, N. Y.
3. Mrs. G. P. C, Fort Edward, N. Y.
. NO. 547 TERMINAL DELETION.
March Is Iho vcrnnl month when night and day
Are two throughout the enrtii from pole to polo.
From Capricorn the sun then wends Ids wny,
And speeds for Cancer ns his Northern goal.
But cro be drives in half his brilliant course
Boreas, rude, attempts with blustering forco
To stop advance. Thus now. ns through nil years.
'Is Progress checked by Ignorance; while fenrs
Of Bigots make them whom: untight for delay,
As they will know when Reason's light appears,
Intolerance, ashamed, must fly away.
NO. 548 nEPTAGON.
1. A letter. 2. A sheltered place. 3. Shows a
vehement desire. 4. The net of pushing or
thrusting. 5. The nssfstnnt of n professionnl nnat
omisl. C. A snare. 7. Searching out. 8. City of
Switzerland. 9. A harbinger. 10. Narrated in n
grnnd style. 11. To infatuate. 12. Not. 13. A let
ter. Gomjisy, Easton, Ta.
NO. 5-19 LETTER MULTIPLICATION.
K R N II U C L N L N T
ITL C T N R C L B B R A T
Though in tills country somewhat rare,
Will flourish at an Irish fair.
M. C. S., Springfield, HI.
NOS. 550-1 SQUARES.
1. A slight salute with the cnp. (Obs.) 2. Lovinp;.
3. Knavery. (Cent.) 1. Frantic. (Cent.) 5. Wan
ton. 0. Italian writer and scholnr, 13G0-M59. 7. Of
or pcrtaiuing lo the soul.
Sphinx.. Boston, Mass.
1. P. O., Lyon Co., Ky. 2. A headland. 3. Stones,
flat at the bottom, used for grinding pigments. 4.
A genus of small, glassy heteropod mollusks. 0.
An opening in n wnll in n coal-mino. 6. Pnste
bonrd boxes. 7. A village of Irkootsk, Siberia.
Hal IIazaud, Baltimore, Md.
NO. 552 TRANSPOSITION.
Too much KiKSTin love mny cloy,
Though it be osculnting;
Though honey we mny all enjoy,
Too much is satiating. 1
And last In lovo betrays more woo
Than words, though o'er so witty;
A beggnr who is mute, we know,
Will challenge double pity.
Nvas, Washington, D.
NO. 553 HALF-SQUARE.
1. A letter. 2. An abbreviation of Central Amer
ica. 3. A policeman. -1. A source. 5. Italian com
poser, 17th century. 0. Of death. (Diiugl.) 7.
French representative, b. 1800. 8. An embellish
ment resembling n trill. 9. Lord Chancellor of
Scotland, 1-122. 10. Italian music composer, 1GIG.
11. Firmness. 12. Parts of churches.
T. IIixkisr, Bangor, Pa.
NO. 551 CHARADE.
(To K. T. Did.)
What need for man to worry o'er tho thought
That lifo on earth, nt best, is only brief?
Or total ills with which ho fears 'tis fraught,
Thus bringing to his heart a nameless grief?
Within the rniMAL shade I lovo to sit
And listen to tho song birds, blithe nnd gay;
I watch, and, as from binnch to branch thoy flit
I envy them so happy all tho day.
Wo woro not born next bnppinos to meet,
Nor yet to suffer only pain and woe;
Tho bitter must bo taken with tho sweet
To him who stands it best most blessings flow.
R. O. Ciiestku, Rochester, N. Y.
For the first complete list, n bound book. Among
Ihoao solving ono or moro puzzles in this issue who
have not heretofore won n prize iu this department
will bo awarded by lot three bound books.
ACS- Answers, solvors und prize-wiuuera will bo
given in six weeks.
OnAT WITH CONTRIBUTORS.
Old Sol appoars to havo been gotting in his
doadly work, as our correspondents have al
most entirely deserted us, thus rondoring us
unablo to nresontnny news to our readers this
week. Watch for our next biography. It
will be tho most iutcrestiug wo havo yet pre
sented. 7-28-92. Eugene.
HISTORY OF THE CORPS.
