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J3EI - ' ESTABLISHED 1S77-2SW ATLANTA CAMPAIGN Masterly Monographs From a Trench ant Pen. SKILLED LEADERS. Planning for What Sherman Called "Enlightened War." c GRAND ARMIES. Cnitial Operations in the Ag gressive Movement. Br &J4 0t cs Major-General. I.-DALTOS. FTER A BEST from these mono graphs I resume the account of the Georgia campaign where I left offhand hope now to be able to continue the story of the war to some reasonable halting point If it were not that those lads and whom our home filled with anxious asie?, concerning etters were always noughts and messages of love, have .jrown up around us into manhood and .vomanhood, we, comrades of campaign and battle could hardly realize that it 's 30 years ago last May since Gen. jrant, from Washington, undertook ' the initiative in the Spring,campaign " when he hoped to be able " to work all )arts of the army together." But I am settled in a conviction of -he truth when I catch up an old letter if mine dated " Cleveland, East Tennes ee, May 1, 1864," with the printed option, "Headquarters Fourth Army Corps, Department of the Cumberland." That letter begins: "It is almost the anniversary of the battle of Chancellors ville and of the birth of our little boy 'born May 3, 1864)." This child was then but one year old ; now he is in the ull vigor of manhood, strong, hearty, Hid 36! Thus, comrades, we open our jyes to behold another generation closing in behind us, and fast taking our places n active, busy life; but, thank God, not withstanding the strike?, not engaged in i "bloody Spring campaign of a hundred jattles like that of thiee times 10 years .go. How heartily Grant's lieutenant, the mpulsivf, the indefatigable, the san guine, the prophetic Sherman, responded o the call of his able chief! lie de clared that his (Grant's) letters, which contained the plans of campaign, afforded aim (Sherman) " infinite satisfaction " ; .hat this "working together, this verging -o a common center, appeared to Sher man to be, for the first time, "enlightened war." 'Like yourself," Sherman wrote to jrant, " you take the biggest load, and rora me vou shall have thorough and icarty co-operation." When Sherman penned this he was already in Nashville organizing or com bining those three armies, the Tennessee, V V rrf5KwS r -XUITkTV Gen. O O. Howard'. the Cumberland and the Ohio, his veri table weapons for offense or defense, and was introducing a systematic plan among them for supplies, which, ever after rigidly adhered to, did lay the proper foundations for a grand campaign. Sherman's movements were destined not to end till the enemy's main forces had been crushed, his resources hope lessly crippled, his means of transporta tion fatally interrupted, and ail com munication between his remaining frag ments in the extreme East and the far West completely sundered. Grant uniformly counted upon Sher man's experience and ability. He knew his quickness and his prompt co-operation. In Gen. Sherman he did not in the least mistake his man. Of the respective commanders of the armies which were to operate in advance of Chattanooga, namely, of the Cumber land, the Tennessee, and the Ohio, Sher man was fortunate in his lieutenants. He writes : "In&Gens. Thomas, McPherson, and JfS- wSw brt A. wlV r-ZRXttt N V ..TV SERIES. Schofield I had three Generals of educa tion and experience, admirably qualified for the work before us." Each has made a history of his own, and I need not here dwell on their re spective merits as men, or as commanders of armies, except that each possessed special qualities of mind and of charac ter which fitted him in the highest degree for the work then in contemplation. Certain subordinate changes affi:cti:d me personally. The 5th of April, 1864, with two or three officers, I rode from my camp in Lookout Valley to Chattanooga, some eight or ten miles, and visited Gen. Thomas. lie explained that the order was already prepared for consolidating the Eleventh and Twelfth Corps into one body to form the new Twentieth Corps, of which Gen. Hooker was to have command. Gen. Slocum had been or was to be sent to Vicksburg, liss., to control operations in that quarter, and I was to go to the Fourth Corps, ostensibly to enable Gen. Gordon Granger to take advantage of a leave of absence. After my return, the same evening, the formal instructions, themselves re plete with the promise of exciting changes and sudden partings, reached my camp. I had commanded the Eleventh Corps but a year and four days, yet that included three important campaigns and four battles. One divis ion had been sent to South Carolina, so that the Eleventh now had but two divisions left, and was comparatively small. I was to gain under these new orders a fine corps, 20,000 strong, composed mainly of Western men. It had three divisions. Two commanders, Gens. Stanley and T. J. Wood, then present for duty, were men of large experience. A little later Gen. John Newton, who will be recalled for his work at Gettys burg, and in other engagements, both in the East and West, an officer well known to every soldier, came to me at Cleve land, East Tenn., and was