(Continued from first pne;o.)
prisoners and ibnr 20-ponnder Parrotts with
caissons. On tho 23th the Third Division
moved back to the vicinity of Petersburg,
and the remainder of the corp3 followed on
tho 29th nnd 30th. Dnring the notion fol
lowing the explosion of the mine (30th) the
corps was held in reserve. The total casual
ties for the month of July, including First
Deep 13oltom (or Darbytown, Strawberry
Plains and New Market Eoad) affair and
"The Crater," was 29 killed, 122 wounded
and 55 captured or missing.
Gen. Birney was promoted to tho com
mand of the Tenth Corps on the 23d of Jnly,
aud was sneceeded iu command of his di
vision by Gen. Mott.
During the month of Angust the corps
was engaged at Deep Bottom (13-20), losing
four officers and 77 men killed, 37 officers
nnd 523 men wounded, and six officers and
315 men captured or missing, an nggregate
of 962; also at Beam's Station (25!h), losing
2G officers and 91 men killed, 52 officers and
387 men wounded, and 78 officers and 1,9G3
men captured or missing ; an aggregate of
2,G02. Tho casualties in the skirmishes
(22d to 24 th) are embraced in these losses.
On the 21st of Angust Gen. Hancock, who
had been called from the north eido of the
James, moved with a part of tho corps
rapidly toward "W'eldon, striking the rail
road a short distance north of Ream's Sta
tion. He destroyed the track to that point
and some distance south, completing the
work of destruction on the 24th. That
night the intrenchments at the Station were
held by the First Division, commanded by
Gen. Miles, and the Second, commanded by
Gen. Gibbon. About 2 p. m. on the 25th
two spirited attacks were made on Miles's
front, which were quickly repulsed. The
enemy then concentrated a powerful artil
lery fire on the line, followed by a strong
storming force, and succeeded in breaking the
lines, and captured three batteries. Gibbon
attempted to retake the position and recover
the guns, but failed. Gen. Miles, who had
rallied a portion of his column, a small force
of the 61st N. Y., by desperate fighting, re
covered some of the lost ground and retook
the guns of McKnight's battery. Gen.
Gibbon was assailed at this time and
driven, but pursuit was stopped by a heavy
flank fire from Gregg's dismounted cavalry.
The corps was then withdrawn to a rear line,
where the troops had been rallied, and at
night were withdrawn from the Station.
The Confederates also withdrew, gaining
nothing by their victory.
On the 30th of September the Third Di
vision was engaged at Poplar Church Spring,
otherwise known as "Wyatt'B, Peebles's, and
Pegram's Farms, Chapel House and Vaughan
road, losing 12 killed, Go wounded, and 12
captured or missing.
On the 26th of October the Second and
Third Divisions, with 12 pieces of artillery,
moved forward, and at night were massed
near Fort Dushane. On the 27th they
marched toward the Southside Eailroad, and
were heavily engaged during the day near
the Boydton Plank road, or Hatcher's Eun,
Va. Casualties: 11 officers and 88 men
killed, 36 officers and 593 men wounded,
and three officers and 417 men captured or
missing; total, 1,058.
During the absence of the Second and
Third Divisions, a small command of the
First Division attacked the enemy's works
near " The Crater," and for a time succeeded
in occupying the same, capturing several
prisoners, including two field officers, but
finally bad to retire with small lo3s.
On the 26th of November Gen. Hancock
left the Second Corp3 forever, turning over
the command to Maj.-Gen. Andrew A. Hum
phreys, until that time Chief-of-Staff of the
Army of the Potomac. It had been pro
posed to Gen. Hancock by the Secretary of
War that he should resign the command of
the corps and undertake the organization of
a new corps, to be composed entirely of vet
eran soldiers, which duty he promptly ac
cepted. The new commander of the corps was a
graduate of West Point, appointed Second
Lieutenant 2d Art., July 1, 1831, and First
Lieutenant Aug. 16, 1836. He resigned Sept
30, 1836, and was recommissioned First
Lieutenant Topographical Engineers, July
7, 1838. On the 5th of March, 1862, he was
appointed Colonel and A. A. D. C. Pro
moted, April 28, 1862, Brigadier-General of
Volunteers, and, on July 8, 1863, Major
General of Volunteers. He was brevetted
for gallant and meritorious services at the
battles of Fredericksburg, Va., Gettysburg,
Pa., and Sailor's Creek, Va.; and, at the
close of the war, appointed Brigadier-General
and Chief of Engineers, TJ. S. Army,
retiring from active service on the 30th of
June, 1879. He died Dec. 27, 18S3.
No movements of importance took place
during November and December, 1864. The
corps lost in these months 33 killed, 175
wounded, and 46 missing.
The organization of the corps on the 31st
of December, 1864, was as follows. This
organization was maintained, with but few
changes, until tho corps was finally dis
Maj.-Gen. Andrew A. Humphreys, com
manding. First Division Brig.-Geu. Nelson A. Miles.
First Brigade Col. George N. Macy 26th
Mich. ; 5th N. H. ; 2d N. Y. H. A., 61st N. Y. ;
81at, 140th, 183d Pa., Col. George T. Egbert.
Second Brigade Col. Robert Nugent 2Sth
Mass. (5 Co.'s) ; 7th N. Y. H. A. ; 63d (6 Co.'s),
69 th, 88 th N. Y. (5 Co.'s). Third Brigade
Col. Clinton D. McDongall 7th, 39th (7
Co.'s), 52d (7 Co.'s), 111th, 125th, 126th N.Y.
(5 Co.'s). Fourth Brigade Col. William
Glenny 4th N.Y. H. A.; 64th (6 Co.'s), 66th
N. Y.; 53d, 116th, 145th, 148th Pa.
Second Division Maj.-Gen. John Gibbon.
Provost Guard 2d Co. Minn. Sharpshooters.
First Brigade Col. James M. Willett 19th
Me.; 19tb,20th Mass.; 7th Mich.; 1st Minn.
(2 Co.'s) ; 59th, 152d N. Y.; 184th Pa.; 36th
Wis. Second Brigade Col. Matthew Mur
phy 8th N.Y. H. A.; 155th, 164th, 170th,
182d N. Y. Third Brigade Lieut.-Col. Fran
cis E. Pierce 14th Conn.; 1st Del.; 12th
N. J.; 10th (battalion), 108th N. Y.; 4th
Ohio (battalion); 69th, 106th Pa. (battalion);
7th W. Va.
Third Division Brig.-Gen. Gershom Mott.
First Brigade Brig.-Geu. P. Regis de Tro
briand 20th Ind.; 1st Me. H. A., 17th Me.;
40th, 73d,86th,124th N. Y.; 99th, 110th Pa.;
2d TJ: S. S. S. Second Brigade Brig.-Gen.
Byron R. Pierce 1st Mass. H. A.; 5th Mich.;
93d N. Y. (seven companies); 57th, 84th
(four companies); 105th, 141st Pa.; IstTJ.
S. S. S. (two companies.) Third Brigade
Col. John Ramsey 11 th Mass. (battalion) ;
7th (battalion), 8th (battalion), 11th N. J.;
120th X. Y.
Artillery Brigade Maj. John G. Hazard
Me. Light, Gth battery; Mass. Light, 10th
battery ; 1st N. II., Battery M; N. J. Light,
2d and 3d batteries; 1st N. Y. Light, Bat
tery G ; 4 th N. Y. Heavy, Cos. C. and L;
N.Y. Light, 11th and 12th batteries; 1st
Pa. Light, Battery F; 1st R. I. Light, Bat
tery B; 4th TJ. S., Battery K; 5th TJ. S.,
Batteries C and I. y
The total strength, "present for dnty,"
was 19,923; total present, 25,060. AggrS
gate, " present and absent," 474213.
Nothing ocenrred of consequence to the
Second Corps between Jan. 1 and Feb.o.
On the latter date, at 7 a. m., the Second
and Third Divisions, with' Battery K itri
Art., and the 10th M.t3s. battery advanced
to the crossing of Hatcher's Run, on the
Vaughn road, and at Armstrong's Mills, and
took position. At 5:15 p. m., the enemy iu
strong force attacked the right of Smyth'3
Division and the left of McAllister's Bri
gade, of the Third Division, and were finally
repulsed, the action lasting until after 7 p.
m. Casualties: 25 killed, 100 wounded, and
10 captured or missing. Other casualties
in minor affairs dnring the month: 1 killed,
5 wounded, and 17 captured or missing.