assigned to the remaining division, which Gen. Wag ner had been temporarily commanding at Loudon, East Tenn. I set out very promptly for the new command. The Fourth Corps was much scattered, as I found, on my arrival at Headquarters in Loudon, the 10th of April. The First Division (Stanley's) Gen. Thomas had kept ALL THROUGH THE WINTER on outpost duty along his direct eastern front, east of Chattanooga, two brigades being at Blue Springs and one at Otto wah, while the Third Division (Wood's) had remained, after the Fall Knoxville campaign, in the Department of the Ohio, near to Knoxville, and the Second, as I have intimated, at Loudon. This small village was not far from the mouth of the Little Tennessee. Troops were held there to keep up com munications between the two depart ments of Thomas aud of Schofield. It was here at Loudon the previous Au tumn that Col. Boughton. of the 143d N. Y., haJ found tl3 numerous Confed erate wagons, partially destroyed, with which during a single night he bridged the deep ford of the river at that point, more than 1,000 feet across, I like to &rr tm fov Mm recall Boughton's work as a display of tremendous energy. After the briefest visit to Loudon and assumption of command, I speedily moved the Headquarters of this Fourth Corps to Cleveland, East Tenn., 50 miles below. My first duty immediately un dertaken was to concentrate the corps in that vicinity, inspect the different bri gades, and ascertain their needs as to transportation, clothing and other sup plies. Part of the command, under Gen. Wood, had been all Winter marching and camping, skirmishing and fighting, in the country part of East Tennessee, so that, as one may well imagine, the regiments coming from that quarter were short of everything essential to the field. Supplies were wanting and their animals were weak and thin. We must b?,T'j tmember, to the credit of Gta'ejuPfcaririaii. vho with extraordi- nary promptness increased the railway transportation from Nashville to our army, that supplies were soon forthcom ing ; and to the credit also of the offi cers, subordinate commanders, Quarter masters, and Commissaries, on the 3d of May, when orders arrived for the first organized movement, the entire corps had sufficient transportation, clothing, rations, and ammunition to enable it to effect, with safety and order, a consider- able flanking march. This was accom plished in the IMMEDIATE PRESENCE of an enemy's superior force, the march extending to Catoosa Springs. This 3d of May, having come down from Knoxville to complete what be came Sherman's grand army, Gen. Scho field with his head of column had already Gen. D. S. Stanley. arrived at Cleveland. With us the pre ceding month had been a very busy one. For both officers and men the discourage ments of the past seemed already over. Now, new life was infused through the whole body. Something was doing. Large forces were seen rapidly coming together, and it was evident to every soldier that important work was to be undertaken. On Sundays the churches were filled with soldiers. Christian men, members of the Christian Commission, had been permitted to visit our camp and were still with us. Among them was D. L. Moody, the Evangelist, a noble soul, now so well known to the country for his sympathy and friendship for men. ti i-P KsR&- ' l l&Ir ' Ail g&P wlta ttnjs trotwc fl forttlc, am fcw tite WASHINGTON Bo ft; THURSDAY. OCTOBER 25, 1894. His words of hope and encouragement then spoken to multitudes of soldiers will never been forgotten. I wrote from East Tennessee a few words which, preserved till now, serve me as reminders : " I have a very, very pleasant place for Headquarters, just in the outskirts of Cleveland." The house belonged to the company which owned the copper-mill. Again: "We are draw ing near another trial of arms, perhaps more terrific than ever. But, on the eve of an active campaign and battles, I am not in any degree depressed. When it can be done, there is a quiet happiness in being able to say, think and feel, ' not what 1 will, but what Thou wilt.' "We are hoping that this campaign will end the war, and I am more sanguine in that belief or hope than ever before. God grant that no more disasters befall us ! " ' With our left well covered by Mc Cook's cavalry, our Fourth Corps, at last together, emerging from Cleveland, commenced to move in two columns, the left one passing through Bed Clay and the other farther west by Salem Church. The morning of the 4th of May found us at the spot before named, Catoosa Springs. These springs were on the left of Gen. Thomas's army-lines. His whole front looked eastward toward Tun nel Hill. Tunnel Hill was between the Northern and Southern armies, the di viding ridge ; it was the outpost of Con federate Johnston's advanced troops, which faced toward Chattanooga. THE HULK OF JUS FORCE was behind, at the village of Dalton, covered by artificial works northward and eastward, and by the mountain range of BockyFace Bidgc toward the west. The famous defile through this abrupt mountain was called Buzzards' Boost Gap. From Rocky Face to Tun nel Hill,-which is u parallel range of higlUs, the Chattano6ga Railroad crosses a