On the 25th of March the Second Corps
lost 513 killed and wounded and 177 miss
ing. The news of the assault on Fort Sted
man having been communicated to Gen,
Humphreys, he at once moved out in search
of the enemy in his front, capturing his en
tire intrenched picket-line.
In the operations following prior to the
final assaults on Petersburg, the corps took
an active part, participating in the engage
ment at Boydton and White Oak roads on
the 31st, losing 461 killed, wounded and
At dusk on April 1 the Iet of tho line of
the corps rested near the Claiborne and
White Oak roads. On the morning of the
2d, after repeated assaults, all the Confeder
ate works south of Hatcher's Run were capfrl
ured by the Second Corps. The losses on
April 1 and 2 were 456 killed, wounded and
The troop3 were at once put in motion in
pursuit of the enemy, crossing Namozine
Creek on the 3d. On the 4th great delay
wa3 caused by the almost impassable con
dition of the roads and the cavalry, which,
had the right of way. The head of the
column rerched Jetersville on the afternoon
of the 5th.
The pursuit continued next day. For
hours the Union troops were marching in
lines parallel to those taken by the Confed
erates. Every-effort wa3 made to bring
Lee'3 army to a stand, until at last Sailor's
Creek was reached, when in a short but
sharp contest 13 colors, three pieces of artil
lery, several hundred prisoners, with more
than 200 wagons and 70 ambulances, were
captured by the corps, with a loss of 396
killed, wounded, and missing.
On the 7th the corps attacked the enemy
at FarmviHe, capturing 19 guns, 400 prison
ers, and a number of wagons, which were
destroyed. Casualties: 571 officers and men
killed, wounded, and missing. Brig.-Gen.
Thomas A. Smyth, commanding Second Bri
gade, Second Division, was mortally wound
ed in the fight. He was the last general
officer who fell in the Union armies during
On the 8th and the 9th the corps moved
rapidly until within about five miles of Ap
pommattox, when it halted. The news of
the surrender of Gen. Lee was received the
same afternoon. During the Appomattox
campaign, from March 28 to April 9, 1865,
the casualties were: 21 officers, 176 men
killed ; 2 officers, 1,146 men wounded, and
14 officers, 394 men captured or missing;
But little more remains to be told. The
corps after resting the 10th moved to Burks
ville, Va., remaining there until May 2,
when the march toward Washington began.
The corps participated in the Grand Review
of the Army of the Potomac on May 22, and
was formally discontinued on the 25th of
It is'.what Hood's Sarsaparilla does that tells tho
story of its merita and has given it the largest Bale.
lost and Found.
The following articles havo been lost or
found, as the caso may be, by the persons
whose addresses are given:
Lost. At hotel in Elyrla, O., discharge as music
ian, Co. I, 177th Ohio, nnd photograpbs, in
cluding: one of Lieut. Theo. "Wire; also Twenty
third Corps silver badge; by George W. Perkins,
Fort Pembinn. N. D. Smith & Wesson revolver,
which was given to a comrade by writer when
captured nenr Versailles, Ky.; by Isaac R. Lane,
Barnesville. O. Sachel at Centralia, III., in Oc
tober, 1SG3; byU.W. Prescott, Salem, Ore. At
battle of Shiloh n hymn-boolc, which was taken,
from writer's knapsack by a Confederate; byChasv
Hussey, Houghton, lown. Discharge Isaao
Devoe. which is supposed to have been taken from,
the body of Capt. Perkins; by C. W. Dean, AVells-
ton, O. In Fall of IS63 a haversack which
contained a Bible nnd other little articles which
writer saved through battle of Gettysburg;
by Robinson Balsley, Connellsvilic, Pa. Dis
charge of writer, Co. E, 5th U. S.; by Charles
W. Smith, Maine P. O., Minn. Discharge
of writer, Co. F. 106th Pa.; by William W.
Warner, Enterprise, Neb. At Crutchneld
House, Chattanooga, In Spring of 1S65, a largo
sachel contniningsuitof clothes and other articles;
by W. E. Crowder, Knoxville, Ark. Dischnrgo
Eason Howell, who enlisted from Scottsville. Ky.,
ns Surgeon; by John E. Gates, Hayes. 111.