narrow valley, passes beneath the hill by a tunnel, and stretches on toward Chattanooga. The Confederate official returns for April 30, 1804, gave Johnston's total force as 52,992, and when Polk's Corps had joined a little later at Rcsaca his total was raised to 71,235. Gen. Sherman, in his Memoirs, ag gregates the Army- of the Cumberland 60,773"; the Army of the Tennessee, in the field, 24,465 ; the Army of the Ohio, 13,559 ; making a grand total of 98,797 officers and men, with 54 cannon. As Johnston's artillerymen were about the same in number as Sherman's, probably Johnston's artillery, in its guns, numbered not less than Sher man's. The Army of the Cumberland de layed in the vicinity of Catoosa Springs till the 7th of May, to enable McPher son, with the Army of the Tennessee, to get around from northern Alabama into position in Sugar Valley to the south of us, and - to bring down Schofield from East Tennessee to the east of us. He was located near Bed Clay ; that is, near Johnston's iirect northern front. It will be seen tliat the Chattanooga (Western and Atlantic) Bailroad, which passes through Tunnel Hill, Buzzards' Boost, and then on to Dalton, where it wicToiv and ovjtoanjs." meets another branch coming from the north, through Bed Clay, constituted our line of supply and communication. Gen. Thomas had early advised Sher man that, in his judgment, McPherson and Schofield should make a STRONG DEMONSTRATION directly against the enemy's position at Dalton, while he himself with the Army of the Cumberland should pass through the Snake Creek Gap and fall upon Johnston's communications. Gen. Thomas felt confident, if his plan were adopted, that a speedy and decisive victory would result. I believe that he, as events have proved, was quite right; but Sherman then thought and declared that the risk to his own communications was too great to admit of his throwing his main body so quickly upon the enemy's rear, and he feared to attempt this by a detour of upwards of 20 miles. Later in the campaign Sherman's practical judgment induced him to risk even more than that contemplated,when he sent whole armies upon the enemy's lines of communication and supply ; but at this time Sherman chose Mc Pherson's small but stalwart force for that 20 miles forward and flanking operation. Everything being in readiness on the 7th of May, the Army of the Cumber land began its work that became char acteristic work; that is, to go straight against the enemy's front lines, and then skirmish and fight, intrench batteries, work forward little by little here and there, and bang away against every sort of obstacle, natural and artificial, that might lie in the way. This was' undertaken in order to keep Sherman's army busy while Schofield or McPherson was by long marches turn ing that enemy's position. The morning of the 7th day of May the Fourth Corps left camp at Catoosa Springs to perform its part in these operations. It led off due east along the Alabama road till it came into the neighborhood of a Mr. Lee's house. Here a partial unfolding of it3 troops fook place; quite a long front appeared Stanley on the right, Newton on the left, and Wood in reserve. First, a few cracks of hostile rifles, then AN EXCITING SKIRMISH on both sides set in, but there was no 'halting. Steadily our men pressed for ward, driving back first the Southern cavalry pickets and outer lines till, awakening .opposition more and more, about 9 o'clock our foe crowned Tunnel Hill with considerable force and fired briskly upon our adva. .'?.". The same angry reception was givei. to the Four teenth Corps, coming up simultaneously southward beyond our right. With a little observation it was detected that the Confederate artillery had only cav alry supports, so that immediately an order to charge ran along our lines. Our troops promptly sprang forward and carried the " crowned hill." Nov:, from Tunnel Hill we had Bocky Face in plain view. It was a continu ous craggy ridge at least 500 feet high, very narrow on top, but having in places a perpendicular face almost as abrupt as the Palisades of the Hudson ; while, favorable to .Johnston's ascent and defense, the eastern steps were more gradual. Gen. T. J. "Wood. Through Buzzards' Roost Gap, which cuts in two the Rocky Face, there were both a railway and a wagon-road, also a small stream of water. This the Con federates ha'd so dammed up as to pre sent a formidable obstacle. They had further so arranged their batteries and their infantry intrenchments as to com pletely sweep every hollow and path way in that formidable defile. Gen. Thomas, however, as he alwavs did, pushed forward his troops with steadiness and vigor Fourteenth Corps in the center, Fourth and Twentieth on the right and left. Meanwhile McPher son was steadily winding his way through Snake Creek Gap toward Resaca, and Schofield constantly pressing his heavy skirmish-lines from Red Clay toward Dalton, to unvail from that northern side the half-concealed intrenchments. A couple of miles away to my right, southward, on the 9th of May, the Twentieth Corps, under Hooker, had hard fighting indeed. He afterward wrote : " The rebel line was carried and held for a few minutes, but my men, finding themselves exposed to A RAKING, PLUNGING FIRE from a new position, they were com pelled to fall back." Fifty men were killed and a large number wounded. My personal friend, 4fV -5" fs- f YOL. Lieut.-Col. Mcllvain, 64th Ohio, was here killed. Every regimental com mander in this hard struggle was wound ed. The Fourteenth Corps also, under Gen. Palmer, nearer to us, had its own brisk work. Morgan's Brigade, espe cially, was put into line and hotly en gaged. From this command, the 66th 111. kept working forward by the side of the dangerous Gap, drawing fire, and driving in the enemy's outer lines. It is said that the soldiers finally obtained shelter, without being able to get farther Gen. "Wm. T. Sherman. forward, within speaking distances of their foes. One enterprising Corporal, it is reported, made a bargain with some Confederates who were throwing down heavy bowlders from above, that if they would refrain from their bothersome work, he would read to them the Presi dent's famous amnesty proclamation. He did so, and comparative quiet was kept during this strange entertainment. Now, to go back a little in our narra tive, on the ,8th of May, Gen. Tewton, with my --Second Division, managed, after working up some two miles north of the Gap, to push a small force up the slope, and then, taking the defenders by a rush, drove them along southward until he had succeeded in capturing from the Confederates at least one-third of the ridge. Here he established a signal-station. lie next tried, but in vain, to seize and capture a Confederate signal-party, which he deemed too act ively talking by the busy use of their flags. Stanley and Wood, on Newton's right, stretched out their, own lines to some extent, and gave Newton all the support they could locate in that difficult ground, near the west palisades of the- ridge. During the night his men dragged up the steeps two pieces of artillery, and by their help gained another hundred yards of the HOTLY-DISPUTED CREST. On the 9th of May another experi ment was tried. Under instructions I sent Stanley's Division for a reconnoissance into that horrid gap of Buzzards' Boost, until it had drawn from the enemy a strong artillery fire, which redoubled the echoes and roarings of the valleys, and caused to be opened the well-known in cessant rattle of long lines of musketry. It was while making preparations for this fearful reconnoissance that a group of officers were standing around me, among them Gen. Stanley and Col. (then Captain) G. C. Kniffin, of his staff. The enemy's riflemen were, we thought, beyond range; but one of them noticing our part)r, fired into the group. His eccentric bullet made two or three holes through the back of my coat, but without wounding me, and then passed through Capt. Kniffin's hat, and finally struck a tree close at hand. Be sure that the group of observers speedily changed their position. McPherson's operations, now near Besaca, were not so successful as Gen. Sherman had hoped. Though there were but two Confederate brigades at that town, the nature of the ground was for McPherson, so he claimed, unpro pitious in the extreme. The abrupt ravines, the tangled and thick wood, and the complete artificial works, recently renewed, which covered the approaches to Besaca, made McPherson unusually cautious, and caused him to follow the letter rather than the spirit of his in structions ; so that the first day after an unsuccessful effort to strike the railroad, Johnston's main artery, he fell back to a defensive line near the mouth of the Gap, and there thoroughly intrenched his front. Speaking of thi3, Sherman says : "Such an opportunity does not occur twice in a single life." Still, he (Mc Pherson) was perfectly justified by his orders, and he fell back and assumed AN UNASSAILABLE DEFENSIVE POSITION in Sugar Valley, on the Besaca side of Snake Creek Gap. Just as soon as Sherman had received this news, he (Sherman) altered his plan and sent his main army, except Stone man's Cavalry Division and my corps (the Fourth), by the same route. Gen. Stoneman, with his force, had just ar rived from "Kentucky. With this comparatively small force I kept up on the old ground a lively and aggressive work during Thomas's and Schofield's southward march with per haps even more persistency than before ; yet probably the withdrawal of Schofield from Bed Clay by Gen. Sherman, and the replacement of his skirmishers by cavalry, together Avith the report that McPherson was so near to his communi cations, made the always wary and watch ful .Confederate General suspicious that XIYHTO. 