Sword-belt nnd Smith & Wesson revolver near
Atlanta; by II. H. Hatch, 62 Third street. Middle
town, O. Silver watch and gold locket belong
ing to Abraham D. Cole, at Yorktown Hospital,
Va.; by Mrs. M. H. Cornell, Mancelona. Mioli.
Discharge Charles Warrin, Battery A, L. A., and
Henry Wnrrin. TJ. S. S. Mackinaw; by J. W. Mor
gan, Box 1S5, Buckfield, Mo. Sword Capt. Bal
four. Co. G. 122d 111., who was captured at Trenton,
Tenn., December, 1S62; by S. R. Green, Virden,
FOUSD. Medal given by the Slate of Ohio to Benj.
Sodders.Co.K.llth Ohio; by L. W.Hoyt, Jeffer
son. O. Discharge Andrew Neighbor, Co. C,40th
N. Y.; by Frank F. Foster, Cincinnati, O. A
"Missal IJomanum, on the fly-leaf of which is
written "Edwardle Johannes C. Kellyorie"; by
John T. Booth, Station C, Cincinnati, O. Dis
charge Joseph W. Moor. Co. H, 6th Ind. Cav.;
by C. C. Gaines, Pueblo,. Colo. Day-book
which contains an invoice of personal prop
erty; by John Oilman, Woodstock, Vt. Case
knife nt Jacksonville, FJa.; by C. H. Bur
pee. Saratoga Springs, N. Y. Bible printed
in German found near the battlefield of Chicka
mauga, and on a fly-leaf of which is written "Jo
seph Gessler. Co. A, &ith Ohio"; by Postmaster
R. C. Jones. Rock Springs. Gn. TJ. S. belt-buckle
with the nnme W. H. Smith inscribed on back ; by
Cornelius Boyer, Vicksburg, Miss. Photograph
album, containing photographs of members of 31st
Ind.; by J. R. Sherwood. Pine Bluff. Ark. Dis
charge of Perry Morrison, Co. K, S3th Pa.; Wm.
Melson, Co.K.2d Pa.H.A.; Eli Vandiveuder, 85th
Pa.; Philo Coykendall, Co. D, 1st Pa. Cav., and
Wm. Davi. Co. A, 1st W.Vn. Cav.; by Richard
Varndell, TJnioiitown, Pn. Two commissions of
Calvin A. Rico, one ns Mujor and the other as
Lieutenant-Colonel. lUth N. Y.; by Frank Nolon,
102 W. Lexington street. Baltimore, Md. Da
guerreotype of three Union soldiers (one sitting
with revolver in his hand), found nt battlefield of
Stone River; by George Sperry, Lockport, III.
Dischargo and Sergeant's warrant, Jos. F. Keller,
Co. H, 10th III. Cav.: by J. P. Barron, Cincinnati,
Ark. Bible taken from body of Union soldier at
Fair Oaks, Vn.. Juno 1. 1862. aud on a fly-leaf of
which is written "W. M. Peel, Schooley's Rifle
men " ; by Edwin P. Barrett, Richmond, Vs.
Discharge of Henry Strouse, Co. D. 76th Pa.; by
J. R. Balsley, Cornellsville, Pa. Discharge and
deed of Nicholas S. Harris; by James A. Boyant,
Maple Grove, Mo; Dischargo of Timothy Hor-
rigan. Co. I, 13th III.; by R. M. Heveuor, Cres-
ton, 111. Discharge of Corp'l Lester Coolidgo,
Co. F, 111th Pn.; by Benjamin F. Malln, Cooper
Tract. Pn. Dischargo of John Morris, Co. E,
13th Regulars; by A. Sherman, Huron, S. D.
"Soldier's cheek-book" calling for 5200 belonging:
to John H. Steel,' and showing that he has that
amount deposited with First National Bank,
Columbus, O.; by Alex. E. Holland, Mt. Ayr.Iowo.
Dischnrge Henry Guylord. Co. B, 133th Ind.; by
Wm. Van Gundy, Ellsworth, 111.