3-WnOLB NO. 689. something in the enemy's camp that is, in my part of it was going wrong for him. Therefore, on the 12 th he pushed a sizable force out northward toward Stoneman, and made a strong reconnois sance, which, like a handsome parade, I beheld at a distance, and which in the ravines and thickets and uncertain liuhc was magnified to large proportions in the lively vision of the soldiers behold ing it. At first some of our Generals feared that Johnston, letting h"i3 communica tions go, would attempt a battle, so as to crush the Fourth Corps alone. But soon the tide turned, and the tentative force retired within the Confederate intrench ments. Under cover of the night ensuing, Joe Johnston, as he did many times there after, made one of his handsome retreats; no man could make retreats from the front of an active, watchful enemy -with better success than he. At daylight of the 13th I pressed my moving forces with all speed after the foe the cavalry and the Fourth Corpsj as boldly as pos sible, but was delayed all day by the enemy's active rear-guard, the roughness of the country affording that guard suc cessive shelters. It took time to dislodge the fearless hinderers, yet I did finally before dark of the same night succeed in forming SUBSTANTIAL JUNCTION WITH SHERMA2T who, having hastened on the day before was at that time near McPherson od ground to the west of Besaca. Mean while, Johnston, with his main body, was preparing, by his peculiar military asper ities, the approaches to that town, gettin ready for the next day s battle. o cr- To show the costliness of such opera tions, in my corps alone there were already in the little combats about 300 wounded. Our march all the day had been rapid and full of excitements. Our minds had been bent upon the situation, watching against any sudden change; sending scouts to the right and left ; getting re ports from the cavalry in front, or beat ing up the woods and thickets that might conceal an ambuscade. At first after our arrival at evening came the arrange ment of the men upon the new ground; then the essential reports and orders for the next day ; then followed the welcome dinner that our enterprising mess-purveyor and skillful cook had promptly prepared. Here around the mess-chest for a table my staff officers sat with me and spent a pleasant hour chatting and leisurely eating the meal and discussing events of the day and the hopes of the morrow. There was cheerfulness there, yes, and ever afterward it existed, as we wrote messages to the far-distant home circle, but withal there was deep solemn ity in our hearts, for we knew that the next dawn would usher in another dreadful battle, and that few mess-tables there at the front would have the same number of plates and the same number of friends as at that dinner. We looked into each other's faces and secretly won dered who would be taken and who would be left. To be continued.) m An jEarthqnake at Ses. ISan JYancisco Examiner. A heavy fog linup over the bay and out almost as lhr as the F.irallones all last night and until late this morning. From the misty gloom out on the bar came the dull roar and shrill whistle of foghorns of every description, denoting that a fleet of vessels of all sizes and descriptions lay out beyond the gate waiting for a chance to get into port. Among the first to gee in was the schooner Lila and Mattie, and she reports haviug encountered an earthquake at sea. The schooner was bonnd from Coqnille .River, and on last Saturday morning she lay becalmed about 35 miles southwest of Shelter Cove. The schooner Excelsior could be seen dimly through a Bmoky haz& away off to the westward, and the sails of both vessels were flapping idly a3 the schooners rolled in the slight swell. The crew lay about the deck sweltering in the close atmosphere when suddenly there cam& a rambling, seemingly from. the keel of the schooner. It lasted only a second, and the men thought they had touched a submerged rock. After a moment of silence the rum bling commenced again. At first it sounded like distant thunder, bat as it continued it increased in volume and seemed to come from the bottom of the ocean. A tremor could be felt on the ship, and the shock lasted about 30 seconds. The noise had en tirely subsided before the crew realized that they had felt an earthquake at sea, and as they began to consider themselves lncky it had been nothing worse, a heavy, confused sea rose almost instantly. -Several of the choppy waves broke on deck, and the little schooner was tossed about so violently that there was danger of her masts being broken off. The schooner Excelsior reports the same experience as the Lila and Mattie, and her Chinese passengers from an Alaska cannery were for a lew moments panic-stricken. m From The Hsiwville Clarion. LifeA ""We take occasion to say that matters have come to a pretty pass, when every Tom, Dick, and Harry in the community who chances to take exception to some edi torial utterance of ours, feels it incumbent upon him to pound us in our own office. The fact that the laurels of victory perch on our brow fully half of the time, is like the works of a watch don't neces sarily have anything to do with the case. Aud, to cap the climax, many of these pug nacious persons have never diractly or in directly contributed a penny towards the support of thp Clarion. We wish it dis tinctly understood that hereafter we will fight no persons but paid-up subscribers." ! I Doubtful, JJut ILife Young Tniter Do you think your, mother, Miss Clara, would let you go to the theater with me without a chaperone? Miss Pinkerly (doubtfully) I don'fe know. Mr. Tntter. She has often said she uo.thlu't like me to go with any yoing gc-utiemaa 1 wasn't engaged to.